Global Warming not to blame for toad extinction

From a Columbia University press release, here’s a case where the early speculation of science was wrong. Originally global warming was blamed, but it turns out to be El Niño helping along an already established pathogen.

El Niño and a pathogen killed Costa Rican toad, study finds

Challenges evidence that global warming was the cause

The Monteverde golden  toad disappeared from Costa Rica Pacific coastal forest in the late  1980s

The Monteverde golden toad disappeared from Costa Rica Pacific coastal forest in the late 1980s. Credit: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Scientists broadly agree that global warming may threaten the survival of many plant and animal species; but global warming did not kill the Monteverde golden toad, an often cited example of climate-triggered extinction, says a new study.  The toad vanished from Costa Rica’s Pacific coastal-mountain cloud forest in the late 1980s, the apparent victim of a pathogen outbreak that has wiped out dozens of other amphibians in the Americas. Many researchers have linked outbreaks of the deadly chytrid fungus to climate change, but the new study asserts that the weather patterns, at Monteverde at least, were not out of the ordinary.

The role that climate change played in the toad’s demise has been fiercely debated in recent years. The new paper, in the March 1 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is the latest to weigh in. In the study, researchers used old-growth trees from the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve to reconstruct moisture levels in that region over the last century. They expected to see global warming manifested in the form of a long-term warming or drying trend, but instead discovered that the forest’s dry spells closely tracked El Niño, the periodic and natural warming of waters off South America that brings drought to some places and added rainfall and snow to others.

The golden toad vanished after an exceptionally dry season following the 1986-1987 El Niño, probably not long after the chytrid fungus was introduced. Scientists speculate that dry conditions caused the toads to congregate in a small number of puddles to reproduce, prompting the disease to spread rapidly. Some have linked the dry spell to global warming, arguing that warmer temperatures allowed the chytrid pathogen to flourish and weakened the toad’s defenses. The new study finds that Monteverde was the driest it’s been in a hundred years following the 1986-1987 El Niño, but that those dry conditions were still within the range of normal climate variability. The study does not address amphibian declines elsewhere, nor do the authors suggest that global warming is not a serious threat to biodiversity.

“There’s no comfort in knowing that the golden toad’s extinction was the result of El Niño and an introduced pathogen, because climate change will no doubt play a role in future extinctions,” said study lead author Kevin Anchukaitis, a climate scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Average global temperatures have climbed about 0.8 degrees (1.4 degrees F) in the past hundred years, and some studies suggest that mountain regions are warming even more. In search of favorable conditions, alpine plants and animals are creeping to higher altitudes—not always with success.

Researcher Kevin  Anchukaitis sampled nearly 30 old trees in the Monteverde cloud forest  before finding two whose climate data could be extracted.
Researcher Kevin Anchukaitis sampled nearly 30 old trees in the Monteverde cloud forest before finding two whose climate data could be extracted.

Credit: Jorge Porras.

In a 2006 paper in Nature, a team of U.S. and Latin American scientists linked rising tropical temperatures to the disappearance of 64 amphibian species in Central and South America. They proposed that warmer temperatures, associated with greater cloud cover, had led to cooler days and warmer nights, creating conditions that allowed the chytrid fungus to grow and spread. The fungus kills frogs and toads by releasing poison and attacking their skin and teeth.  “Disease is the bullet killing frogs, but climate change is pulling the trigger,” the lead author of the Nature study and a research scientist at the Monteverde reserve, J. Alan Pounds, said at the time.

The new study in PNAS suggests that it was El Niño—not climate change—that caused the fungus to thrive, killing the golden toad. “El Niño pulled the trigger,” said Anchukaitis.

Proving a link between climate change and biodiversity loss is difficult because so many overlapping factors may be at play, including habitat destruction, introduction of disease, pollution and normal weather variability. This is especially true in the tropics, because written weather records may go back only a few decades, preventing researchers from spotting long-term trends.

In the last decade, scientists have improved techniques for reconstructing past climate from tiny samples of wood drilled from tropical trees. Unlike trees in northern latitudes, tropical trees may grow year round, and often do not form the sharply defined growth rings that help scientists differentiate wet years from dry years in many temperate-region species. But even in the tropics, weather can leave an imprint on growing trees. During the dry season, trees take up water with more of the heavy isotope, oxygen-18, than oxygen-16. By analyzing the isotope ratio of the tree’s wood, scientists can reconstruct the periods of rainfall and relative humidity throughout its life.

On two field trips to Costa Rica, Anchukaitis sampled nearly 30 trees, looking for specimens old enough, and with enough annual growth, to be studied. Back in the lab, he and study co-author Michael Evans, a climate scientist at University of Maryland, analyzed thousands of samples of wood trimmed to the size of pencil shavings.

Their results are only the latest challenge to the theory that climate change is driving the deadly chytrid outbreaks in the Americas. In a 2008 paper in the journal PLoS Biology, University of Maryland biologist Karen Lips mapped the loss of harlequin frogs from Costa Rica to Panama. She found that their decline followed the step-by-step pattern of an emerging infectious disease, affecting frogs in the mountains but not the lowlands. Had the outbreak been climate-induced, she said, the decline should have moved up and down the mountains over time.

Reached by e-mail, Pounds said he disagreed with the PNAS study. He said that his own 40-year rainfall and mist-cover measurements at Monteverde show a drying trend that the authors missed because they were unable to analyze moisture variations day to day or week to week. The weather is becoming more variable and extreme, he added, favoring some pathogens and making some animals more susceptible to disease.

“Anyone paying close attention to living systems in the wild is aware that our planet is in serious trouble,” he said.  “It’s just a matter of time before this becomes painfully obvious to everyone.”

Scientists think climate change may drive plants and animals to extinction by changing their habitats too quickly for them to adapt, shrinking water supplies, or by providing optimal conditions for diseases. Researchers have established links between population declines and global warming, from sea-ice dependent Adélie and emperor penguins, to corals threatened by ocean acidification and warming sea temperatures.

Warming ocean temperatures are likely to have some effect on El Niño, but scientists are still unsure what they will be, said Henry Diaz, an El Niño expert at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency. He said the paper offers strong evidence that climate change was not a factor in the El Niño dry season that coincided with the golden toad’s extinction. “Climate change is best visualized as large-scale averages,” he said. “Getting down to specific regions, Costa Rica, or the Monteverde cloud forest, it’s hard to ascribe extinctions to climate change.”

That does not mean humans are off the hook, said Evans. “Extinctions happen for reasons that are independent of human-caused climate change, but that does not mean human-caused climate change can’t cause extinctions,” he said.

Advertisements

  Subscribe  
newest oldest most voted
Notify of
pat

I might be a bit out of line here, but does anyone who has learned the fallacy of Lamarckian theory, really believe that temperature had any thing to do with amphibian morphology?

Mike McMIllan

And the world is a safer place for its demise.
Costa Rica has a booming eco-tourist industry, wherein eco-tourists hurry down to CR to tramp through the last pristine unspoiled jungle before it’s spoiled by eco-tourists.

RIP IPCC

Toad-gate!

brc

That’s one less in the list of 30,000 species to be extinct from AGW

John F. Hultquist

I enjoy these sorts of reports. They are interesting, informative about natural systems, and about how scientists operate. Good stuff.
However, along with the study we find folks tripping over their tongues making statements that go well beyond what is known. The man disagreeing with the results says that our planet is in serious trouble referring to living systems in the wild. One supposes he is thinking about warming issues but that is not clear here. On supposes he is thinking of CAGW but that isn’t made clear either.
My question to him is – When haven’t the ‘living systems’ of Earth been ‘in serious trouble? Has there been a golden age I haven’t heard about?

savethesharks

“There’s no comfort in knowing that the golden toad’s extinction was the result of El Niño and an introduced pathogen, because climate change will no doubt play a role in future extinctions,” said study lead author Kevin Anchukaitis, a climate scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.”
Again….circular reasoning at its best.
It is almost laughable.
Is there a pathogen affecting their brains….when they determine….”no, not climate change [whatever the hell that is], but yes, el nino”….yet in the end they still come back to roost in their politically expedient “climate change” nest?
WTF?
Politically-funded, group-think-motivated statements at their worst.
Chris
Norfolk, VA, USA

Layne Blanchard

Well, we created a HAIL of bullets that took out the bison….

“There’s no comfort in knowing that the golden toad’s extinction was the result of El Niño and an introduced pathogen, because climate change will no doubt play a role in future extinctions.”
There is no comfort in discovery of the facts, because wild conjecture is still out there. Amazing. What next? There is no comfort in knowing the earth revolves around the sun, because next week their positions could switch?
“Extinctions happen for reasons that are independent of human-caused climate change, but that does not mean human-caused climate change can’t cause extinctions.”
No, it just means the latter has NEVER BEEN OBSERVED!!! It doesn’t mean that little green men from outer space won’t beam you up and probe you tomorrow; it just means it hasn’t happened yet.
Who pays these people to spew wild conjectures? Who peer-reviews this stuff? Is it the common practice in science today to report not only what you found, but also what you didn’t find but wish you had? When did wishful thinking become a de rigueur aspect of scientific inquiry?

No species will be allowed to fail.
They will all be bailed out. Especially those too big to fail.

jorgekafkazar

“There’s no comfort in knowing that the golden toad’s extinction was the result of El Niño and an introduced pathogen, because climate change will no doubt play a role in future extinctions,” said study lead author Kevin Anchukaitis, a climate scientist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
Pathetic, a man of science bowing to a false god!

jorgekafkazar

“That does not mean humans are off the hook,” said Evans. “Extinctions happen for reasons that are independent of human-caused climate change, but that does not mean human-caused climate change can’t cause extinctions,” he said.
No bow to Gaia, there, just leaving the possibility open.

Jimbo

While Anthony is taking a break some people can find similar toad like stories to try and debunk at http://www.numberwatch.co.uk/warmlist.htm

Dr A Burns

“Scientists broadly agree that global warming may threaten the survival of many plant and animal species”
What rubbish !
How on earth could an average global temperature rise of 0.7 degrees, smaller than other mean temperatures changes in the past 1000 years, smaller than local mean temperature changes, much smaller than day/night and summer/winter changes have any effect of survival of species ?
Who are the scientists who are supposed to “broadly agree” ?

Jimbo

These guys point to natural climate change for the toad’s extinction and then say:

“There’s no comfort in knowing that the golden toad’s extinction was the result of El Niño and an introduced pathogen, because climate change will no doubt play a role in future extinctions,”

They always have to give a nod in the warmist direction to keep funds flowing.

“Extinctions happen for reasons that are independent of human-caused climate change, but that does not mean human-caused climate change can’t cause extinctions,” he said.

Can they give me one example where it is proven that human caused warming has caused an extinction? Human caused warming is hotly under dispute at the moment I thought.

Jimbo

I said:
“Human caused warming is hotly under dispute at the moment I thought.”
pun intended. :o)

Pounds statement:
“Anyone paying close attention to living systems in the wild is aware that our planet is in serious trouble,” he said. “It’s just a matter of time before this becomes painfully obvious to everyone.”
Reminds me of statements like this:
“In ten years all important animal life in the sea will be extinct. Large areas of coastline will have to be evacuated because of the stench of dead fish.” – Paul Ehrlich, Earth Day, 1970
And while the Earth may be headed toward significant change (eventually) the ‘trouble’ may well be from from this rather than the little blip of warming over the past century:
http://jonova.s3.amazonaws.com/graphs/lappi/gisp-last-10000-new.png

ernest williams

The thing I find intresting is the tree ring data that clearly shows el nino and not AGW as the cause of this frogs demise. This reminds me of an artical I read in National Geographic in early 2009 showing tree ring reserch on bristle cone pines in the western US showing that the 20th century was prehaps the wettest sense the 1st century AD… I AM SURE the native americans were all driving SUV’s and causing AGW on a grand scale with their camp fires as causing the dry conditions in the western US and the mass exstinction of several specices of animals and plants. LETS HEAR IT FOR THE EDUCATED FOLKS THAT STILL CAN’T PREFORM BASIC SCIENCE IN A EVEN-HANDED WAY… EF451

Martin Brumby

@Mike D. (22:59:00) :
“Who pays these people to spew wild conjectures?”
Answer:- Taxpayers. (OK, I’m sure you knew.)
Including the millions who will struggle to pay their electricity bills (if they haven’t succumbed to hypothermia) after this “mild” winter. In the UK electricity bills have already doubled in the last five years and are projected by the regulator to increase to £5,000 ($7,500) per family by 2020.
All so we can pay eco-warrior “scientists” to go on jolly holidays in Costa Rica pursuing their hobby and trying to scare us all with half baked AGW eco-drivel.

AdderW

If all species ever to have existed had all survived, how crowded would the earth be?

Lance

Layne Blanchard,

Well, we created a HAIL of bullets that took out the bison….

Actually, I had a bison steak sandwich yesterday.
We knocked their numbers down a bit but they aren’t extinct.
Yummy yes, extinct no.

son of mulder

Meanwhile in Australia
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/8549303.stm
So I conclude that the Monteverde golden toad might or might not be extinct.

mercurior

Researcher Kevin Anchukaitis sampled nearly 30 old trees in the Monteverde cloud forest before finding two whose climate data could be extracted
so out of how many trees did he look to “find” the right facts.
i looked at 1000 trees, and found 1 that proved what i was looking for.. is that true science..

Peter Plail

Thanks, Jimbo, that’s a handy link to “the collected works of globalwarming alarmism”.
Nice to be reminded that only a couple of years ago daffodils were blooming in December in the UK (Winter’s dead and spring should be brought forward, says Kew Gardens – Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-512896/Winters-dead-spring-brought-forward-says-Kew-Gardens.html#ixzz0hTgaMDTU).
I inspected the plants in my garden last week (in NW England), trying to work out which had been killed by the exceptionally low temperatures. I was looking for the swelling of buds on trees and bushes which usually heralds spring. I couldn’t find any evidence, so either spring is going to be pretty late this year or my garden has been turned into a collection of dead sticks.

Peter Plail

One more back garden observation. I also noticed that those autumn leaves which tend to disappear, having been dragged below the surface by worm activity, are still in heaps under the bushes. Still, who can blame earthworms for giving up when they have to fight their way through inches of frozen topsoil.
Are there any naturalists out there who would like to comment on the likely reduction in soil fertility due to declining activity of beneficial soil-dwelling creatures.

The final para in this report, as in so many such reports, has little to do with science or even with reason or logic, but is a creed recited as a reiteration of their own faith. “Man’s not off the hook”, indeed!
There is an almost sado-masochistic urge to both feel and to apportion some sort of guilt and blame by the closet-Marxist ecomentalists to Man for being fortunate enough to be enjoying the temperate gap between ice ages.

GaryPearse

Gee,they they looked at ‘nearly’ 30 trees! (29? 28? maybe within one SD of 30?)And they fcound two!!! This may be a subliminal support for Dr. Mann’s Yamal tree methodology the wood from which was constructed the infamous hockey stick. This is clearly a ploy to step with one foot only away from the AGW fungus. Science will not be redeemed in this fashion. This is shameful toadying.

Peter Plail

Whatever the cause, it’s tough on the toad, but that’s how survival of the fittest works.
What has always worried me, though, is how they know there are no tough old survivors somewhere in the jungle, already breeding a new improved supertoad. It is inconceivable that the researchers have searched the entire area, turned over every stone and dead branch, sufficiently to say that the entire species has disappeared.
As a side issue, I am interested to see that analysis of tropical tree cores is used to produce rainfall/relative humidity proxies. This has always seemed more believable outcome that temperature proxies just by considering the limiting conditions – when there is insufficient moisture plants die, whereas even with extreme temperatures, provided that there is moisture available, plants have inbuild mechanisms for countering the heat.

Does anyone think it would be desirable for every species that ever existed be extant now? Doesn’t change in climate and survival of the fittest facilitate creation of new species?

Jimbo

Peter Plail (00:40:36):
To add to your Daily Mail link see this Independent article of 10 years ago when someone from the CRU said that snowfalls are a thing of the past.
http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/snowfalls-are-now-just-a-thing-of-the-past-724017.html
Here is a link that reminds us of their failed predictions and forecasts linked to AGW.
http://www.c3headlines.com/predictionsforecasts/
That Monteverde golden toad is probably still alive under some shrubs unaware they are extince until found again. If anyone thinks that highly unlikely then remember the pre-historic Coelacanth was thought to be extince for over 65 million years until found alive in the Comoros Islands in 1938.
http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/fish/coelacanth/
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/185239.stm

P Gosselin

When one looks at all the claims made in climate science, the data behind them, the IPCC report and how the climate institutes worked, one can easily say that it was a giant enterprise of fraud.
The Arctic is at its second coldest point this winter.

P Gosselin
Mooloo

Kiwis on this site, and I know a few are, might want to note that to save most of our particular endangered species we need the planet to keep getting warmer.
The Kauri, NZ beech etc all grow much better when it is warm. If we have another little ice age I fear they might not make it.

Neven

The new study in PNAS suggests that it was El Niño—not climate change—that caused the fungus to thrive, killing the golden toad. “El Niño pulled the trigger,” said Anchukaitis.

Ah, El Niño was the trigger. And what was the gun?
And while we’re at it: Can someone please explain how a weaker El Niño and a very inactive sun can still boost temperatures to and above the record temperatures of 1998? Because I really do not understand this.

Interested in another corruption of science? Look up “ozone hole scam” and “cfc off patent ozone hole”. The enviro scientists are for sale.
Here is a good url to start with:
http://wattsupwiththat.com/2009/03/26/galactic-cosmic-rays-may-be-responsible-for-the-antarctic-ozone-hole/

R. de Haan

“Scientists broadly agree that global warming may threaten the survival of many plant and animal species; but global warming did not kill the Monteverde golden toad, an often cited example of climate-triggered extinction, says a new study”.
“The study does not address amphibian declines elsewhere, nor do the authors suggest that global warming is not a serious threat to biodiversity”.
“Average global temperatures have climbed about 0.8 degrees (1.4 degrees F) in the past hundred years, and some studies suggest that mountain regions are warming even more. In search of favorable conditions, alpine plants and animals are creeping to higher altitudes—not always with success”.
All this AGW propaganda over the back of a dead tod!
Temperatures in Costa Rica have not changed at all and drought period has happened before!
That leaves the only probable source for the extinction of the tods that has not been discussed in the article! It’s the scientists themselves.
It is said that the very scientists doing field world in Panama and Costa Rica are responsible for the introduction and spreading of the amphibian killing pathogen during their field expeditions.
Shameless AGW Propaganda, shameless whitewash!

pkj

Do any of these amphibian researchers ever consider the possibility that they themselves are introducing this fungus into the wild toad and frog populations they study? Who else goes to such trouble to check out these out of the way habitats so thoroughly? I’ll bet the scientists use the same camping gear, clothes, and shoes trip after trip, and of course the fungus might live on skin, etc., without causing any harm to humans …

DirkH

Don’t expect a conspiracy here or the need by the researchers to include global warming in their conjecture to “keep funds flowing”. Remember: These are biologists. They have been anti-civilisation for at least 40 years. Ehrlich is biologist. Schneider is. Biologists want pristine wilderness. They don’t want humans. They never want humans.
Actually, the other scientists should distance themselves from them and tell the media to not always say “Scientists say that…” when they mean biologists. Biologists are Luddites by definition.
Apologies to any biologist around here, but you are like that. I know a biologist first hand and she’s as anti technology and Malthusian as can be (while happily having 3 cars in their family).

toyotawhizguy

How to prosper doing “Scientific Research”
Step 1) Identify an anomaly in your field of expertise.
Step 2) Write a research grant proposal. Be sure to include the statement “Suspected to be linked to global warming.”
Step 3) Receive your research grant and funds, proceed with the study.
Step 4) Focus your study on a temperature related phenomenon that can be fueling the anomaly. Look at other possible factors (non-temperature related), but dismiss them or at least minimalize them.
Step 5) Write your report, include the statement “Link to global warming confirmed”
Step 6) Contact the MSM, reporting the conclusions of your study. Ask them to publicize your study (in order to make your name a household word, and to spread the global warming alarmism to the public).
Repeat step 1 through step 6.

David Chappell

What’s always left out of the biodiversity scaremongering is that new species also evolve and the untold number of species we haven’t discovered yet. As AdderW said above, the planet would be awfully crowded if every species that ever lived was still extant – just think of all those Neanderthals competing in the housing market.

Peter Dare

The report states that the chytrid disease was introduced to Monteverde but does not explain how – presumably through some kind of human activity? Has anyone got information about this?

toyotawhizguy

@mercurior (00:36:00) :
“i looked at 1000 trees, and found 1 that proved what i was looking for.. is that true science..”
Perhaps you could travel to Monteverde Costa Rica, look under 1,000 rocks, and under one find a Monteverde golden toad. This type of thing happens quite frequently.
“[According to USFWS Consultations and Habitat Conservation Chief Rick Sayers, once a species is branded extinct, it essentially drops off the agency’s radar screen. It also falls off the endangered species list–if it ever made it there in the first place. “To be honest with you,” says Sayers, “if we’re really convinced that a species is extinct, we don’t make a particularly strong effort to continue looking for it.”]”
Here is a list of a few species that were found alive, long after they were thought to be extinct:
“The Uinta Mountain snail, a Utah species that hadn’t been seen for nearly 60 years, was found in 1998 after an Indiana Jones-style expedition revealed typos in the original discoverer’s field report. After recalculating the missing snail’s dimensions, and moving the search to an entirely different mountain range, the modern-day researchers found what they were looking for.”
“Similarly, a new population of tiny snail darter fish was recently located in a tributary of the Tennessee River.”
“Dr. Stuart Pimm of the University of Tennessee, spent two rain-soaked years in Hawaii scouring the side of Maui’s 10,000-plus-foot Haleakala Crater in search of the elusive po’ouli honeycreeper, first discovered in 1973, later assumed to have gone extinct, and now believed by some experts to be the world’s rarest bird. By the time Pimm and his colleagues packed their bags for the mainland, they had re-found three remaining individuals.”
Source: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1594/is_6_10/ai_57800738/

Roger Knights

brc (22:25:41) :
That’s one less in the list of 30,000 species to be extinct from AGW

Decades ago it was forecast that hundreds or thousands of species would be extinct by now, but those forecasts have fallen flat:
http://wattsupwiththat.com/2010/01/04/where-are-the-corpses/

Baa Humbug

“because climate change will no doubt play a role in future extinctions,” said study lead author Kevin Anchukaitis,”

In other words…”We couldn’t pin it on CC this time but we are sure we can next time”
Well I for one am glad we didn’t kill the little critter. The great George carlins words come to mind “we didn’t kill them all”
Anyway, I’m too busy 3 ironing the cane toads on my property, I can’t be bothered with a little orange critter.

AlanG

And who carried the chytrid fungus around the world to infect toads everywhere? Scientists. Stands to reason.

Geoff Sherrington

Oh logic. Heard in a supermarket, “This shop would be much more popular if it was not so crowded”.
As said above, global warming causes fewer, scattered pools of water where frogs congregate and so are more prone to passing on disease. Contrary logic, would not these puddles be further apart and less likely fo form a vector path?
I agree with the inference above that if there were rising temperatures, the frogs might well compensate by climbing a little higher up the coolness of the mountains. It’s a concept named ‘adaptation’ and it is not uncommon.

Jon

And already one ‘dead’ amphibian species in Australia has been found alive and well:
http://www.smh.com.au/environment/conservation/bell-frog-thought-to-be-on-last-legs-spotted-alive-and-kicking-20100304-plsc.html
How many more will reappear, I wonder?

DJ Meredith

I read:
“Average global temperatures have climbed about 0.8 degrees (1.4 degrees F) in the past hundred years, and some studies suggest that mountain regions are warming even more.”
Is not the reciprocal true, or at least probable, where in the past average global temperatures have fallen about .8 degrees/century in order for temps to be rising now? We know temps have gone up, but we know they’ve gone down. Up, and down. For millenia.
Yet the toads survived? What is their temperature threshold, both high and low?

roger

Peter Plail
I have been looking for an excuse to insinuate a seriously OT post, and your posting together with Anthony’s absence on overdue recuperation has emboldened me to sieze this moment. Moderators… please look away.
During the course of last year’s gripping discussions on extraordinarily serious subjects, there were some contributors who lightened the proceedings with casual observations on the progress or lack of same with regard to their heritage tomato plants.
Intrigued by these peripheral but by no means less interesting digressions, I acquired seeds of various “arctic” species, but unfortunately there were no planting instructions.
I wonder, could the tomatophiles be given discretionary leave to post a recommended planting date?
[Reply: post this on the Open Thread. ~dbs, mod.]

Steves

‘Scientists broadly agree that global warming may threaten the survival of many plant and animal species’
– How many species will Climate Change help to thrive? As in our case,it will increase water provision to more than it will deprive.(A fact that they attempted to hide).

R. de Haan

Layne Blanchard (22:57:19) :
“Well, we created a HAIL of bullets that took out the bison….”
Yest, but we brought them back again!