Washington Winery releases wine called "The Denier"

I received this submission, which is interesting as well as business promoting.  I have no objections, and check out their page on climate.~ctm

Guest post informercial by Tom Davis and Tracey Degraff


We are Tom Davis and Tracey DeGraff – we own a small winery in Blaine, Washington. We’ve had enough with the Global Warming/Climate Change scam. We are fighting back. We came out of the closet three years ago, posting on our new website a message stating that it was our company’s corporate social responsibility to speak out against the eco-hype and stand for honest science. We also confessed that when we started our winery in 2002 – we chose our winery’s name GLM, short for “Glacial Lake Missoula” as a response to Global Warming hype – as method to introduce people to our planet’s real climactic history.

In 2001, on our travels scouting potential vineyards in eastern Washington State, we noticed many bizarre features to the landscape, which we were at a loss to explain – until we soon learned about the floods, discovered by the great geologist, J Harlen Bretz. He called these the “Spokane Floods”, and they were caused by a massive lake impounded by a glacial finger of the giant ice sheet that covered all of Canada, around 18,000 – 13,000 years ago. The ice-dam was where present-day Lake Pend Oreille is, and the city of Sandpoint, ID. The Clark Fork River became impounded by the Purcell Lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and water levels rose to a height of 2000 feet deep at the ice-dam, and 1000 feet deep where Missoula, MT is today – near the eastern extent of the lake.

This prehistoric lake, Glacial Lake Missoula, is a synecdoche for Climate Change: during this period the climate made the rapid y0-yo climactic changes of the Younger Dryas, and then the ice-age ended with the dawning of the Holocene maximum. It produced floods that if they occurred today – would obliterate the city of Spokane, WA and drown Portland, OR, by turning the Willamette Valley into an inland sea.

The waters scoured away some of the beautiful loess soil that had collected on the basalt Columbia plateau over hundreds of thousands of years, leaving islands of soil that are now among the most productive farmlands in the world. This region of eastern Washington was called the Channeled Scablands by Bretz, an amazing region of flood exposed basalt bedrock and islands of loess hills that survived every flood (it happened over eighty times). The flood’s rich sediments were dumped mainly in slack-water lakes that covered the Horse Heaven Hills, Yakima Valley, Columbia Valley and Willamette Valleys – all major wine producing areas today. The floods are the largest terrestrial floods ever known, the first with a flow rate equivalent to ten times the flow of all the rivers of the world. All of this occurred (as far as we know) without human influence.

Map of the Glacial Lake Missoula floods (Tom Davis)

Map of the Glacial Lake Missoula floods (Tom Davis)

J Harlen Bretz was a young PhD graduate in geology from the University of Chicago, and he had been interested in the unusual features of the desert landscape of eastern Washington since 1911. Eastern Washington has many anomalous geological features – huge erratics, hanging valleys, giant plunge pools – all far south of the terminal moraines of the various lobes of the monstrous Cordilleran Ice Sheet. These anomalous features could not be explained by the usual understanding of glaciation. Bretz could see the evidence for a flood all around him, but had no source for such an enormous amount of water.

Another geologist, J.T. Pardee, had also discovered in 1910, that a massive lake had filled the mountains of Western Montana and Idaho. He found massive gravel bars, giant ripples, and ancient shorelines high in these mountains. This massive pre-historic lake was the logical source of the flood waters that scoured Bretz’s Channeled Scablands. Pardee was in the audience for Bretz’s 1927 lecture on his new theory, but unfortunately, he did not talk to Bretz about his potential source for the floods – perhaps from fear of creating controversy. In a textbook example of science by consensus, the main contingent of geologists rejected Bretz’s hypothesis for violating their dogma called Uniformitarianism.

Uniformitarianism is predicated on the very sensible notion that “the present is the key to the past”, that the processes operating in the present – like erosion and sedimentation, also operated in the past – but it dictated that geological changes were always gradual and slow. Perhaps this dogma arose from the necessity to distance modern geology from stories like the biblical Noahic flood, itself part of the previous scientific dogma of Catastrophism.  For violating the uniformitarian dogma, both scientists Bretz (1927) and Pardee (1942) were ridiculed, and their work largely ignored.

Many decades later, a new generation of geologists, led by Victor R. Baker, vindicated Bretz’s and Pardee’s work. Satellite imagery also helped change minds. The moral of this absurd chapter in science is that evidence must guide theory and that science is never settled. In 1979, when he was 96 years old, Bretz was awarded the Penrose Medal from the Geological Society of America – final recognition of his great contribution to science.

The very late acceptance of Bretz’ theory by the geological community, is an important lesson in the annals of science by consensus. To honor the man that bucked consensus and relied solely on empirical evidence to form his brilliant theory – J Harlen Bretz, we released a new Cabernet Sauvignon wine called the Denier. (The wine has won a Double-Gold Award at the 2019 Seattle Wine Awards!)

Computer rendering of the Ice-Dam of Glacial Lake Missoula (Tom Davis)

Computer rendering of the Ice-Dam of Glacial Lake Missoula (Tom Davis)

As for our winery – in 17 years of doing business we haven’t had any horrible push-back from our customers for being global warming Deniers – most people are open-minded, and also appreciate learning a chapter in their State’s geological history that they may not have been taught about, one that also has radically affected wine-growing in most of Washington’s wine regions.

A shocking number of people also know that CO2 is a natural product of winemaking, and that the grapevine requires CO2 to make those grapes. In fact, about 95% of the mass (minus the water) of each grape harvest comes directly from CO2 in the atmosphere. The remaining 5% comes from nutrients in the soil. The Winegrape harvest in Washington State in 2016, was 260,000 tons. Minus the water component of grapes (81%), it means that growers produced 49,400 tons of fruit solids that derived almost entirely from atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Somehow this is the same poisonous gas that will bring about Armageddon.

Yakima Valley Cabernet Sauvignon (Tom Davis)

Yakima Valley Cabernet Sauvignon (Tom Davis)

It has slowly dawned on us that grapevines are mining carbon out of air, which we winemakers are partially releasing back to the atmosphere (through fermentation), and that the wine drinker may sequester this remaining carbon in his/her cellar, before ultimately consuming it. We are all part of the carbon cycle, and it is all possible because of the amazing, benevolent, trace gas – CO2.

For more information on the Glacial Lake Missoula floods: www.glmwine.com, www.hugefloods.com

See our YouTube video (HD) recreating what Glacial Lake Missoula would have looked like:

Purchase the Denier and other GLM wines at: www.vinoshipper.com

108 thoughts on “Washington Winery releases wine called "The Denier"

    • Rather like the idea that we should start sequestering CO2 in our wine cellars. How much would we need to sequester to keep global warming below 1.5 deg C ?

      Nicely written, well-informed piece, by the way. Thanks.

    • I grew up in the Spokane Flood area, in the SE corner of the fabulous Palouse farming region. I’m a beer and whisky drinker, but I think it’s time to expand my palate. Let’s help this story go viral and support them with our wallets!

    • ctm should have mentioned that their ‘climate page’ also includes a huge shout-out to Anthony Watts & WUWT!

  1. That’s OK, ’cause I was working on a new laxative called The Alarmist.
    It works by scaring the crap out of you, especially if you are completely full of (**)it.

  2. Sign me up for a few bottles of denier,great article, and great to see real people not scared of telling it how it is.


  3. Obviously, Uniformitarianism is still alive and well and driving the dreams of the Climate Alarmists and Global Warmistas who see the pre-industrial history of the Earth as one long unbroken period of peace, temperature stability and weather perfection since Creation, only now disturbed by the dreaded CO2 of industry.

  4. What a wonderful company, I wish them well & would like to support them…

    “International shipments are not available at this time.”

    so up to you yanks to ‘drink for the team’ !

  5. Wow, that’s a keeper..Hopefully this whine becomes a “Classic” ! (when they go international)…

  6. At a bar last night,I found an easy way to convert fellow Canadians into “skeptics”…….Just tell them the liberal gooberment is going to ban beer because it contains too much evil co2 ….! : )

  7. Good for you to post this ctm, and congratulations to Tom and Tracey for their wine and geology success. Geologists still utilize Uniformitarianism to assist in geologic interpretations, and this process has been assisted greatly by Plate Tectonics and Satellite Imagery. But fair enough, we geologists need to be cautious about the impact of what we don’t know when trying to solve complex issues. I will try some Denier wine next time I am in Oregon, and think about the Channeled Scablands!

    • There’s a big difference between Uniformitarianism and rejecting observations that don’t fit a paradigm.

      Glacial lake floods don’t violate any principles of Uniformitarianism. They just occurred on a scale, not observed in human history.

      • They’ll be back in a 100,000 yrs or so as predicted by Uniformatarianism! I agree Uniformatarianism is still valid. It got misinterpreted and mischaracterized for debate purposes.There is no need to insist that processes need to be slow even though, for the most part, they are slow. There is nothing slow about a Chixulub type bolide that is estimated to have been 14km in diameter weighing 300-3200giga tons and travelling at 125,000km/hr. Its aftermath was very quick, too. Uniformatarianism says the next one will be also fast!

      • BUT as I learned in geology 101, you aren’t supposed to appeal to any processes that has not been observed currently happening. (This was after plate tectonics, and the Missoula floods had been accepted). Apparently geologists are like the rest of the sheeple, only accepting evidence when their face is smashed in it.

    • Geology Rules! Thanks, guys for showing the initiative to learn something about the real history of the earth and the scope of ‘natural variation.’

  8. It are the alarmist who are the real deniers. Climate has never been stable. CO2 level is dangerously low for life on Earth.

    Let me know when the wine is available in Barcelona (Catalunya).

      • You make a good observation. The grapes are being picked when they are ripe and not based on sugar levels. This is a known problem and there are methods to lower the alcohol content like the spinning cone. Some producers just go with the naturally high alcohol content. For example, the Zinfandel variety loves the California heat and sunshine and can make a wine with 16 to 18% alcohol. Some people call that style a Monster Zin.

        Catalunya is a beautiful place and I was surprised at how close to French the Catalan language was. I had a good time there.

      • I have 32 Cabernet Sauvignons in my spreadsheet and two are 15% and another 14 are 14.5% or higher, so not exceptionally strong for an Australian cabernet. Anything below 14% probably didn’t have a chance to ripen fully and will likely have an unpleasant green capsicum taste.

        I’ve had some of those heroic zinfandels. Amazing!

  9. Sounds like a bold wine, sophisticated, but modestly presenting itself with notes of pear, apple, loess, an earthy undertone, and a no-nonsense nose. A way to say “chill”, Hooman!

    Probably pairs well with apple-smoked cheddar and folded wheat crackers.

    • I have not had a drink in over 17 years, but even then I was not quite so sophistamacated about wine. I used to seek out vintages with a distinct and recognizable wine-like flavor, with notes of fermented grape.

  10. This crap appear in National Society of Professional Engineer Engineering an Climate Change Digest it was submitted by an 81 year old you has never been censured for his remarks. I’ve suggested that he offer his comments here but he refuses so I’ll do offer his slanderous remarks for him. Hid ignorance is stunning.

    Re September 10 post by Gregory :
    (Second of two responses)


    I invite your attention to the attachment labeled “1970s Global Cooling Scare” and Myth #01 of the attachment labeled “Myths re AGW” from which you will learn that the “Scare” was a media event inconsistent with then current scientific understandings. The latter is copied here for your convenience.
    Myth #01 – Global Cooling
    Those who reject the reality of AGW claim that in the 1970s there was a consensus among climate professionals that the Earth would soon be cooling. Solar irradiance was expected to decline and when that happened in the past the Earth cooled. About 10% of climate professionals held that view. See https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/2008BAMS2370.1 Most of the rest understood, as most of us now know, that the greenhouse gas increase would overwhelm the reduction of solar irradiance, and the Earth would warm. I am sure that even those who reject the readily observable reality of AGW know that 10% is not a consensus.

    I have never before heard about the Doran / Zimmermann story but I am very familiar with source, the web site WattsUpWithThat whose claims I have been debunking for years. On about a dozen occasions in the past I have taken the time to research WUWT claims and in every such case they were found to be faulty. Some of them took a lot of time to properly research and the results were always the same, so I no longer waste my time doing that. WUWT is a “dark money” funded denier site that, among other things, “broke” the “Climategate” frame-up which was eventually shown to be a malicious hoax. See Myth #04 on the Myths attachment. I, obviously, being a chemical engineer, have no hands on expertise in this matter so the only bit of “hard” evidence I can offer is this letter from MIT.

    At MIT the fraction of specialists supporting the reality of Anthropogenic Global Warming is 22/23=0.956 (95.6%), not quite 97% but pretty close. The single contrarian, Richard Lindzen, now a Senior Fellow at the Koch family supported Cato Institute, is better known for his habit of smoking while lecturing to demonstrate his disagreement with the conclusion that smoking is harmful to one’s health.

    For whether we can adapt to or design for climate change attention is invited to Myth #05 and Myth #09.

    Submitted 2019/09/13@0950
    Neil Yeoman, PE, FAIChE

    • And Neil Yeoman continues:

      Did you know that Dr. Roy Spencer is associated with organizations that I believe have denied that smoking is a health hazard, that have claimed that the ozone hole was not caused by CFCs, that have suggested that DDT is harmless if ingested by animals larger than insects, and have denied that acid rain is man made. Hardly the right kind of source to cite when trying to convince PEs that just about all the world’s practicing climate scientists are wrong and all the world’s scientific organizations that have taken a position on the matter of ACC are also wrong.

      Submitted 2019/09/13@1015
      Neil Yeoman, PE, FAIChE

      • Guilt by association, appeal to authority and too many other fallacies to be taken seriously. It saddens me that a professional engineer would construct an argue like this and think that it is convincing, but I guess I must be racist.

        I wish that all of the world’s scientific organizations were always right and had not been taken over by activists like so many institutions. I would love that these organizations truly sought to survey their membership and to find out what they actually believe in an accurate and precise manner. That of course would show the 97% fallacy to be wrong.

      • Denying that second hand smoke is hazardous is not the same as denying that smoking itself is hazardous. That’s one of the man lies told by people who are only interested in discrediting those who disagree with them.
        The ozone hole was not caused by CFCs it has always existed.
        DDT is pretty much harmless for anyone who isn’t an insect.
        With only limited exceptions, acid rain never existed.

      • The fact that he seems to genuinely believe that climategate was a hoax just about sums up his credibility.

    • I have never seen Richard Lindzen with a cigarette.
      I suspect that 100% of this is deliberately invented trollery.

  11. Excellent video! The most compelling part (to me) was the music–Roger Sessions’s “Black Maskers” finale, a work by a fine 20th-century American composer, beautifully scored real music! Thanks for that. The glacier holding back all that water and releasing it 80 times is an awesome and formidable image, very credible.

  12. Brilliant, award winning as well lol. Shame that co2 is such a beautiful thing, it can give us green forests, strong crops and wine.. I wonder what Al gore drinks with his 500 dollar steak? Maybe the tears of all the people he has lied to lol

  13. This is an excellent article. I wish I could order some bottles of The Denier!

    I stopped buying New Scientist years ago. I refuse to support a magazine that champions scientific fraud.
    But I do remember reading an article about this. And I remember having the same thought: that, once again, the scientific concensus turned out to be hopelessly wrong. In fact, in virtually every issue of NS there were reports on how one or another scientific concensus had been found to be wrong.

    This is how science should work. Yes, it will get things wrong. But it is usually – and must be – a self correcting process. Everything must be questioned and measured against the evidence and data. Nothing should be sacrosanct – we should leave that to religion.

    And yet these idiots endlessly claim that the scientific concensus on climate change proves they are right. Of course, it does not. I’m confident that science will eventually regain its integrity, that there will eventually be a real debate where sceptics are not afraid to speak out. It will happen. But I’m not holding my breath. I may not see it in my lifetime.
    Meanwhile, here’s to The Denier!

  14. Thanks for highlighting GLW! We are going to be bottling our 2018 Chardonnay and Red Blend this weekend.

    A geologist turned winemaker Doug Jones of LavaCap Winery discussed our foothill areas wine region a few years back- http://www.lavacap.com/files/trade/ed%20grapes2.pdf

    I confirmed, yesterday, that the Camino, CA weather station noted in his article is still up and running.

  15. Don’t you think that real science is much more interesting than ecofairy tales and computer games (aka climate models)?

  16. top marks to the makers for being upfront and truthful
    and it sounds like its a good wine as well
    wish I liked wine, it always sounds yummy, but I rarely find any I can drink and enjoy like your’e meant to.
    I think some of us are just spirits drinkers

  17. Here’s a summary of some geological studies on the Okanogan valley in British Columbia (spelled Okanagan in Washington State) which has been my adopted home for the last 9 years. It is apparent and logical that the Okanogan valley had significant flooding and water release from ice damming during the last ice age. This post by Tom and Tracey got me looking for a scholarly article on the subject.

    Here’s the link I discovered to some ongoing work at UBC on this subject and the linking to the Lake Missoula megafloods. The summary is a single page and is an interesting read. Also included is a picture of McIntyre Bluff, the pinch point location in the Okanagan valley where the ice dam likely existed.


    In a UBC Report by Bud Mortenson published in April 2007 he explained a theory by Robert Young an Assoc. Prof. of Geography and Earth and Environmental Sciences at UBC Okanagan that indicates that a great body of water formed over the Okanagan Valley as a result of melting ice sheets.

    Young’s theory goes even farther, with new evidence suggesting an Ice-Age megaflood that created Washington State’s Channeled Scablands about 15,000 years ago partly originated in south-central British Columbia, not exclusively from Montana as the prevailing theory suggests.

  18. Interesting article from the Daily Telegraph where academics are starting to come out of the closet and fighting against being de-platformed. As has been said many times in this blog younger researchers are afraid to speak out for fear of losing their jobs. Has the worm turned and will we see more people prepared to speak out?
    So far Jordan Peterson and some other brave individuals have spoken out, and have had to resort to legal action to defend their positions.

  19. Great climate change page on their website indeed!

    Too bad the link at the end of this WUWT-article, to their wine shop, doesn’t show the Denier.
    I would love to buy some bottles of it.
    Anyone found a link where it’s possible?

  20. I would think that if you suddenly removed the Hoover Dam the resulting flood from Lake Mead would be a way to visualize this event, although I am not sure of the comparative sizes.

  21. In case you were wondering how he made the Lake Missoula video, I found this digging around in their website.

    All of the images of Lake Missoula were created by Tom Davis using Terragen Classic – Commercial Edition.
    Made by Planetside Software http://www.planetside.co.uk/

    For a philosophy graduate he knows a hell of a lot of Geology, or learned how to do research; a lost art in today’s media.

  22. I received this submission, which is interesting as well as business promoting. I have no objections, and check out their page on climate.~ctm

    Good call, ctm. That was and excellent discussion and video. I doubt if I would have otherwise run across GLM’s site if it hadn’t been posted here.

    This is like the opposite of a Billy Madison. I’m now smarter and better off for having seen Tom and Tracey’s work. So what do we do now, award GLMs for really good stuff and Billy Madisons for the dumb ones?

    • I wonder if the growers have noticed any increase in the output of their vinyard over the years as CO2 increased in the atmosphere?

  23. For more info on the ice age floods, contact the Ice Age Floods Institute (www.iafi.org). They have several chapters located throughout the Pacific Northwest.

  24. I am not a wine person, however my wife and three daughters in law are. I am a geologist and have purchased the two books on geology and it’s effects on wine making and really enjoyed them. I love this article as I am not familiar with the geology discussed in it. Consensus means nothing and science is never settled. I would recommend those interested in climate change to read Peter Wards book “ What Really Causes Global Warming”.
    With regard to Dr Roy Spencer, I have a lot of respect for him, however with regard to some of the statements made about him, I only know of one man who is right all the time and he hasn’t returned yet.

  25. Horse Heaven Hills will now receive irrigation piped from the Columbia River, courtesy of my brother, and he won’t be growing grapes.

  26. Buy a Bottle and share it with you’re “Green New Deal” friends – If you feel inspired ,compelled that ambiance consistent with their world view is a must , add carbonated water ,but don’t pass the gas after imbibing , for one wouldn’t want over sized grapes to harvest .

  27. It seems intuitively obvious that few, if any Church of AGW members have looked at the readily available satelite images of the Earth on the internet. All it takes is to look at how drastically the courses of the rivers have changed over the last few hundred years. The date of these course changes can be roughly determined by the fact that the state boarder line is no longer in the center of the river [or on the shore line depending on where you live] indicating a massive water flow has changed the course of the river. When there is dam upstream, then this course change had to occur before the dam was built. There are more than a few course changes on the rivers used as borders of the states that had to occur After the state was Incorporated, and Before a dam was built upstream. For example, look at Crescent Iowa just east of Omaha, NE which is now on the wrong side of the river. The water flow that did that had to be much worse than any recent flood of the Missouri River, and had to occur before the Gavins Dam was built, 1952 and after Iowa was granted statehood, 1846.

  28. Excellent article which I will copy and forward.

    There’s a screenplay in there somewhere….just imagine….

    Tribe of early native Americans (the good guys) lives in vicinity. Elders tell stories of ancient floods foretold by certain omens. Nobody listens.
    Boy meets girl. They fall in love. Life is good.
    Raiding tribe (the bad guys) shows up, kidnaps girl (boy loses girl) among others, kills many adults.
    Boy and a small group of friends track and pursue raiders. Many difficulties and challenges are overcome.
    Omens start to appear.
    Boy finds and rescues girl and some others, bad guys pursue.
    Huge flood occurs, boy saves girl and bad guys vanquished.
    Boy, girl, and survivors return to their own tribe.
    Life is good again. Boy (now a man) tells stories of floods and omens.

    Feel free to use upon payment of my finder’s fee.

  29. I have lived in both Portland, OR and Spokane, WA. I remember the first time I flew on a puddle jumper turbo prop aircraft to get to either the Tri-Cities in WA or to Spokane from Seattle. Those planes do not fly very high so you can look out windows and clearly see the undulations of water waves in the land. It is very remarkable landscape and geology. That is what first interested me in the geological history of the area.

    Launch a private mode browser window:

    This will bring you to the street level of one of the coolest effects and results of all these flood. Hwy 2 traveling west to east.


    Hopefully this second link will take you to the street view. These two geological markers also describe the Ice damns. Down the street another mile was one of my favorite hiking trails in the area: Mineral Ridge. There is one of the best steak houses close by. This area of CDL is known as Wolf Bay and Wolf Bay Lodge is close by. I used live 45 minutes to the west in Spokane, WA.

    My favorite wines come from WA.

  30. FWIW:
    “Lake Michigan is up six feet since 2013 and rose 15 inches over the past year alone, according to the National Weather Service. The lake last reached this level in 1986 and significantly impacted Lake Shore Drive and Sheridan Road.”
    Go Bears 🙂

  31. I’ve been through the flood area twice, well worth a long trip, but helps to have some guide to see the details. I have a bigger than grapefruit sphere from a “gravel bar” which helps the perspective. Thanks for the article and all the links. Travel through the flood outlet to Missoula also valuable along with all the downstream effects extending even into the current ocean.

  32. This article strikes home to me on several levels –
    – First is helping plant, water, cultivate, and manage my father’s orchard on a glacial moraine (Finley Point) that was once at the bottom of Glacial Lake Missoula.
    – Second is the summer job I had in college just south of Blaine, WA at the Mobile Oil refinery,
    – Third are the years spent working at the Hanford site amongst the flood-water features of central WA.
    The empirical data is what produces deniers.

    • The irony of the fact that he’s a world leader in climate change (the real one) denial would be totally lost on him.

      In other news, I flew into Heathrow yesterday and no one seemed to know anything about the extinction rebellion fiasco that I guessed was going to be a fiasco pre-searching.

      No one I’ve spoken to has had any complaints about the current and projected two-week “heatwave” here in England. Maybe the complainers are hiding under their beds? ….. or in their attics, the ones on the coast?

  33. These guys are heroes. Swimming upstream against consensus to promote objective reality while offering a product that produces a warm rosy glow around that reality when perceived through the misty filter of late evening sips.

  34. I read about this in Graham Hancock’s book, Magicians of the Gods. A book which also threatens the scientific ‘consensus’. I recommend it to anyone with an open mind.

  35. “Glacial Lake Kootenai was formed when the Kootenai River was backed up by the Purcell Lobe. The volume of water backed up eventually “leaked” around the south end of the lobe as it was retreating and water filled in front of the lobe, spilled over the Elmira Spillway and ran into Lake Pend Oreille around 12,000 years ago. This allowed a variety of fish, including white sturgeon, access to the Kootenai River. The fish then became “landlocked” in the river as they cannot move freely to the Columbia River system because of waterfalls on the Kootenai River.

    Eventually the volume of water backed up by the lobe diminishes and Glacial Lake Kootenai goes away. The river then pours into the Kootenai Valley and feeds Glacial Lake Purcell along with glacial melt water. As the lobe retreats northward the lake deepens and continues to fill the valley. Eventually the lobe retreats so far northward that the water in Glacial Lake Purcell empties down the Kootenai River to the Columbia River as it does today. This likely caused a catastrophic flood down the river one last time. What remains is the Kootenay Lake we see today.”

    Carla Burnside
    Refuge Archaeologist
    Princeton, OR


  36. The video says that CO2 did not cause the Holocene warming.

    Not quite true. In reality, CO2 levels got so low, that plants died at high altitude and the Gobi plateau became a CO2 desert. Winds whipped up dust from those new CO2 deserts, and deposited it all over the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. This went on for some 10 kyr, and lowered the albedo of these ice sheets.

    Finally a Great Summer (a Milankovitch Maximum) returned to the northern hemisphere, and the newly darkened ice sheets could absorb that extra energy and melt. And so the ice sheets retreated and the world rapidly warmed into an interglacial.

    So CO2 did cause warming – but it did so by being too low, not too high…!
    See Modulation of Ice Ages by Dust and Albedo.


  37. Bretz fought for his interpretation of the region against WC Alden, who had never visited the region but was highly renowned and found much support for his claims that the features were primarily glacial with perhaps small volumes of water. Bretz first proposed his ideas in 1923 but he did not know a source for the vast quantities of water he hypothesized. JT Pardee had been doing field work to the northeast and had discovered evidence of a large Pleistocene lake in northwestern Montana. According to an account by Bretz in 1974, Pardee had considered bringing up to Bretz in the 1920’s that the drainage from the lake might be the source of the floods, but was persuaded by Alden not to mention it to Bretz.
    Source: The Channeled Scabland: A Guide to the Geomorphology of the Columbia Basin, Washington, Victor Baker, Univ. of Texas, Austin, 1978

    When I was a geology undergrad at Portland State University I went on a grand tour of channeled scabland features led by Larry Price, currently Professor Emeritus of Geography at PSU. He showed us many impressive features, but the one that really drove it home for me was Wallula Gap. I just kept staring at it thinking, ‘This is a choke point.’ It’s over a mile wide!

  38. Why buy this wine — because of a name — that’s BS. You buy wine because it’s a good wine, or good enough for the price.

    Personally I couldn’t care if grapes were crushed by company called Pol Pot’s Slaves, for I know that Pol Pot is long dead just like his followers. It is whether the product is good or bad, and NOT IT’S NAME that matters.

    • You are absolutely right – the name doesn’t mean a thing. I would argue that there is an objective way to know the quality of the red wine that they are buying – and we are the only winery (in the world?) that has this measurement on it’s labels. It is called the Color Index – a measurement of the total phenolics. The higher the number the better the wine, so long as other parameters (pH mainly) are also good. The Denier’s color index is 69 AU – better than your Grand Cru bordeaux. So I would argue that you do have way to know whether the wine is good (or in this case – great) just by looking at the label.


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