House Democrats just put out the most detailed climate plan in US political history

David Roberts at Vox reports:

A new select committee report is perfectly in tune with the growing climate policy alignment on the left around standards, investments, and justice.

The committee was formed as a consequence of the changing party control of the US House of Representatives in 2108.

In 2018, just before Democrats re-took the House, Pelosi proposed reconstituting the committee. In the wake of the election, climate change activists, led by newly elected Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, demanded that the new committee have teeth — that it be charged with developing a Green New Deal. The original sit-in at Pelosi’s office, where AOC drew scads of media attention by appearing after having been elected but before being sworn in, was in part about demanding a more robust committee. Activists eventually got dozens of lawmakers to sign on to the effort.

After the initial hullabaloo, the select committee largely fell out of the headlines and got to work.

“We didn’t need subpoena power to do our work,” says Melvin Félix, the committee’s communications director. “People were eager to share their views on how to solve the climate crisis.”

All those consultations, hearings, and meetings have culminated in the release of the select committee’s official report and recommendations: “Solving the Climate Crisis: The Congressional action plan for a clean energy economy and a healthy and just America.”

It is the most detailed and well-thought-out plan for addressing climate change that has ever been a part of US politics — an extraordinary synthesis of expertise from social and scientific fields, written by people deeply familiar with government, the levers of power, and existing policy.

The goal of the recommendations is even stricter than the reductions called for by the IPCC.

The policies would result in net GHG’s reduced from 2010 emissions levels by 37% by 2030 and 88 percent by 2050.

Of course it claims to save money.

 “The cumulative net present value of the estimated monetized annual health and climate benefits,” the report says, “are equal to almost $8 trillion (real 2018 U.S. dollars) at a 3% discount rate.”

That’s $8 trillion in savings — up to $1 trillion a year by 2050, relative to the no-policy baseline. Pretty soon you’re talking about real money.

It’s got pillars, twelve of them

  1. Invest in infrastructure to build a just, equitable, and resilient clean energy economy.
  2. Drive innovation and deployment of clean energy and deep decarbonization technologies.
  3. Transform US industry and expand domestic manufacturing of clean energy and zero-emission technologies.
  4. Break down barriers for clean energy technologies.
  5. Invest in America’s workers and build a fairer economy.
  6. Invest in disproportionately exposed communities to cut pollution and advance environmental justice.
  7. Improve public health and manage climate risks to health infrastructure.
  8. Invest in American agriculture for climate solutions.
  9. Make US communities more resilient to the impacts of climate change.
  10. Protect and restore America’s lands, waters, ocean, and wildlife.
  11. Confront climate risks to America’s national security and restore America’s leadership on the international stage.
  12. Strengthen America’s core institutions to facilitate climate action.

After detailing the plan, the article ties it into the political and electoral landscape…

For each policy, the report identifies the congressional committee with jurisdiction. What’s notable is that just about every committee in the House, from Agriculture to Natural Resources to Transportation to Financial Services to Defense, has a full menu of things to do. There is lots of work to go around.

“This is an ambitious and comprehensive plan,” says Stokes. “It shows that the committee listened to stakeholders, watched the Democratic primary carefully, and learned from climate champions like Governor Jay Inslee.”

and ends on this not unexpected note.

And so, as the select committee report illustrates in the starkest possible terms, if you want serious policy to address urgent national problems, there’s only one party offering it.

Read the full article here.

184 thoughts on “House Democrats just put out the most detailed climate plan in US political history

    • “Climate plan” & “GND”

      Just another variation of :

      “great leap forward :
      “Ten year plan”
      “five year plan”

      all which killed millions in the name of utopia

      • Planner Parenthood a.k.a. “burdens”. Planned Parents. Planned populations. Social progress. There are precedents.

    • Nothing like creating a government framework for micromanaging everything in the country. How could that go wrong. How does one create environmental justice in agriculture and also feed the world? That’s one question they cannot answer.

      • Answer! They already got their answer, now they are attempting to ram it up everyone’s a$$. November is coming, they ain’t going to like what happens.

    • Not completely “green,” at least in the context of the greenitude of the past 50 years. The section on nuclear power is not awful. In fact, it promotes more nuclear. I was surprised to see it. It’s the sort of section that could get people attacked (physically) by environmental terrorists.

      • That section will be struck as it moves “forward”, that is the method which has been so successful in past. Put “good things” in to appease people, strike them quietly then put all the crap in place. “Have to pass the bill before we find out what is in it.” N. Pelosi.

    • Socialism at best, Green Totalitarianism more like it. Whenever anyone on the Left starts on about “fair” and “justice” what they mean is gimme all your money.

      • “Justice” means some layabout is getting a larger share of the money you break your back to earn.

        • Social justice is a relativistic doctrine of the Progressive Church and Pro-Choice, selective, opportunistic “secular” religion.

          • Social justice is an example of involuntary ‘social distancing’ of your money from your wallet.

      • The goal of the recommendations is even stricter than the reductions called for by the IPCC.

        So they are openly admitting that there is ZERO scientific basis for their policy of up-ending the entire economy.

        • The goal of the recommendations is even stricter than the reductions called for by the IPCC.

          So they are openly admitting that there is ZERO scientific basis for their policy of up-ending the entire economy.

          Oh isn’t that ever an excellent point!

      • These days, the word “justice” is almost as debased as “science”. And when you use capitals and put an adjective in front, they’re even worse: “Climate Science”, “Climate Justice”.

        The worst thing I’ve noticed in these matters is “The people’s democratic republic of …” but science and justice are closing in.

        • Another is [Social, Climate] Progress is an [unqualified] monotonic function with imputed cultural baggage popularly accepted as an article of faith. #PrinciplesMatter

        • I”m still trying to find someone who can define the oxymoron term “climate justice’.

          IF there is such a person, please let me know.

          • Circa 2020 fascism?

            And to the above you can add the rephrased, ‘climate justification’ for the ‘by any means necessary crowd’.

          • That one is pretty easy. Any term placed in front of the word “JUSTICE” can be replaced with the prefix “in”. Thus “Climate Justice” can be replaced with “Injustice” with no change in meaning. Same is true of “Racial Justice”, “Economic Justice”, “Social Justice”, etc. all mean “Injustice”.

            Justice is inherently an individual activity. It is based on the actions of an individual and is punished individually. ANY other use under common law is unjust or an injustice.

          • The term ‘climate justice’ is the warm fuzzy phrase used by alarmists to describe the UNFCCC’s policy goal of implementing re-distributive economics using climate reparations based on broken science as the means.

          • Social Justice is the theory that those who don’t work are morally superior to those who do work. Because of this, those who work have a right to the income of those who do.

            This works until those who work decide that they want to be morally superior as well.

          • Those who DON’T work have a right to the income of those who do.

            Sometimes single words can make a big difference.

        • It’s a marketing ploy. Kind of like putting NEW AND IMPROVED in big letters on a product hoping to get people to buy it, when the only thing new and improved is the package.

          • “New and Improved” – This is marketing double speak. If the product is improved, then it must have existed before – therefore cannot be new!

        • I’ve said for years that when you put the word “Social” in front of something, that is equivalent to putting “not” in front of the same word.
          Social Justice equals Not Justice
          Social Science equals Not Science

          I guess “Climate” has reached the same status.

      • “Whenever anyone on the Left starts on about “fair” and “justice” what they mean is gimme all your money.”

        And give it to those who are unwilling to work.

  1. There definitely is only one party that is offering it, ie trying to ram it down our throats.

    • The party pushing this nonsense is not the Republican or the Democrat party, which no longer exists, but is what the Democratic party has devolved into, i.e. a Marxist mob hell bent on destroying America because they hate Trump and those who voted for him more than then love America. The reason is because the MSM promotes hate in their attempt to mitigate being on the wrong side of the people in the 2016 election. Sadly, their hate mongering seems to be succeeding in changing public opinion which could just be the death knell for a free and prosperous America.

        • I would characterize the new Democratic party as devolved and regressive under the leadership of the squad. In the past, the Democrats have always been more sheep like in following their leaders which makes it appear more monotonic, while Republicans are more likely to think for themslves. I suspect that more and more Democrats will wake up from their woken unconsciousness and come to realize that their party has become the ‘hate America so lets destroy it’ party. I only hope this happens before the next election.

      • “Sadly, their hate mongering seems to be succeeding in changing public opinion which could just be the death knell for a free and prosperous America.”

        Relentless propaganda is a powerful force, isn’t it.

        I see a lot of people getting shaky after listening to the news. That is the intention of the propagandists. They want to undermine your confidence.

        Just remember what happened in 2016. The polls were all against Trump and predicting Hillary was a sure winner. That didn’t happen. The Left is manipulating the polls now just like they did in 2016. Don’t believe these polls. They are polling the wrong groups, asking leading questions, and are skewing the percentages of Republicans and Democrats they poll. Republicans make up about 33 percent of the population and some of these polls only poll 20 percent of Republicans. What do you expect from a poll like that? It’s certainly not going to favor Trump or Republicans. And then you have the people who are afraid to tell pollsters they support Trump but vote for him. So there are lots of things to consider when dealing with dishonest Democrats and their Propaganda organ, the News Media.

        Polls at this time are worthless anyway. We have a long ways to go until November 3, 2020. Joe China hasn’t even been challenged yet. The indictments of Obama officials haven’t been made public yet. I wonder if ole Joe China will be one of those indicted, or will they make him and Obama unindictied co-cospirators? We have a lot of events coming up in the near future that may change the picture entirely.

        And then there are the debates. I think Joe China is going to fall flat on his face during the debates. The only way I can see him making even a passable performance is if he does the debate from his home, with somebody feeding him the answers in his ear. If he has to stand up on a stage by himself alone with Trump, he is toast.

      • REphrased… ”When the Democrats win in November, all Hell is going ot break loose.”
        I think, it is more certain.

        • Unfortunately, the Trump administration is too ethical to attempt a coup by interfering with the smooth transition of power, as the Obama administration did. If Biden wins in November, then the Obama administrations treasonous behavior will have succeeded. Does this now legitimize treason?

          • The Civil War may have decided that secession is treason.
            However as the Supreme Court has proven in recent decades, no “decision” is permanent.

        • If “all Hell” breaks loose, the country is finished. We have a system whereby violence is avoided by accepting the results of elections, and not saying ignorant things like “He’s not MY president.” The important thing is to work to be sure that the Democrats do not win in November.

          • Orangemanbad is going to be re-elected in a landslide unlike any ever seen in politics anywhere, ever. And afterwards WE are going to hunt down and put down all these pasty white, college educated insurrectionists. Americans of various colors are going to lead this, they are tired of pasty white, college educated c*nts sh**ting all over them.

          • Clyde, the problem is that we are the only ones who feel that way. For a generation, our side has insisted on playing by Marquis du Queensboro rules, while the other side feels free to treat it as a gang war.

          • “If “all Hell” breaks loose, the country is finished.”

            It looks to me like the Radical, Violent Left don’t have large numbers of people.

            Most of the protesters after George Floyd’s death were out because of just that, while most of the destructive types were using the protests to forward an anarchist/anti-American agenda. As President Obama’s preacher, Reverend Wright, used to say to his congregation: No! No! No! Not God Bless America, but God Damn America! That is the anthem of the anti-American Americans like Barack Obama and the radical anarchists, and all the sports players that kneel during the National Anthem. They are all saying: Not God Bless American, But God Damn America. I say, God Damn anyone who says God Damn America.

            What we have left on the streets today are mostly the very hardcore leftists, and their numbers are not that large, so I don’t think they pose as much of a threat as they would want us to believe. Bullies like this are tough when they have you outnumbered, but they’ll run like hell if the fight is fair. Their basically cowards and I think Trump’s 63+ million supporters can handle a few social misfits like them.

            The only people who can’t handle these social misfits are Democrat Mayors and Governors.

          • “It looks to me like the Radical, Violent Left don’t have large numbers of people.”

            And they’re still eating their own. In Seattle, Socialist Marxist City Councilmember Kshama Sawant is calling for the impeachment of Socialist Democrat Mayor Jenny Durkan. And Durkan is calling for Sawant’s removal from the council. They should both just go away.

        • If Trump wins – there will be violence.

          If Biden wins, then we will see the indulgence of pure hate.

          I’m still having trouble with it – who in their right mind would vote power to a party who’s platform is give us what we want or we’ll destroy your lives?

          I guess the ‘right mind’ is the qualifier.

          • “If Trump wins – there will be violence.

            If Biden wins, then we will see the indulgence of pure hate.”

            By the same people.

          • If Biden wins, the right will have no reason to hold back any longer. Particularly when the only way he can win is through election fraud.

            If Trump wins, hopefully he can clean up the commies through the legal system now he has a lot of conservative judges in place. But the commies will throw everything they have left at him to stop that.

    • Rephrased: ”There is only one party offering to ram it down everyones’ throat”. Yep, the new, shrill, all-old-people-bad, party-of-the-magnificent-sounding-feather-heads is at it again. Here, dear … a little sugar with that hemlock? Everyone’s doing it! Just say aaaaaahhhhhhh(rrrrrgggghhhh).

  2. Cutting emissions by 37% in a decade without nuclear power and better battery technology is not technically possible without shutting down large segments of the economy, such as air travel, construction, travel by car, food production, manufacturing….pick two….or 37% of all…

  3. “People were eager to share their views on how to solve the climate crisis.”
    No duh.
    Ideologues, virtue-signalers, bandwagoners and assorted carpetbaggers tend to be “eager”.

    • People who have to work for a living weren’t invited, and wouldn’t have had time to show up if they were.

    • The communist manifesto goes ‘green’…. it reads like an environMentalist’s menudo recipe! Marxist tripe, simmered in the thin broth of ‘socialist justice’.

      • These “people” aren’t Marxists. They wouldn’t know Marxism if Karl (or Groucho) got in the shower with them. They’re parasitic kleptocrats who spout stupid slogans hoping they get the swing vote.

  4. Someone needs to “Model” the consequences of the 12 pillars to see what the outcome will be. Plenty of adjustments needed to put lipstick on this pig.

  5. The proposal doesn’t forecast any measurable effect on climate. I wonder why?

    • Hard problems will require wicked solutions. For example: selective-child (planned parenthood), cannibalized-child (Planned Parenthood), diversity (i.e. color judgments, denial of individual dignity, color blocs, color quotas), “protests” (e.g. witch trials, warlock judgments), cancellation, and redistributive change.

    • Why? I’m glad you asked, Eric. It’s because it’s easier to ignore/hide the truth than it is to tell people about it.

  6. PhD scientists are brilliant but shameless. Incredible that the vast majority of them decided to make a career claiming that CO2 is the climate control knob, growing and fermenting corn to produce a transportation fuel substitute is cost effective and environmentally sound (converting a carbohydrate to a hydrocarbon replacement is backward engineering in the extreme). Equally impossible is that they seriously believe that sunshine and breezes can power a modern society. Grant seeking scientists and universities, contribution seeking democrats and willfully uniformed voters have joined together to create a certain economy destroying solution to the non-existent “climate crisis”. If anyone is wavering about how to vote in the next election the Green New Deal should “tip the scale”.

      • I resemble that remark, except that in my case, most of it came from drinking wonderful fine wine.

        • This climate scam is a deeptragedy for academia.
          The grove is twisted up by tornadoes of fake science and torn up by hails of misinformation.

          Heh, I guess you could say that things are looking up at our ‘higher’ centers of education.

          As for the press, let me think before I type, as should they.
          Such a scandal.

    • “Equally impossible is that they seriously believe that sunshine and breezes can power a modern society.”

      They have no idea how the power system works. How it was developed, how standards came about – they believe that ideas created with ‘good intentions’ will be more than sufficient to power what they’ve come to take for granted.

      They have no idea how much they don’t know.

    • “PhD scientists are brilliant but shameless”

      3- 4 generations ago, you had to be brilliant to get a PhD. The brilliant ones today are diluted massively by PhDs from the left side to the middle of the bell curve.

      “Merit” devolved into “equal outcomes” when the left overwhelmed universities and threw the doors wide open. They found at first they had to have a first year course that gave remedial grammar, composition and math skills. When still students failed in large numbers (what did they expect?), they had to quickly invent dozens of Faculties for Dummies to match the level of capabilities of the lowest common denominators.

      Of course they had to have professors and PhD programs for them. There is no standard of excellence anymore in the West. Oxford, Cambridge, the Ivy League … despite the ordering of a now meaningless ranking system, are no better than Podunk U. I would place the University of Delhi in India, Tsinghua University in Beijing, Tohoku and Kyoto in Japan, Moscow State and several others in Russia, Tel Aviv University in Israel… away ahead of the once cream of Western Universities. None of those listed would ever permit a Faculty For Dummies. And this is the main reason we are going to lose out to the “East” if we don’t replace these failed institutions.

  7. Has that woman in the yellow dress got no idea how to safely use a step-ladder?
    Never stand on the top rung, never use on soft sloping uneven ground, no spreader braces, over-reaching…….
    It’s a disaster waiting to happen – how appropriate!

  8. Massive step towards a totalitarian state.
    At the same time as the Left is demanding to get rid of cops.
    The first “Cop-less police state”?

    • As ever, the leftists beat normal people to the punch. Defunding the police is a great diversion from the obvious defunding politicians. It’s what parasites do.

      Defunding the police ??? What could possibly go wrong ???

  9. The politicians are brain dead puppets. Green energy is a scam and Zero Emissions, 2050 is impossible, a pathetic, childlike, joke.

    A Cambridge University has written a report which at least, quantifies some of the obvious, impossible to solve problems, to get to Zero Emissions. Ignoring the fact that we did not cause the CO2 rise and the CO2 rise did not cause the temperature rise.

    The electrical grid power supply output must INCREASE by a factor of THREE (with zero emissions) as all heating, manufacturing, and transportation, is according to the brainless scheme going to be powered from electricity.

    Cement cannot be made, with zero emissions, and there is no solution. There is no solution as to how to mine with zero emissions.

    There is no solution to how to power ships or airplanes.

    There is no solution as to how to construct buildings or what is going to replace plastics.

    As the CO2 tax increases, the high energy materials/products/chemicals start to be manufactured in countries that do not care about CO2 emissions.

    So, the carbon tax does not reduce CO2 emissions, it reduces manufacturing jobs, in the location where the tax is applied.

    The green scams all fail at the point when the magic batteries are required.

    Germany cheats by exporting half of their wind-based electricity to other countries who then return hydrocarbon or nuclear energy when the wind is not blowing in Germany.

    In 2017 about half of Germany’s wind-based electricity production was exported.

      • Give me a break. Wood?

        It is time to get real. Zero emissions by 2050 is a pathetic child’s ‘plan’. Absolutely impossible regardless of how much is spent for basic engineering and economic reasons.

        How about Bridges. Make them out of wood?

        Trains and planes? Make them out of wood. The greens scams are damaging the environment.

        Planet of the Humans

        Planet of the Humans

        I think Michael Moore/Jeff Gibbs changed their minds, based on what they found the reality of ‘green’ energy.

        I have watched the film twice. It makes a person think.

        Park what you think about climate change, that is the point of the film.

        The Green Scams come across as corrupt pointless madness…… A solution that is a lie, that is causing significant pointless environmental damage with little real reduction in CO2 emissions.

        • A widely popular delusion and a madness of the herd; it’s pathological but may yield a modicum of herd immunity.

          We can hope so at least; it’s that or the shot.

        • “Give me a break. Wood?”

          Hey dude, nobody said it will solve all the world’s problems- only that it can replace SOME cement. Read the site before ranting.

        • “Absolutely impossible regardless of how much is spent for basic engineering and economic reasons. ”

          It’s not impossible.

          They just have to eliminate 90% of the people and imprison the rest.

          The modern left is a death cult.

      • Zorzin
        The operative word here is “many,” not all. However, the factory buildings that manufacture CLT will invariably need concrete foundations and floors to bear the weight of the machinery. There is no way to get around the need for concrete or mining in the modern world.

        • Clyde, one might ask himself why were the major early historical milestones in human development named the Stone Age, The Bronze Age, the Iron Age and subsequent ‘Ages’ that took these technologies further. Our earliest ancestors distinguished themselves from the rest of the animal kingdom by emloying earth resources as an instinct for survival, having no competitive tooth nor claw nor natural armor.

          That we would even question legitimacy of these natural endowments of humankind is symptomatic of the advanced deterioration of education K to PhD (now The Enlightenment, The Age of Reason, The Industrial Revolution are under full attack by people who need to be rescued from themselves.)

          • “under full attack by people who need to be rescued from themselves”
            They would be the first to cry if they were forced back into a primitive lifestyle.

        • Of course- there will never be no need for concrete- it isn’t and never was and never will be a perfect world. But the CLT facility- once you’ve created it with a cement foundation- will produce a great deal of CLT to substitute for a great deal of cement. With your way of looking at things- there can never be any improvements to anything as you’ll always see the dark side.

      • Steyer made his money in coal and his fame in bullshit, from pedigreed herds of cattle.
        Tom might have had better luck with sheep.

        • Really? You believe some random comedian made his fortune by mining coal and raising cattle? You got proof of that? Never heard of the f*ckstick, seems to be VERY important to you.

          • If you’ve never heard of Tom Steyer, you haven’t been paying attention. Hint, he’s not a comedian, not intentionally anyway.

          • Jeff, 2hotel9 isn’t the brightest bulb. He thinks the House Democrat’s climate plan that this article clearly points out was put out by the House Democrats was somehow written and put out by the RINOs (despite his inability to name a single RINO involved). So it’s no wonder he doesn’t know who Tom Steyer is, because he clearly knows nothing about any of the US politicians or US politics in general.

  10. There is no climate crisis … Not even a minor problem.

    The climate is improving, and has been for over 300 years.

    More CO2 is greening the planet.

    Honest people would be celebrating.

    Dumbocrats, however, have invented a fake crisis and want the political power to prevent the (fictional) end of our planet.

    Only stupid people would believe a crisis is coming, and Dumbocrats (I repeat myself).

    To show they are complete fools, Dumbocrats want to replace cheap, reliable fossil fuels with expensive, intermittent solar and energy power.

    That makes sense … to stupid people.

    Everyone alive today has faced global warming during their life — the planet has wsrmed for over 300 years.

    Did anyone notice a climate crisis ?

    Was anyone harmed (no one)?

    Why would continued global waming suddenly be only bad news?

    My climate science blog:

  11. These committees of do-gooders will never accomplish anything meaning and will only enslave us. And who will deal with the unintended consequences? And there will be many, and each time another bandage is plastered to the rotting corpse they will make of America until we the people have to tear it all down and start again.

    • “…. and will only enslave us.”

      Not in the US. If they even get close, they will find out exactly what the phrase “tipping point” really means.

  12. Jay Inslee as a role model. Almost enough said right there. Hopefully Inslee will soon be up to his ears in equal protection lawsuits along with Mayor Jenny.

    I note the ten points are highly repetitive. A tough edit could cut them to three or so.

    1. Take money.
    2. Give money to self and cronies.
    3. Bask in false metrics and propaganda.

    • “It shows that the committee listened to stakeholders, watched the Democratic primary carefully, and learned from climate champions like Governor Jay Inslee.”

      This from the full VOX article.

      Jay Inslee is a nincompoop, and just got booed off the stage in his old home district.

  13. Politicians are good at perspective things. Outline a goal (keep Canada, Alaska, and Siberia frozen most of year), outline a road which does not lead there, and jail anybody who does not agree.

  14. “Break down barriers for clean energy technologies.”

    The only barrier is physics. They just don’t work.

  15. “Invest in America’s workers and build a fairer economy.”

    Is this the part where they guarantee a living wage for those who don’t want to work?

  16. Shhhhhhh!!!
    The Warmunists are busy digging their own political graves.
    We should let them.
    Heck, let’s hand them shovels.

  17. Who’s betting that the NPV assessment of the net benefits of reducing CO2 levels conveniently ignores and omits the proven benefits of CO2 – namely increased crop yields and greening as well as plants’ reduced water demand in droughts?

    Secondly, does this NPV assessment include for the bank charges for transferring monies into the authors’ and their like-minded colleagues’ bank accounts?

  18. In four months the Democrats are poised to take the Senate, House and Executive branch. There is a flood of borrowed money at stake and they KNOW IT. One way or another trillions will flow to the loyal.

    It will take decades to recover.

    • Point well made.

      However, also consider that The Pandemic has ballooned the national debt balance sheet like crazy. Those stimulus-bucks (so far) were ginned straight out of thin air. Soon to come will be the US Treasuries (paper) that’ll cover the walls of the institutional (AKA “banks, insurers, retirement annuities, corporate bondholders, billionaires, trust funds”) vaults.

      However also is the uniquely self-correcting bond auction market. The antidote (or causer?) of inflation. Government spends more than it prudently should, has to print too much bond paper, sends it to auction, abusing the ‘has value’ enthusiasm of the bidders, finds it cannot meet strike price, lowering received revenue, inferring — as the investors themselves are wholly in control of — inferring higher yields. Insurance against inflation.

      So… then every type of non-bond loan instrument (think ‘vehicles’, ships, boats, durable goods, houses, farm equipment, commercial properties, corporate equipment loans, structured institutional debt issuance), ALL have rising interest rates. Rising rates depress borrowing. Rising rates undermine real estate value. Rising rates lower investment in progressive technology advances.

      Rising mortgages alone very likely in turn would promulgate Housing Crisis 2.0 … which would be THE albatross around the newly in-power Démocrát party. Biden wouldn’t have a clue what to do. The GND would hit the GND (ground). Just about every conceivable sector of the economy, reeling from the (I predict) still hot-and-dirty transmission of the virus, the coming swine flu version 4.0, would just be decimated by the rise in interest.

      This in turn will be the sword that spills the guts of the West’s Banks. They may be “too big to fail”, but only in the same way that Fukushima’s nuclear reactors, with 4 interlocking methods of meltdown defense, turned out not to be enough for a tsunami. Tsunamis are BIGGER than the hopeful tech we humans put in place to mitigate them. Tsunami says, “right … make my day”.

      My fear is that with the all-but-inevitable taking of the House, Senate and Executive by the Dems, in this postmodern era of youngsters asserting their rights to deny the equal and color-blind rights of all citizens, that the equivalent of the Great Depression is gaining ground, and growing strong roots in the youngest, most impressionable and least invested members of the public.

      Which is not a good thing.
      ⋅-⋅-⋅ Just saying, ⋅-⋅-⋅
      ⋅-=≡ GoatGuy ✓ ≡=-⋅

    • Heh Murph, poised on a high diving board over an empty pool.

  19. No solutions, only dreams. Wake me when they get to the solutions phase, this should be good.

  20. A warming world is net beneficial,
    A greening world is cornucopious,
    Our warming contribution is minor,
    But our greening is miraculous.

    This Democratic response is misdirected, leading our children into a deep morass of authoritarian swamps.

    Nonetheless there are elements which are not foolish and dangerous, particularly those lending aid to adaptation.

    Decarbonation is unnecessary and wasteful, inevitably leading to higher priced energy,
    cruelly damaging the poor.

    Unless nukes of course. Simply develop non-wasteforming nuclear energy and/or pitch unrefinable wastes into sub-ducting oceanic trenches.

    There it is. Read it or weep.

  21. In the midst of the Congressional Committee’s pandering to the climate alarmist narrative with this plan, Tom Nelson brought this to the attention of his readers on his Twitter page recently:
    From the article linked above:

    “The findings show that the millennial-scale global cooling began approximately 6,500 years ago when the long-term average global temperature topped out at around 0.7°C warmer than the mid-19th century. Since then, accelerating greenhouse gas emissions have contributed to global average temperatures that are now surpassing 1°C above the mid-19th century.”

    1.0 deg. C minus 0.7 deg. C = 0.3 deg. C

    So, while the authors of this study are pushing the greenhouse gases panic button, elementary arithmetic from their temperature numbers tells us the Earth’s climate is only 0.3. deg C warmer than it was 6,500 years ago. The study’s authors and the Congressional Committee members will please excuse me if I do not exactly panic over this revelation…especially when the climate’s ECS sensitivity is an uncertain issue and the logarithmic effect of CO2 on temperatures is taken into consideration.

    Whatever it is that motivates this kind of behavior from academia and the politicians in Congress, they are making fools of themselves in the mind of people like me. Fit them all for clown suits. God help us if Biden wins in November.

    • More fake math. There is no way to determine the average global temperature the tenth digit from 6500 years ago. Since most of the 20th and 21st centuries much of the temperature data has a reading uncertainty of +/- 0.5degF (and much of the early 20th century has an uncertainty of +/- 1 degF there is no way to come to a global climate temperature to the tenth of a degree.

      First year engineering students are taught the application of significant digits It is so disheartening to know that even PhD scientists today have no concept of significant digits. 2 + 2 does not equal 4.0!

      • All interglacials peak in their middle so far as temperature goes.

        We are cooling folks, for how long even kim doesn’t know.

    • Every other study has concluded that the Holocene Optimum was 3 to 5C warmer than it is today.
      This can be shown by tree lines that were miles poleward and hundreds of meters higher than they are today.

  22. The whole CAGW EDIFICE rests on ignoring the Thermodynamic Laws. Therein lies the route to disaster.

  23. “And so, as the select committee report illustrates in the starkest possible terms, if you want serious policy to address urgent national problems, there’s only one party offering it.”

    and that would be the GOP … since AGW is not a real national problem …

  24. “People were eager to share their views on how to solve the climate crisis.”

    FIFY: “People were eager to share their views on how to bring about the Glorious Peoples Revolution.”

  25. From the report:

    “The costs of wind and solar energy have fallen dramatically, but some of the lowest cost resources are located far away from population centers. Moreover, much higher penetrations of variable-output
    renewable energy sources can be reliably integrated when the grid is able to draw from resources
    across wide geographic areas on an hour-to-hour basis”

    Huh? Do the committee members think the wind blows somewhere in the US when the sun is on the other side of the earth? Did the committee not even bother to ask a 6th grader to review the report?

    “To meet its climate goals, the country needs to build cross-state High Voltage Direct Current
    (HVDC) transmission lines to significantly ramp up renewable electricity generation. ”

    Ask any second year electrical engineering student if this can be done. Resistance losses are based on current. It doesn’t matter if the current is DC or AC. The higher the voltage the less the current has to be for the same level of power transmission. HVDC has *huge* engineering problems. Consider: how do you convert 28vdc from a solar panel to 10Kvdc to compete with 10KVdc? I know of no simple way to do this. Yet it is what would have to be done to get HVDC to compete with high voltage AC. AC can be converted from low voltage to high voltage simply by using transformers. Not so with DC.

    Did the committee ask *any* electrical engineers how to accomplish this? I would love to know how they create HVDC and manage interconnections between systems where the voltage needs to be equal or bad things will happen.

    “To bend the emissions curve more quickly, federal policy needs to focus on expediting deployment of zero-emission vehicles and fueling infrastructure; making gasoline-powered vehicles as clean as
    possible by setting strong pollution standards; and pursuing lower-carbon liquid fuels as alternatives to gasoline as vehicles transition to zero-carbon options.”

    Not a specific proposal provided on how to do any of this, not one. It’s nothing more than a wish, not an implementable policy provision.

    “However, states and territories currently lack the explicit authority to require that telecommunications companies deploy and maintain wireless infrastructure to be resilient to wildfires and other natural hazards.”

    How do you make a cell site that might be isolated for literally weeks by resilent to wildfires and other natural hazards”? Sooner or later the batteries run down! Did this committee talk to ANY kind of an engineer?

    These are just a few that I picked out. The impossibility of the most of the proposals in this report is endemic. It’s as if not a single engineer sat on the committee or was used as a resource to review the report!

    • See Michael Moore’s ‘Planet of the Humans’ for a partial explanation that is greed; more explanation is from CO2 phobia and a madness of the crowd.

      Horrible power density and intermittentcy are insoluble problems, so far, for wind and solar energy.

      These renewables cannot be dispatched economically.
      It’s that simple.

    • How do you convert low voltage DC (BTW, industrial solar panels start at around 400VDC) to high voltage DC?

      Inverters. That problem was solved generations ago.

      They don’t directly interconnect HVDC lines.

      “However, states and territories currently lack the explicit authority to require that telecommunications companies deploy and maintain wireless infrastructure to be resilient to wildfires and other natural hazards.”

      You don’t have to work for the government to know that you need to protect your assets.

      “Sooner or later the batteries run down!”

      They are either connected directly to the grid, or they have solar panels.

      • Mark,

        Inverters? Inverters that convert 400vdc to 10kvdc? Remember, 10kvdc is a *minimum* voltage for feeder transmission lines. Many cross-country transmission lines carry 345kvac.

        Can you provide a link where you can buy a 400vdc inverter to 10kvdc or 345kvdc? I can’t find any.

        The most obvious way would be to use the 400dc to run a dc motor which in turn turns an AC generator so you can use transformers to increase the voltage up to 10kvac or 345kvac. Then you would have to rectify the AC to get back to DC. A highly inefficient operation!

        And what do you mean you don’t interconnect HVDC lines? What good are they then? Do you have to convert the lines back to AC in order to interconnect with the grid? Another highly inefficient proposition!

        How do you protect assets in the middle of a wildfire? What good are solar panels when the forest fire can have flames up to 150ft high with temperatures of 2000degF? The panels will warp and melt into useless globs. Do you *really* believe that grid power can survive temps of 2000degF?

        It’s not obvious that you have the knowledge base to discuss these issues.

    • “Did the committee ask *any* electrical engineers how to accomplish this? I would love to know how they create HVDC and manage interconnections between systems where the voltage needs to be equal or bad things will happen.”

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      (Redirected from HVDC)
      Jump to navigationJump to search

      Long distance HVDC lines carrying hydroelectricity from Canada’s Nelson River to this converter station where it is converted to AC for use in southern Manitoba’s grid
      A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway)[1][2][3] uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems.[4] For long-distance transmission, HVDC systems may be less expensive and have lower electrical losses. For underwater power cables, HVDC avoids the heavy currents required to charge and discharge the cable capacitance each cycle. For shorter distances, the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may still be justified, due to other benefits of direct current links.

      • from your link:

        “The disadvantages of HVDC are in conversion, switching, control, availability, and maintenance.

        HVDC is less reliable and has lower availability than alternating current (AC) systems, mainly due to the extra conversion equipment. Single-pole systems have availability of about 98.5%, with about a third of the downtime unscheduled due to faults. Fault-tolerant bipole systems provide high availability for 50% of the link capacity, but availability of the full capacity is about 97% to 98%.[30]

        The required converter stations are expensive and have limited overload capacity. At smaller transmission distances, the losses in the converter stations may be bigger than in an AC transmission line for the same distance.[31] The cost of the converters may not be offset by reductions in line construction cost and lower line loss.

        Operating an HVDC scheme requires many spare parts to be kept, often exclusively for one system, as HVDC systems are less standardized than AC systems and technology changes faster.

        In contrast to AC systems, realizing multi-terminal systems is complex (especially with line commutated converters), as is expanding existing schemes to multi-terminal systems. Controlling power flow in a multi-terminal DC system requires good communication between all the terminals; power flow must be actively regulated by the converter control system instead of relying on the inherent impedance and phase angle properties of an AC transmission line.[32] Multi-terminal systems are rare. ”


        Thee *is* a reason why HVDC systems have never been popular for providing energy for customers spread over a large geographical area. That is not likely to change any time in the future.

        Nor does this article go into sufficient detail about the conversion equipment. For instance, it talks about using series rectifiers to convert from AC to DC. The more rectifiers you have the more losses you incur from internal resistance. At very high voltages it can cost you enough heat loss to require expensive cooling techniques, up to and including water cooling. This would add tremendous cost and expense at each conversion point.

        My point remains, HVDC for cross-state electricity transmission will never be cost-effective. Any engineer should be able to tell you that. Even the article you reference says “At smaller transmission distances, the losses in the converter stations may be bigger than in an AC transmission line for the same distance.[31] The cost of the converters may not be offset by reductions in line construction cost and lower line loss.”

  26. This has NOTHING to do with climate and everything to do with totalitarian control as so many are now correctly pointing out.
    As I’ve long been saying we are at the abyss of war with these control freaks. It just isn’t the kind we’ve been used to. Get ready!

  27. Behind the pillars are the following ulterior motives:

    1) Get taxpayers (and ratepayers) to pay for the transmission line upgrades that wind project developers are counting on for remote wind projects with line upgrades to nowhere
    2) Drive innovation and deployment with federal spending on all the fake, politically connected startups that thrived during the Obama years including Solyndra
    3) Buy votes in the Midwest with promises of domestic (union) green manufacturing
    4) Give money to minority startup companies because they claim to have a better green mousetrap
    5) Keep union votes
    6) Dole out money to the big urban centers and AOC’s district
    7) Return to EPA’s asthma playbook to play god with industry shakedown and kill off ICE vehicles
    8) Placate farmers with ethanol and other payoffs
    9) Subsidize waterfront development and pay for the the NYC subway upgrades
    10) Shut down all activity on Federal lands and kill the offshore oil industry and all prospects domestically according to Sierra Club dictates and kill all pipeline projects
    11) Take money from national security to spread around other programs and vote buying efforts while China expands to a global military threat and Russia and NK and Iran modernize weapon systems (Their game of Risk is working well with proxy states and first strike weapon capabilities.)
    12) Reward institutions for their part in the Climate Crusades with Federal money

  28. The trillions of dollars that governments have already spend has not done anything to reduce global CO2 emissions, but have increased CO2 emission
    by encourage business to go to China, making China emit the most amount of CO2. And supports Chinese government deprive people of freedom. And release a virus which killed 1/2 million people.
    Another significant things was policy of using biofuels- which mostly burning down forests. And solar energy and wind energy don’t work and there mere existence is destroying the environment. Cost huge amount of money, don’t work, and operation destroys environment. They are expensive misery and poverty machines.
    We in Ice Age and have been for millions of years and will continue to be in Ice Age. And whole idea is to stop warming of Ice Age, which isn’t occurring, but what governments policy does is not stop warming of Ice Age. But even if one stop warming of Ice Age, it’s obviously better to be warming when in an Ice Age.
    The advantage for politicans is they distract from important issues, and not be held accountable for their continuous failure of their policies of changing climate.
    It’s effectively a war against to people they govern.

    • Catastrophic alarmism is an economic war against the poor, an evil exercise in gaining power, a travesty against science, a failure of communication in an age of information, and a pathological disease in the body politic.

      • Also the Public failing to learn anything in elementary school.

        Also the climate skeptics failing understand global climate. And confusing it with weather.
        And Accepting the cargo cult religion of the “Greenhouse Effect theory”
        who probably don’t know who the author of this theory is. And treat it as the word of God.

        We are living in what is called a global Icehouse climate.
        I like the term, icebox climate. Or if want to clearer I could use another word for icebox, refrigerator. Or we living in a refrigerator climate. Earth has another extreme climate condition called the Hothouse climate. Hothouse is another word for greenhouse. Hothouses/greenhouses can allow one tropical plants in the frigid UK.
        So in hothouse climate world one could grow tropical plants outside of the Tropics. One might be able to grow tropical plants UK {without a greenhouse] but one should able to orange trees in UK, and might be able to grow orange trees in Germany.
        Such global hothouse climate were quite literally different a world than modern world- not just warmer but transformed by plate tectonic to appear only vaguely similar to our present world. We can’t have a hothouse climate because we are in a different world, an icebox climate world- a world which is being refrigerated.
        So if people understood this they would be so fixated varying sunlight having something to do with global climate. Certainly it should effect weather, though. And all global warming everyone is talking about is mostly weather. And all about the atmosphere.
        Global climate is all about the Ocean. And we have a cold ocean: average temperature: 3.5 C {strangely about same temperature as where keep lettuce in your ice box}.
        So icebox or icehouse global climate has a cold ocean.
        A hothouse global climate has a fairly warm ocean, say around 15 C or warmer.
        The recent dog that ate the global climate homework, is the heat was “lost in the ocean”. And it’s presently commonly said that 90% of “global warming” warms the ocean. {But more correct to say warms the cold ocean.} And then cargo believers go on explain how terrifying warming this cold ocean would be. Quite amazingly stupid.
        Anyhow, their “greenhouse gases” aren’t warming the ocean.

        • Nobody knows if the deep oceans and thus the planet is warming or cooling.

          • It appears to me, the ocean has cooled by at most .5 C over the last 5000 years and a significant portion of .5 C cooling occurred during the Little Ice Age from 1350 to 1850 AD and since end of Little Ice Age the entire ocean warmed by .1 to .2 C. Or in terms global climate we are still recovering from the Little Ice Age. Sea levels since end of LIA have risen about 8 inches and about 2″ of the 8″ is due thermal expansion of the warming ocean.
            Plus the unexplored aspect of our deep ocean, is being addressed and we are finding out more about it- but one can still say that it remains largely unexplored. I think one exciting place to explore and it seems efforts are being made to do this is arctic mediterranean.
            Say, as an example:
            “The speculations about the driving forces behind the oceanic meridional circulation and the importance of the northward transports of oceanic heat for the ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean have a long history, but only after the Fram expedition 1893-1896 and from the studies by Nansen, Helland-Hansen and Sandström in the early 1900s did these speculations attain observational substance. In the late 1970s and onward these questions have again risen to prominence. A study of deep convection in the Greenland Sea, then assumed to drive the global thermohaline circulation, started with the Greenland Sea Project (GSP), while the investigation of the exchanges of volume and heat through Fram Strait had a more hesitant start in the Fram Strait Project (FSP). Not until 1997 with the EC project VEINS (Variation of Exchanges in the Northern Seas) was a mooring array deployed across Fram Strait. ”

        • Nobody knows if the deep oceans and thus the planet are warming or cooling.

  29. More from the report:

    ” According to the International Energy Agency, annual worldwide investment in
    carbon-free and low-carbon energy has stalled in recent years but will need to more than double its
    current level by 2030 in order to meet emissions reductions goals aligned with the Paris Agreement.620
    Public RD&D funding, along with new support initiatives, will need to drive this major investment in
    clean energy deployment. Because of the long runway for clean tech commercialization, it is
    important to ramp up research now, so the new technologies needed for deep decarbonization will be
    market-ready as soon as possible and not later than midcentury”

    Huh? This is a conflation of research and deployment investment. Public RD&D doesn’t drive capital invested in deployment, costs drive capital invested in deployment. World-wide investment in “clean” energy has gone down because of 1. very little new innovation has been identified by research, and 2. costs for “clean” energy deployment is high, very high.

    If the Democrats *really* want to spur investment in clean energy deployment then GO NUCLEAR! Why are the Democrats so dead set against nuclear?

  30. Where do you get the raw materials to make all these renewable generators and electric vehicles?
    Is there enough lithium accessible in the world?
    Who gets first shout for these raw materials?
    How do you make all these renewable generators without using fossil fuel?
    How do you educate all the workers who are going to get these high paying jobs? (I don’t think gender or media studies are a good start.)
    How do you pay these workers while they are being re-educated?
    What do you do with those who don’t want to work?
    How do you persuade the Chinese and Indians to follow your example?
    Is it all necessary anyway?

    • The report says the government has to invest more in finding these essential ingredients in America? Huh? How do you find what doesn’t exist?

      It also says the government needs to incentivize finding alternative ingredients. One more pie-in-the-sky pipedream!

  31. from pg 269 of the report:

    “Building Block: Support the Construction, Expansion, or Retooling of U.S. Automobile
    Manufacturing Facilities”

    This building block addresses getting more electric vehicles into production. Yet not one single mention of the costs or methods for handling the salvage products from the electric vehicle batteries. Once again, it is apparent that not one single engineer either sat in on the committee or reviewed the report. It is a wish list for politicians that have no real understanding of reality.

    • Tim
      “Those who can do, do…” Those who can’t even teach teachers become politicians.

  32. We can ridicule, run down these proposals and the people and ask questions that we know have no answer. We need to realize that these people are serious and dangerous. If Biden wins he will carry a lot of Senators and Representatives with him perhaps allowing the Democrats to control the legislative branch. This will allow a lot of these policies to be put into place.

    Rather than talk we need to act – get involved in your area. Write editorials to your local paper. Talk to your friends and neighbors. Use facts and be reasonable.

  33. the “climate” is a set of statistics, it is not some force and has NO power, any set of stats based on constantly changing stats will always constantly change = climate change is the 100% natural fact about a set of ever changing stats…….

  34. The real existential threat is outlined in pillars. It’s also an IQ test of how things really work in vote buying and resource redistribution at the congressional level. This select committee is alike a proxy state in Middle East wars.

  35. Only 12 Pillars?

    My late father joined the, then new Royal Air Force, at the same time as TE Lawrence (aka Shaw) in 1920/21 at RAF Uxbridge and shared his early training. T.E.L is renowned for his SEVEN pillars of Wisdom, whichI read all those years ago – and AOC doesn’t come close. For her, I have no time.

    But please, dear readers, allow me to blow your minds, as mine was, nearly 50 years ago, by the words of T.E.L: they have a certain resonance that I am still trying to work through (especially the worms!):

    I loved you, so I drew these tides of
    Men into my hands
    And wrote my will across the
    Sky in stars
    To earn you freedom, the seven
    Pillared worthy house,
    That your eyes might be
    Shining for me
    When I came

    Death seemed my servant on the
    Road, ’til we were near
    And saw you waiting:
    When you smiled and in sorrowful
    Envy he outran me
    And took you apart:
    Into his quietness

    Love, the way-weary, groped to your body,
    Our brief wage
    Ours for the moment
    Before Earth’s soft hand explored your shape
    And the blind
    Worms grew fat upon
    Your substance

    Men prayed me that I set our work,
    The inviolate house,
    As a memory of you
    But for fit monument I shattered it,
    Unfinished: and now
    The little things creep out to patch
    Themselves hovels
    In the marred shadow

    Of your gift.

    Thank you for your time. Would that the likes of AOC could rise to such realms of poetry and consciousness.

    • Harry, T.E.Lawrence was reputed to have read every book in the history library in Oxford. Can’t find a link.

  36. Detailed and elaborate plans are the ones most likely to fail. This one from the Democrats is no exception.
    “The best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men
    Gang aft agley,” Robert Burns.

  37. Detailed and Elaborate Plans are the ones most likely to fail. This one from the Democrats is no exception.
    “The best-laid schemes o’ mice an’ men
    Gang aft agley,” Robert Burns.

  38. From the article: “It’s got pillars, twelve of them

    Invest in infrastructure to build a just, equitable, and resilient clean energy economy.

    Drive innovation and deployment of clean energy and deep decarbonization technologies.

    Transform US industry and expand domestic manufacturing of clean energy and zero-emission technologies.

    Break down barriers for clean energy technologies.

    Invest in America’s workers and build a fairer economy.

    Invest in disproportionately exposed communities to cut pollution and advance environmental justice.

    Improve public health and manage climate risks to health infrastructure.

    Invest in American agriculture for climate solutions.

    Make US communities more resilient to the impacts of climate change.

    Protect and restore America’s lands, waters, ocean, and wildlife.

    Confront climate risks to America’s national security and restore America’s leadership on the international stage.

    Strengthen America’s core institutions to facilitate climate action.”

    The Democrat plan is just a bunch of platitudes. They should have thrown “World Peace” in there wilh all their other ambiguous “pillars”.

    Radical Democrats = Worthless

    • Nowhere in the document is any specific, actionable proposal made let alone any real cost estimates. No analysis of possible unintended consequences exists anywhere in the document.

      An example is (paraphrased): get more blacks into farming. Do so by buying their land and equipment for them!

      Yeah, like that isn’t going to have all kinds of unintended consequences when they fail!

      You want more black farmers? Then get them into FFA (Future Farmers of America) or 4H when they are young so they learn from the ground up. Good luck. You’ll probably have the exact same result I had two decades ago trying to recruit blacks into the Boy Scouts! Black culture today, at least for the most part, isn’t oriented toward rural living at all let alone the outdoor life. You can cry racism all you want but it is the truth!

  39. From the party that brought us the civil war, the Klan, Jim Crow, and segregation. I can’t wait.

  40. Here is something to consider:

    “A recent analysis published in Nature found cattle to be one of the major drivers of water shortages. Notably, it is because of water used to grow crops that are fed to cows such as alfalfa and hay. Across the US, cattle-feed crops, which end up as beef and dairy products, account for 23% of all water consumption, according to the report. In the Colorado River Basin, it is over half.”

    Another pillar

  41. The Green New Deal is just a remake and expansion of Obama’s Green Deal that wasted a few $billion on solar
    “,,, Solyndra LLC, a solar panel maker that received $535 million in federal loan guarantees, filed for bankruptcy,,,” How many low information democrat voters ever heard about THAT, and even those that recall something about it understand that miss allocated capital hurts everyone. $Trillion’s of defaulted guaranteed federal loans will make the 2008 economy look like the good old days.

  42. “Climate Champion Jay Inslee”

    HA! HAHA!

    Sputter! COUGH!

  43. So much bureaucrat-speak, so little specifics . . . and someone referred to this as a “detailed” climate action plan? Really?

    Here are the “action words” from the twelve pillars of the plan, as listed in the above article:
    1. Invest
    2. Drive
    3. Transform
    4. Break down
    5. Invest
    6. Invest
    7. Improve
    8. Invest
    9. Make
    10. Protect and restore
    11. Confront
    12. Strengthen

    So much ambition . . . so little thought as to how the accomplish such in practice, especially regarding that call to “invest”. Funny, that.

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