UVB Activation of AMPs Production in the Skin and the Innate Respiratory Immunity

Acute viral respiratory infections, including COVID-19, are strongly correlated with vitamin D insufficiency. They are also strongly seasonal, peaking in the winter, when the availability of the UVB component of sunlight is low. UVB is known for inducing production of vitamin D in the skin. However, vitamin D supplementation has shown little or no effect in the prevention of respiratory infections in adults. Thus, UVB light provides the immune system with essential benefits that are not produced by oral vitamin D supplements.

Artemis I Stacks Up

Launching in 2021, Artemis I will be an uncrewed test of the Orion spacecraft and SLS rocket as an integrated system ahead of crewed flights to the Moon. Under the Artemis program, NASA aims to land the first woman and the next man on the Moon in 2024 and establish sustainable lunar exploration by the end of the decade.

Animal instincts could be inherited expert knowledge

In addition to studying complex human reasoning, I have been observing complex instinctive reasoning in animals for many years. Instinctive behavior is often thought of as simple, perhaps even mindless. I came to a very different conclusion, that an instinct is basically inherited expert knowledge. Instinctive behavior is often very complex, involving sophisticated concepts, expert knowledge and a lot of decision making.