SMPTE color bars – Click for your own test pattern kit

This page is for posters to test comments prior to submitting them to WUWT. Your tests will be deleted in a while, though especially interesting tests, examples, hints, and cool stuff will remain for quite a while longer.

Some things that don’t seem to work any more, or perhaps never did, are kept in Ric Werme’s Guide to WUWT.

Formatting in comments

WordPress does not provide much documentation for the HTML formatting permitted in comments. There are only a few commands that are useful, and a few more that are pretty much useless.

A typical HTML formatting command has the general form of <name>text to be formatted</name>. A common mistake is to forget the end command. Until WordPress gets a preview function, we have to live with it.

N.B. WordPress handles some formatting very differently than web browsers do. A post of mine shows these and less useful commands in action at WUWT.

N.B. You may notice that the underline command, <u>, is missing. WordPress seems to suppress for almost all users, so I’m not including it here. Feel free to try it, don’t expect it to work.

Name Sample Result
b (bold) This is <b>bold</b> text This is bold text
Command strong also does bolding.
i (italics) This is <i>italicized</i> text This is italicized text
Command em (emphasize) also does italics.
a (anchor) See <a href=http://wermenh.com>My home page</a> See My home page
A URL by itself (with a space on either side) is often adequate in WordPress. It will make a link to that URL and display the URL, e.g. See http://wermenh.com.

Some source on the web is presenting anchor commands with other parameters beyond href, e.g. rel=nofollow. In general, use just href=url and don’t forget the text to display to the reader.

blockquote (indent text) My text

<blockquote>quoted text</blockquote>

More of my text

My text

quoted text

More of my text

Quoted text can be many paragraphs long.

WordPress italicizes quoted text (and the <i> command enters normal text).

strike This is <strike>text with strike</strike> This is text with strike
pre (“preformatted” – use for monospace display) <pre>These lines are bracketed<br>with &lt;pre> and &lt;/pre>
These lines are bracketed

with <pre> and </pre>
Preformatted text, generally done right. Use it when you have a table or something else that will look best in monospace. Each space is displayed, something that <code> (next) doesn’t do.
code (use for monospace display) <code>Wordpress handles this very differently</code> WordPress handles this very differently
See http://wattsupwiththat.com/resources/#comment-65319 to see what this really does.

Youtube videos

Using the URL for a YouTube video creates a link like any other URL. However, WordPress accepts the HTML for “embedded” videos. From the YouTube page after the video finishes, click on the “embed” button and it will suggest HTML like:

<iframe width="560" height="315"


        frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>


WordPress will convert this into an internal square bracket command, changing the URL and ignoring the dimension. You can use this command yourself, and use its options for dimensions. WordPress converts the above into something like:

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yaBNjTtCxd4&w=640&h=480]

Use this form and change the w and h options to suit your interests.

Images in comments

If WordPress thinks a URL refers to an image, it will display the image

instead of creating a link to it. The following rules may be a bit excessive,

but they should work:

  1. The URL must end with .jpg, .gif, or .png. (Maybe others.)
  2. The URL must be the only thing on the line.
  3. This means you don’t use <img>, which WordPress ignores and displays nothing.
  4. This means WordPress controls the image size.
  5. <iframe> doesn’t work either, it just displays a link to the image.

If you have an image whose URL doesn’t end with the right kind of prefix, there may be two options if the url includes attributes, i.e. if it has a question mark followed by attribute=value pairs separated by ampersands.

Often the attributes just provide information to the server about the source of the URL. In that case, you may be able to just delete everything from the question mark to the end.

For some URLs, e.g. many from FaceBook, the attributes provide lookup information to the server and it can’t be deleted. Most servers don’t bother to check for unfamiliar attributes, so try appending “&xxx=foo.jpg”. This will give you a URL with one of the extensions WordPress will accept.

WordPress will usually scale images to fit the horizontal space available for text. One place it doesn’t is in blockquoted text, there it seems to display fullsize and large images overwrite the rightside nav bar text.

Special characters in comments

Those of us who remember acceptance of ASCII-68 (a specification released in 1968) are often not clever enough to figure out all the nuances of today’s international character sets. Besides, most keyboards lack the keys for those characters, and that’s the real problem. Even if you use a non-ASCII but useful character like ° (as in 23°C) some optical character recognition software or cut and paste operation is likely to change it to 23oC or worse, 230C.

Nevertheless, there are very useful characters that are most reliably entered as HTML character entities:

Type this To get Notes
&amp; & Ampersand
&lt; < Less than sign

Left angle bracket

&bull; Bullet
&deg; ° Degree (Use with C and F, but not K (kelvins))








Superscripts (use 8304, 185, 178-179, 8308-8313 for superscript digits 0-9)




Subscripts (use 8320-8329 for subscript digits 0-9)
&pound; £ British pound
&ntilde; ñ For La Niña & El Niño
&micro; µ Mu, micro
&plusmn; ± Plus or minus
&times; × Times
&divide; ÷ Divide
&ne; Not equals
&nbsp; Like a space, with no special processing (i.e. word wrapping or multiple space discarding)
&gt; > Greater than sign

Right angle bracket

Generally not needed

Various operating systems and applications have mechanisms to let you directly enter character codes. For example, on Microsoft Windows, holding down ALT and typing 248 on the numeric keypad may generate the degree symbol. I may extend the table above to include these some day, but the character entity names are easier to remember, so I recommend them.

Latex markup

WordPress supports Latex. To use it, do something like:

$latex P = e\sigma AT^{4}$     (Stefan-Boltzmann's law)

$latex \mathscr{L}\{f(t)\}=F(s)$

to produce

P = e\sigma AT^{4}     (Stefan-Boltzmann’s law)


Linking to past comments

Each comment has a URL that links to the start of that comment. This is usually the best way to refer to comment a different post. The URL is “hidden” under the timestamp for that comment. While details vary with operating system and browser, the best way to copy it is to right click on the time stamp near the start of the comment, choose “Copy link location” from the pop-up menu, and paste it into the comment you’re writing. You should see something like http://wattsupwiththat.com/2013/07/15/central-park-in-ushcnv2-5-october-2012-magically-becomes-cooler-in-july-in-the-dust-bowl-years/#comment-1364445.

The “#<label>” at the end of the URL tells a browser where to start the page view. It reads the page from the Web, searches for the label and starts the page view there. As noted above, WordPress will create a link for you, you don’t need to add an <a> command around it.

One way to avoid the moderation queue.

Several keywords doom your comment to the moderation queue. One word, “Anthony,” is caught so that people trying to send a note to Anthony will be intercepted and Anthony should see the message pretty quickly.

If you enter Anthony as An<u>th</u>ony, it appears to not be caught,

so apparently the comparison uses the name with the HTML within it and

sees a mismatch.


254 thoughts on “Test

  1. I just had another thought about underlines.
    I think I discovered that if I could get around the automatic spam trap by writing Anthony with an empty HTML command inside, e.g. Ant<b></b>hony .
    What happens when I try that with underline?
    Apologies in advance to the long-suffering mods, at least one of these comments may get caught by the spam trap.

    • I remember seeing this test pattern on TV late at night after the National Anthem and before the local station broadcast came on early in the morning while the biscuits, bacon and oatmeal were still cooking. The first show after a weather report was “Dialing For Dollars” and you had better know the count when your phone rang…. 1 up and 3 down… to get the cash.

      • Reply to Ric W ==> Thanks — I was fielding comments on an essay using an unfamiliar tablet, and wasn’t sure which and/or both were part of HTML5. I usually use the old ClimateAudit comment Greasemonkey tool, even though its formatting is funky these days, for the tags. Don’t suppose you could update that add-in?

  2. Hey, what happened to the old smiley face?? When I tried to post it, this appeared:

    I wonder if WordPress changed any others?
     ☹ ☻
    The old smiley was more subtle; less in-your-face. The new one is way too garish.
    If WP keeps that up, I’ll just have to use this lame replacement:
    Or even worse:

  3. Source          Energy (J)          Normalized (E)
    Atmosphere:     1.45x10^22 J              1 J
    Ice:            1.36x10^25 J            935 J
    Oceans:         1.68x10^25 J          1,157 J
  4. In my previous post I use the example of the following over the next 100 years: 3 units of new energy goes to the oceans and 1 unit to the atmosphere – with all 4 units being equal in Joules. 1 unit raises the average temperature of the atmosphere by 4C or the average temperature of the oceans by 0.0003C. In this example the atmosphere warms by 4C and the oceans warm by 4 x 0.0003C or 0.0012C. It is exactly the higher heat capacity you mention that allows the heat energy to be absorbed with less movement of temperature. At the detail level maybe the top 2 inches of water gets much hotter and this will then support the physics of the more complex mechanisms you mention. But the beauty of this approach (I think – and hope) is that it doesn’t really matter how the energy gets distributed in the water with its corresponding temperature effect. Determine the mass of the ocean water you want to see affected in this model and apply the energy to it to get the temperature you would expect.

  5. Is anyone using CA Assistant? I was using it before the migration — doesn’t work in current version and I can’t figure out why.

    • IIRC, I think it was written for Climate Audit and only accidentally worked here. It may be broken for good. The ItsAllText add-on may also be broken in newer Firefoxes.

      • Ric ==> CAsst had code that allowed it to function on Climate Etc, Climate Audit, WUWT and several others. The code was editable by the end-user to add additional sites using the standard WP format.
        Still works on Judith’s site.
        It is the shift to the new WP structure that has broken it.
        Any hot coders out there? CA Asst is editable in Firefox with GreaseMonkey.

  6. How come this FAQ doesn’t work for me?

    Subject: Linking to past comments

    Each comment has a URL that links to the start of that comment. ….. the best way to copy it is to right click on the time stamp near the start of the comment, choose “Copy link location” from the pop-up menu, and paste it into the comment

    Is it because the “time stamp” is located at the end of the comment (at lower right-hand corner)?

    Sam C

    • Things have changed, click on the link icon way to the right of your name to see the URL.

      I’ll update the main post in a bit.

  7. Testing “pre” in the new comment system

    7/10/2012					4/18/2012				
    	High	TieH	Low	TieL		High	TieH	Low	TieL
    1998	7		0		1998	7		0	
    1999	3		0		1999	3		0	
    2000	3		0		2000	3		2	
    2001	4		1		2001	4		1	
    2002	3		2		2002	4		2	
    2003	1		0		2003	2		0	
    2004	0		1		2004	0		1	
    2005	2		1		2005	2		1	
    2006	0		0		2006	0		0	
    2007	8	2	0		2007	10		0	
    2008	4		0		2008	3		0	
    2009	2		0		2009	0		0	
    2010	8		0		2010	1		0	
    2011	2		0		2011	0		0	
    2012	1		0		2012	0		0	
    	48	2	5	0		39	0	7	0
    • It worked.
      PS Those are the number of Columbus Ohio record highs and lows set for each of the years according to the list from 4/18/2012 compared with the list from 7/10/2012, a bit less than 3 months later.
      Notice how, somehow, 7 additional record highs were set in 2010.

    • Car deaths per citizen for some counties:

      Country    Fatalities     Population     Fatalities per million citizens
      US:            37 461         325 mill           115
      UK:             1 792           66 mill               26
      Germany: 3 214            83 mill              39
      Sweden:       263            10 mill             26
      France:     3 469          67 mill          51
    • Car deaths per citizen for some counties:

      Country    	Fatalities     	Population     	Fatalities per million citizens
      US:         	37 461       	325 mill         	115
      UK:          	1 792         	66 mill           	26
      Germany:   	3 214          	83 mill            	39
      Sweden:     	263          	10 mill           	26
      France:     	3 469        	67 mill          	51
  8. Who is deleting my posts?
    Why are most of my images deleted?
    Why are all of my YouTube videos being deleted?
    Who is doing all this?

    • I maintain this this page, part of the task is to trim people’s tests when they are stale, and I’ve been greatly remiss about that this year. I’ve done a massive amount of cleanup in the last week or two, but I don’t think I had much to your posts before June 11.

      I’m catching up though! Next is to update the main post with current knowledge.

        • If I want to test posting and image,
          I will test an image worth posting.

          By the way, my questions were rhetorical. I was testing formatting code on images, text, and videos all of which kept disappearing then reappearing so I just typed out what I was thinking at that time.

  9. “… the gasoline you buy might trace its heritage to carbon dioxide pulled straight out of the sky… engineers … have demonstrated a scalable and cost-effective way to make deep cuts in the carbon footprint of transportation…”

    1. So their machine can recognize the difference between a CO2 molecule produced by anything transportation related, and all other CO2 molecules?
    2. By “cost-effective” I assume they mean they have a product that some willing buyer someplace is willing to pay them an amount that will be greater than the cost it takes them to produce, market and deliver that product? ‘Cuz iffen they don’t, it ain’t “cost-effective”.

    “…claim that realizing direct air capture on an impactful scale will cost roughly $94-$232 per ton of carbon dioxide captured…”

    3. So what’s that in $/gal of gasoline? (See 2. above WRT “cost-effective”.) Will it have the same BTU/gal as gasoline?
    So, yeah, other than that, Mrs. Lincoln, how did you like the play?

  10. [In walk the drones]

    “Today we celebrate the first glorious anniversary of the Information Purification Directives.

    [Apple’s hammer-thrower enters, pursued by storm troopers.]

    We have created for the first time in all history a garden of pure ideology, where each worker may bloom, secure from the pests of any contradictory true thoughts.

    Our Unification of Thoughts is more powerful a weapon than any fleet or army on earth.

    We are one people, with one will, one resolve, one cause.

    Our enemies shall talk themselves to death and we will bury them with their own confusion.

    [Hammer is thrown at the screen]

    We shall prevail!


  11. A little late on the discussion, but this is one of the worst articles written by Dr. Ball I have read in years.

    First let us start with where I take a huge exception:

    This fits the Mauna Loa trend very nicely, but the measurements and instrumentation used there are patented and controlled by the Keeling family, first the father and now the son.

    While C.D. Keeling was the first to measure CO2 with an IR beam (NDIR), and smart enough to make himself an extremely accurate (gravimetric) device to calibrate any CO2 measuring device with extreme accurate calibration mixtures.
    The Scripps institute where Keeling worked later provided all calibration mixtures for all devices worldwide. Since 1995, calibration and intercalibration of CO2 mixtures and measurements worldwide are done by the central lab of the WMO.
    Ralph Keeling works at Scripps and has no infuence at all at the calibration work of the WMO, neither on the measurements at Mauna Loa, which are done by NOAA under Pieter Tans.

    As Scripps lost its control position, they still take their own (flask) samples at Mauna Loa and still have their own calibration mixtures, independent of NOAA. Both Scripps and NOAA measurements are within +/- 0.2 ppmv for the same moment of sampling. If NOAA should manipulate the data, I am pretty sure Scripps/Keeling would get them…

    Beyond that, there are about 70 “background” stations, managed by different organisations of different countries, measuring CO2 on as far as possible uncontaminated places, from the South Pole to near the North Pole (Barrow), which all show, besides seasonal changes, which are more explicit in the NH, the same trend: up at about half the rate of the yearly human injection and a lag of the SH, which points to the main source of the increase in the NH, where 90% of human emissions occurs.

    Thus Dr. Ball, if you want to accuse somebody of manipulation, first have your facts right.

    Where is the reflection of CO2 increase due to the dramatic ocean warming and temperature increase caused by El Nino?

    There is, if you look at the yearly rate of increase at Mauna Loa:


    The 1998 and 2015 El Niño’s give a clear increase in yearly CO2 increase in the atmosphere. The 1992 Pinatubo explosion shows a huge dip in CO2 increase.

    The reason, in part the ocean temperature in the tropics, but the dominant factor is (tropical) vegetation due to (too) high temperatures and drying out of the Amazon as the rain patterns change with an El Niño and increased photosynthesis after the Pinatubo injection of light scattering aerosols into the stratosphere:


    It is pretty clear that changes in temperature rate of change lead changes in CO2 rate of change with about 6 months. The interesting point is that the δ13C (that is the ratio between 13CO2 and 12CO2) rate of change changes in opposite direction. That is the case if the increase/decrease in CO2 rate of change is caused by decaying/growing vegetation. If the CO2 rate of change was caused by warming/cooling oceans, then the CO2 and δ13C rate of change changes would parallel each other.

    Again Dr. Ball, a little more research would have shown that you were wrong in your accusation.

    It is getting late here, more comment tomorrow…

  12. You are not logged in or you do not have permission to access this page. This could be due to one of several reasons

  13. Oh, Canada! While confirming the rumor that snowfall is predicted for northern Quebec on June 21, I also discovered Labrador fishing lodges can’t open because they’re still under 6 ft of snow. Clearly, the folks at weathernetwork.com think these “extreme weather events” are man-caused, as the website features stories like this one:

    How can kids handle climate change? By throwing a tantrum!


    Buy the book “The TANTRUM that SAVED the WORLD” and let Michael Mann and Megan Herbert indoctrinate your child into bad behavior!

    Also, don’t miss:

    CANADA IN 2030: Future of our water and changing coastlines

    Antarctica lost 3 trillion tonnes of ice in blink of an eye

    Covering Greenland in a blanket is one way to fight climate

    Racism and climate change denial: Study delves into the link

    Links to those articles and other balderdash are at:


  14. Re. Flooding from sea level rise threatens over 300,000 US coastal homes – study

    As described by Kristina Dahl, a senior climate scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), who should know better than to publish this load of junk science hysterical alarmism.

    “Sea level rise driven by climate change is set to pose an existential crisis to many US coastal communities…”
    No it is not. Do you know what the word “existential” means? And there is no connection between climate change, CO2 and sea levels.

    “…Under this scenario, where planet-warming emissions are barely constrained and the seas rise by around 6.5ft globally by the end of the century…”
    Absolute rubbish. The maximum projected increase is six INCHES by 2100.

    “…The oceans are rising by around 3mm a year due to the thermal expansion of seawater that’s warming because of the burning of fossil fuels by humans…”
    Where is the proof that “the burning of fossil fuels by humans” causes ANY sea level rise?

    To the Guardian: You do love publishing this rubbish, don’t you?

    There is nothing we can do about rising sea levels except to build better build dikes and sea walls a little bit higher. Sea level rise does not depend on ocean temperature, and certainly not on CO2. We can expect the sea to continue rising at about the present rate for the foreseeable future. By 2100 the seas will rise another 6 inches or so.

    Failed serial doomcaster James Hansen’s sea level predictions have been trashed by real scientists.
    Hansen claimed that sea level rise has been accelerating, from 0.6mm/year from 1900 to 1930, to 1.4mm/year from 1930 to 1992, and 2.6mm/year from 1993 to 2015.
    Hansen cherry-picked the 1900-1930 trend as his data to try to show acceleration … because if he had used 1930-1960 instead, there would not be any acceleration to show.

    According to the data, the rate of sea level rise:
    • decelerated from the start of the C&W record until 1930
    • accelerated rapidly until 1960
    • decelerated for the next ten years
    • stayed about the same from 1970 to 2000
    • then started accelerating again. Until that time, making any statement about sea level acceleration is premature. One thing is clear: There is no simple relationship between CO2 levels and the rate of sea level rise.

    If we assume that the trend prior to 1950 was natural (we really did not emit much CO2 into the atmosphere before then) and that the following increase in the trend since 1950 was 100% due to humans, we get a human influence of only about 0.3 inches per decade, or 1 inch every 30 years.

    If an anthropogenic signal cannot be conspicuously connected to sea level rise (as scientists have noted*), then the greatest perceived existential threat promulgated by advocates of dangerous man-made global warming will no longer be regarded as even worth considering (except by the Guardian).

    *4 New Papers: Anthropogenic Signal Not Detectable in Sea Level Rise

  15. Hi all. I wasn’t sure where else to post this question. On the old site, if I left a comment or reply, I was prompted as to whether or not I wanted email updates on new comments etc….

    Since moving to this site, I see no option for this after leaving a reply or comment. What have I done wrong?



  16. Hello Anthony,

    This may the first time I have disagreed with you since watts up with that started, but the “ship of fools comment was rather dismissive of what could be useful data collection.

    When I want to stimulate my brain, I go to your website. Often the responses to articles posted are more stimulating than the articles themselves. I attribute that to the scientific literacy of most of your audience.

    Thanks for providing a commons for unfettered debate, rather than the propaganda of most sites


  17. I have some time to update the main content here, there are a number of things to update. One thing we never figured out at WordPress is why I could underline text but nearly everyone else could not. So, we need to experiment.

    If you’re curious, please reply to this and paste in these HTML lines:

    This is <b>bold</b>ed.
    This is <i>italic</i>ized.
    This is <u>underline</u>ed.
    This is <b><i><u>everything</b></i></u>.

    If you’re one of the folks completely mystified over this puzzle, feel free to create a top-level comment (text entry box is before the first comment). We saw some things where top level comments and replies were handled differently, and I expect to see that at Pressable.

    BTW, what I get:

    This is bolded.
    This is italicized.
    This is underlineed.
    This is everything.

    While I’m here, strong should work like bold.

  18. Now here is where my memory gets fuzzy, I think I picked the opening post of a random thread (50% confidence level, it might have been a reply to another comment), in which, about half-way down the page the author proclaimed (this is from memory, so may not be exact),

    “We know Global Warming is happening, all the models say so, but we’re not seeing it in the records. So clearly, the records must be wrong. (italics mine, if they show up). But we have somebody working on that.”!!! (Exclamations mine)


    Imagine that for a second, he’s admitting there is no Global Warming in the data, so he has assigned people to set about changing the data!!!

  19. “…we can hardly afford to double the carbon footprint that the USA and the EU already generate.

    “We hope that this model proves to be useful for those seeking to intervene in efforts to avoid producing Western levels of environmental degradation [affluence] in these countries,” the authors conclude.
    Just in case in of you doubted Walter Sobchak’s interpretation of the article.

  20. Reality Check: “Conventional Crude” peaked in 2005
    See: ExxonMobil World Energy Outlook 2018 A View to 2040
    ExxonMobil clearly shows conventional crude oil peaked in 2005 and has declined since then. Adding in Deepwater and Oil sands still shows declining production. ExxonMobil has to appeal to Tight Oil to show liquids growth that combination flattening out by 2040.
    Growth prospects for conventional through tight oil appear so poor that Shell Oil and TOTAL have strategically shifted their major effort out of oil into natural gas. See:
    Liquids Supply ExxonMobil 2018


  21. Once again, the insane image linking has returned.
    Pictures are once again appearing then disappearing.
    Will it link an image or not? Who knows?
    The added lunacy includes all my images being displayed together on Refresh, yet no other post.
    Then sometimes all my images load but later only some of them, seemingly chosen at random.
    Can anyone explain any of this?

  22. Bold commands do not seem to work on the new site – at least not like the old site worked.

    Trying use of characters: BOLD

  23. Test for putting a photo from my PC up using the “pre” formatting. (The photo will be “inserted” into Excel.)

  24. src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/jxtUBJgk_vY? version=3&rel=1&fs=1&autohide=2&showsearch=0&showinfo=1&iv_load_policy=1&wmode=transparent”

  25. This is brilliant:


    “I won’t go on the BBC if it supplies climate change deniers as ‘balance’”
    by Rupert Read

    Here we have Rupert Read who teaches philosophy at the University of East Anglia and chairs the Green House think-tank, explaining why he refused an invitation to discuss climate change on the BBC because it was with a so-called “denier.”

    The big joke here is that after refusing to go on air to put his point of view he is now making a formal complaint to the BBC “because the BBC cannot defend the practice of allowing a climate change denier to speak unopposed.”

    This is the level of stupidity of the man-made climate hysterics.
    This is their level of debating skills.
    Still, what can we expect from the University of East Anglia?



  27. As climatologist Roy Spencer has explained the climate models used to arrive at alarming values of equilibrium climate sensitivity don’t do so in the way Lord Monckton describes.

  28. Google’s Empire of Censorship Marches On>

    More than 1,000 Google employees protest against plan for censored Chinese search engine.

    The Google staff have signed letter calling on executives to review ethics and transparency and protesting against the company’s secretive plan to build a search engine that would comply with Chinese censorship. The letter’s contents were confirmed by a Google employee who helped organize it but wished to stay anonymous. It calls on executives to review the company’s ethics and transparency; says employees lack the information required “to make ethically informed decisions about our work”; and complains that most employees only found out through leaks and media reports about the project, nicknamed Dragonfly. “We urgently need more transparency, a seat at the table and a commitment to clear and open processes: Google employees need to know what we’re building,” says the document.

    Google engineers are working on software that would block certain search terms and leave out content blacklisted by the Chinese government, so the company can re-enter the Chinese market. Google’s chief executive Sundar Pichai told a company-wide meeting that providing more services in the world’s most populous country fits with Google’s global mission. (and I bet you did not know that Google even had a “Global Mission”)

    This is the first time the project has been mentioned by any Google executive since details about it were leaked.

    Three former employees told Reuters that current leadership might think that offering limited search results in China is better than providing no information at all. The same rationale led Google to enter China in 2006. It left in 2010 over an escalating dispute with regulators that was capped by what security researchers identified as state-sponsored cyber attacks against Google and other large US firms. One former employees said they doubt the Chinese government will welcome back Google.

    The Chinese human rights community said Google’s acquiescence to China’s censorship would be a “dark day for internet freedom.”

  29. How to make Quick Links for your Essay in MS Word:

    This method requires MS Word. It results in a new document (automatically created) which contains a simple list of all the hypertext links from your essay.
    (see the end of The Fight Against Global Greening — Part 4.

    1. Open the Word document which you want to copy the hyperlinks, and press Alt + F11 to open the Microsoft Visual Based Application Window.

    2. Click Insert > Module, and copy the following VBA code into the Window.

    Sub HyperlinksExtract()
    Dim oLink As Hyperlink
    Dim docCurrent As Document ‘current document
    Dim docNew As Document ‘new document
    Dim rngStory As StoryRanges
    Set docCurrent = ActiveDocument
    Set docNew = Documents.Add
    For Each oLink In docCurrent.Hyperlinks

    Set docNew = Nothing
    Set docCurrent = Nothing
    End Sub

    3. Click the Run button then RunSub/UserForm to run the VBA code. Then all the hyperlinks are copied to a new document. You can save the new document later.


    1. This VBA only can run when all the hyperlinks are linked with word, if there are pictures with hyperlinks, this VBA code cannot work.
    2. Using this will train you to make human-readable links: for instance, attaching the hyperlink to “the NY Times article” rather than “here”.
    3. The links can be copied from the newly created word document into your Word copy of your essay. I place them at the end in a section called Quick Links. If any of the links don’t read right or communicate clearly, you can edit them in the Quick Links to be more readable, such as “The April 26th NY Times article”.

  30. The new server system does not allow BLOCKQUOTES in comments. The following should appear as a blockquote but does not.


    Thanks for reading.

  31. Year   Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec
    1880   -30  -18  -11  -20  -12  -23  -21  -10  -16  -24  -20  -23
    2018    78 
    1880   -29  -18  -11  -20  -12  -23  -21   -9  -16  -23  -20  -23 
    2018    78   78
    1880   -29  -18  -12  -20  -12  -25  -21  -10  -17  -25  -20  -21
    2018    77   79   89
    1880   -28  -18  -12  -20  -12  -25  -22  -10  -18  -25  -20  -21
    2018    75   80   88   86
    1880   -29  -18  -11  -20  -12  -23  -21   -9  -16  -23  -20  -23
    2018    77   80   90   85   82
    1880   -30  -18  -11  -20  -12  -23  -21   -9  -16  -24  -20  -23
    2018    78   81   91   87   83   77 
    1880   -29  -18  -11  -19  -11  -23  -20   -9  -15  -23  -20  -22
    2018    77   81   91   87   82   76   78
                     Number of changes made in 2018
    Year   Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec
    1880     4    0    2    1    1    2    2    2    4    4    0    3
    2018     5    3    3    2    1    1    
  32. Attempt monospacing:

    Absorbed from:  Surface L.Atm  U.Atm  Space    Absorbed
    Absorbed by:
    Surface          0.0000 1.0500 0.1500 1.0000 || 2.2000
    Lower Atmosphere 1.6500 0.0000 0.4500 0.0000 || 2.1000
    Upper Atmosphere 0.4125 0.7875 0.0000 0.0000 || 1.2000
    Space            0.1375 0.2625 0.6000 0.0000 || 1.0000
    Total Emitted:   2.2000 2.1000 1.2000 1.0000


  33. 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

  34. Ex-IPCC chief Rajendra Pachauri will stand trial on sexual harassment charges.

    A Delhi court decided there is enough evidence to charge Pachauri with harassing a female colleague.

    There is prime facie evidence to charge Rajendra Pachauri, 78, with sexual harassment and two offences of intending to outrage the modesty of a woman. Pachauri, who was head of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) when it was awarded the Nobel prize in 2007, denies any wrongdoing. Pachauri resigned from the IPCC in 2015 when the complaint against him was registered.

    The woman told police Pachauri had flooded her with offensive messages, emails and texts and made several “carnal and perverted” advances over the 16 months they worked together at the Energy and Resources Institute (Teri), a Delhi-based energy and environment research centre Pachauri led for over 30 years.

    An investigation into the complaints questioned more than 50 employees and concluded the woman’s claims were valid. Pachauri claimed text messages and emails submitted by the woman to police had had been tampered with by unknown cyber criminals, but police last year found no evidence of tampering.

    The complainant, who was 29 at the time of the alleged offences, said she was pleased the case would proceed to trial after so long.

    Pachauri’s lawyer, Ashish Dixit, said the court had dropped four other charges, including stalking and intimidation: “The majority of the charges have been dropped by the court on it own, so it’s big step forward,” Dixit said.

  35. This link is more specific about “acrylic polymers” being used by artists such as Andy Warhol, David Hockney, and Mark Rothko. This leaves me the task finding out more about this. I do remember an early batch of acrylic paint by Talens also called “polymers” they stopped producing. So I guess there is not just one kind of “acrylic”. The problem being of course the producers keep their secrets.

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