Volcanoes Cause Climate Change

Guest post by Steven Goddard

Scientific American recently reported on the dodgy concept that climate change causes volcanoes, when in fact it is quite the opposite.

Wikipedia : An early 19th-century illustration of Krakatoa

In 1883, Krakatoa produced massive amounts of ash during an eruption estimated to the equivalent of 200 megatons – or 13 times larger than the Hydrogen Bomb detonated at Bikini Island.  Average global temperatures dropped by about 1.2°C during the following year as a result of  ash blocking the sun.

File:Sunda strait map v3.png

It has been hypothesized by a volcanologist at Los Alamos, that the Dark Ages were triggered by agricultural collapse following the 535AD eruption of Krakatoa.

Modern history has its origins in the tumultuous 6th and 7th centuries. During this period agricultural failures and the emergence of the plague contributed to: (1) the demise of ancient super cities, old Persia, Indonesian civilizations, the Nasca culture of South America, and southern Arabian civilizations; (2) the schism of the Roman Empire with the conception of many nation states and the re-birth of a united China; and (3) the origin and spread of Islam while Arian Christianity disappeared. In his book, Catastrophe An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World, author David Keys explores history and archaeology to link all of these human upheavals to climate destabilization brought on by a natural catastrophe, with strong evidence from tree-ring and ice-core data that it occurred in 535 AD.

With no supporting evidence for an impact-related event, I worked with Keys to narrow down the possibilities for a volcanic eruption that could affect both hemispheres and bring about several decades of disrupted climate patterns, most notably colder and drier weather in Europe and Asia, where descriptions of months with diminished sun light, persistent cold, and anomalous summer snow falls are recorded in 6th-century written accounts. Writings from China and Indonesia describe rare atmospheric phenomena that possibly point to a volcano in the Indonesian arc. Although radiocarbon dating of eruptions in that part of the world are spotty, there is strong bathymetric and volcanic evidence that Krakatau might have experienced a huge caldera eruption. Accordingly, I encouraged a scientific expedition to be led by Haraldur Sigurdsson to the area.

The expedition found a thick pyroclastic deposit, bracketed by appropriate radiometric dates, that suggests such a caldera collapse of a Proto-Krakatau did occur perhaps in the 6th century. Bathymetry indicates a caldera some 40 to 60 km in diameter that, with collapse below sea level, could have formed the Sunda Straits, separating Java from Sumatra, as suggested by ancient Javanese historical writings. Such a caldera collapse likely involved eruption of several hundred cubic kilometers of pyroclastic debris, several times larger than the 1815 eruption of Tambora. This hypothetical eruption likely involved magma-seawater interaction, as past eruptions of Krakatau document, but on a tremendous scale. Computer simulations of the eruption indicate that the interaction could have produced a plume from 25 to >50 km high, carrying from 50 to 100 km3 of vaporized seawater into the atmosphere. Although most of the vapor condenses and falls out from low altitudes, still large quantities are lofted into the stratosphere, forming ice clouds with super fine (<10 micrometer) hydrovolcanic ash.

Discussions with global climate modelers at Los Alamos National Laboratory led me to preliminary calculations that such a plume of ash and ice crystals could form a significant cloud layer over much of the northern and southern hemispheres. Orders of magnitude larger than previously studied volcanic plumes, its dissipation and impact upon global albedo, the tropopause height, and stratospheric ozone are unknown but certainly within possibilities for climate destabilization lasting years or perhaps several decades. If this volcanic hypothesis is correct, the global, domino-like effects upon epidemics, agriculture, politics, economics, and religion are far-reaching, elevating the potential role of volcanism as a major climate control, and demonstrating the intimate link between human affairs and nature.

More recent volcanic events which lowered global temperatures, were the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo and the 1983 eruption of El Chichón.

http://www.woodfortrees.org/graph/uah/from:1978/plot/rss/from:1978

http://www.woodfortrees.org/graph/uah/from:1978/plot/rss/from:1978

2002 study reported in Science demonstrated that feedback from water vapor in the atmosphere was largely responsible for the 1984 cooling.

Global Cooling After the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo: A Test of Climate Feedback by Water Vapor

Brian J. Soden,1* Richard T. Wetherald,1 Georgiy L. Stenchikov,2 Alan Robock2
The sensitivity of Earth’s climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

The 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora (the largest eruption in modern history) led to the Year Without a Summer in 1816.

Mount Tambora – Wikipedia

The explosion is estimated to have been at scale 7 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index.[17] It had roughly four times the energy of the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. An estimated 160 cubic kilometers (38 cubic miles) of pyroclastic trachyandesite was ejected, weighing approximately 1.4×1014 kg (see above).This has left a caldera measuring 6–7 km (3.7–4.3 mi) across and 600–700 m (2,000–2,300 ft) deep.[2] The density of fallen ash in Makassar was 636 kg/m².[18] Before the explosion, Mount Tambora was approximately 4,300 metres (14,100 ft) high,[2] one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. After the explosion, it now measures only 2,851 metres (9,354 ft).[19]

The 1815 Tambora eruption is the largest observed eruption in recorded history (see Table I, for comparison).[2][4] The explosion was heard 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) away, and ash fell at least 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) away.[2] Pitch darkness was observed as far away as 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the mountain summit for up to two days. Pyroclastic flows spread at least 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the summit.

Mt. St Helens erupted 30 years ago next month.  Like the Icelandic volcanoes, it was covered with thick ice and snow.

Mt. St. Helens prior to the eruption : Britannica Image

Meltwater from the ice and snow contacted the rising magma, leading to a huge amount of steam pressure and a massive explosion on May 18 following the collapse of the north flank.

I was involved in some experimental research around that time, which demonstrated that the amount of ash and the explosivity of volcanoes is primarily dependent on the amount of water which comes in contact with the magma underground.  It can be concluded that the glaciers in Iceland are contributing to the ash, not the other way around – and that volcanoes cause climate change, not the other way around.

Brian J. Soden,1* Richard T. Wetherald,1 Georgiy L. Stenchikov,2 Alan Robock2The sensitivity of Earth’s climate to an external radiative forcing depends critically on the response of water vapor. We use the global cooling and drying of the atmosphere that was observed after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo to test model predictions of the climate feedback from water vapor. Here, we first highlight the success of the model in reproducing the observed drying after the volcanic eruption. Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.

Advertisements

  Subscribe  
newest oldest most voted
Notify of
JohnB

The Daily Mail has a pretty interesting radar photo of 3 craters at the Eyiafjallajokull Volcano that is currently erupting.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1266403/Iceland-volcano-space-The-dramatic-ash-plume-engulfing-Britain-seen-above.html
In particular, this photo of the 3 craters. http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/04/16/article-1266403-0928E978000005DC-548_964x571.jpg

Leon Brozyna

That piece from Scientific American is a clear demonstration that climate change causes concept dyslexia, otherwise known as putting the cart before the horse.
Let’s hope that the big one in Iceland doesn’t blow, else we’ll have more to worry about than some minor air traffic hiccups.

Richard Telford

Contrary to what Goddard has written, there is a clear link between climate and volcanism, at least on Quaternary time-scales. Loading or unloading of the lithosphere by sea-level changes or ice-sheet growth and melting can promote volcanism by altering the stress on magma chambers and conduits to the surface.
See, for example, McGuire et al 1997. Correlation between rate of sea-level change and frequency of explosive volcanism in the Mediterranean. Nature 389, 473-476

pat

Dodgy? LOL. The idea is insane. Scientific American has become The Loony Scientist.
There are other far more serious climatic events associated with volcanoes. it is now hypothesized the Permian Extinction might be one. A huge rift eruption. And scientists are relooking at the North American mammalian extinctions of 40,000 BP.

Adam Gallon

The catastrophic eruption of Mt St Helens on May 18th 1980 (Blimey, was it really that long ago??) has been attributed to an earthquake, causing the bulging north face to collapse and thus releasing pressure on the magma chamber.
What all of these eruptions do show, is that it is cold that kills us, not a steadily warming enviroment!

Dr A Burns

“the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change ”
In other words, positive feedback caused by water vapour causes temperature falls to increase at an accelerating rate; when temperatures rise, positive feedback causes an accelerating rate of increase. Models have conclusively proven we have an unstable climate system. It is amazing how climate still exists.

Does anyone have a list of things climate change doesn’t cause?
It must be getting pretty short.

u.k.(us)

IMHO the reason Mt. St, Helens erupted so explosively, was the sudden collapse of the north flank of the volcano, which instantly depressurised the magma.
I.E. you unscrew the the cap on a warm soda bottle SLOWLY, unless you want to be wearing it.
I’ll bet the same thing happened at Tambora and Krakatoa.

Mike

I am not sure what your point is. The Sc Am article, taken from Reuters, merely pointed out that if certain Icelandic glaciers should melt – from whatever cause – this decrease in pressure could trigger volcanic activity. The potential for volcanic activity is obviously already present.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=ice-cap-thaw-iceland-volcanoes
That volcanoes can cause short term climate change is well known.
http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2006/05/current-volcanic-activity-and-climate/
You claim “that volcanoes cause climate change, not the other way around” is only part true. Yes, volcanoes effect climate, but that is no way negates the observation in the Sc Am article. Lots of other things can cause seismic activity.
http://www.nyx.net/~dcypser/induceq/ris.html
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=geothermal-drilling-earthquakes
BTW, the Science article you cite confirms that general circulation models work pretty well. “These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.” http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/5568/727

More recent volcanic events which lowered global temperatures, were the 1983 eruption of Mount Pinatubo and the 1992 eruption of El Chichón.
The Pinatubo eruption was in June 1991 (I remember it because of a missed a plane from Philippine Airlines due to that event). El Chichon erupted in March/April 1982 according to several sources on the web.

Arun

Is this water vapor feedback described here meant to be distinct from cloud feedback, or not?
Can we expect different magnitudes for different feedback mechanisms, resulting from volcano heat/aerosol forcing as compared to the slow heating by CO2?

Al Gore's Holy Hologram

Yes, the eruption of Krakatoa coincided with a darkening of European skies and regular sightings of yellow snowfall over China and Japan.
As the Roman empire was converted to Christianity at this time, many thought that a day of judgement was near (they also thought this in the year 666 AD) and so anarchy broke out in pockets of the empire, which began to crumble and lose control over their Asian and North African holdings. This allowed the wealthy Arabs of Mecca and Medina to ally themselves with Nabatean Christians to conquer Roman territories under the pretext of freeing people from European rule. As the Arab conquests grew they had to stop calling themselves Christians to disassociate themselves with Europeans and rebranded themselves as Muslims along with creating an origin story for their new movement.
It took a couple of centuries of this climate and political change for Europeans to realise the world was not ending and that they were instead being conquered. But by then the world had changed for the worst and we’re still fighting over this medieval meme a thousand years later.

Peter Miller

Steven
Your comment:
Then, by comparing model simulations with and without water vapor feedback, we demonstrate the importance of the atmospheric drying in amplifying the temperature change and show that, without the strong positive feedback from water vapor, the model is unable to reproduce the observed cooling. These results provide quantitative evidence of the reliability of water vapor feedback in current climate models, which is crucial to their use for global warming projections.
Are you trying to say that at current temperatures water vapour acts as a temperature stabilising mechanism by radiating away heat? That seems to fly in the face of conventional physics.
Jungles on the same latitudes as deserts have much more stable temperatures over any 24 hour period.
Am I misunderstanding something?

kadaka

TallDave (13:54:57) :
Does anyone have a list of things climate change
doesn’t cause?
It must be getting pretty short.

1. Increases in Intelligence
2. Increases in Common Sense
3. Tax cuts
That’s all I have. Anyone else?

Joel Shore

Dr A Burns says:

In other words, positive feedback caused by water vapour causes temperature falls to increase at an accelerating rate; when temperatures rise, positive feedback causes an accelerating rate of increase. Models have conclusively proven we have an unstable climate system. It is amazing how climate still exists.

No, the word is “amplify”. The water vapor roughly doubles the temperature change due to the forcing alone. It is not an instability. And, it is not the models saying this…It is the data. Or, to put it another way, the models only agree well with the empirical data when the feedback is included and not when it is “turned off” in the models.

Jimbo

The Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 1821 lasted 2 years. If it happens again it might cause a little climate change over Western Europe. :o)

Jimbo

The last time Iceland’s Eyjafjallajökull erupted in 1821 it lasted 2 years. If it happens again it might cause a little climate change over Western Europe. :o)
http://icelandreview.com/icelandreview/daily_news/?cat_id=16567&ew_0_a_id=360723

kadaka

Apparently this concept was floated around before. From Nature, published online Sept 17 2009:

Volcanoes stirred by climate change
(…)
But there is definitely some evidence that less ice means more dramatic eruptions. “As thick ice is getting thinner, there may be an increase in the explosivity of eruptions,” says Hugh Tuffen from Lancaster University, UK. Tuffen has spent time in many countries, including Iceland and Chile, studying volcanoes. The effects of climate change over the next 100 years will be different for different volcanoes, he says, and much more data are needed if we are to understand what those effects might be. But such data are not trivial to collect: volcanoes are isolated, dangerous places for field trips.
Data deficiencies
For example, in Iceland at the end of the last deglaciation period, about 11,000 years ago, there was a huge spike in volcanic activity that is now thought to be due to meltwater flooding the area. In Icelandic volcanoes, the ice provides a protective cap that, when removed, makes the magma below the surface decompress much faster than is already occurring through normal geological movement. The steady state that usually exists is lost, making eruptions faster and more explosive. There is not much delay between the climatic change and the volcanic eruption in these cases, says Tuffen.
But in the Andes the volcanoes are different. They have magma chambers beneath them. As the ice melts, again the protective cap is lost. This also looks to have caused an increase in volcanic activity in the past, but because the magma chambers are up to 5 kilometres deep, it is unclear just how quickly volcanism increased after the thaw, says Sebastian Watt, who works with Pyle at Oxford University.
(…)

And this came out just before Copenhagen. Amazing timing it would have been too, if some brave whistle-blower hadn’t done the right thing…

Richard Telford (13:35:15) :
The large amount of ice loss at the end of the last ice age affected the timing of eruptions, because of the rapid unloading of pressure. However, the total amount of volcanism over time is controlled by the amount of energy being introduced from underneath (rising magma) minus the amount of heat dissipated through diffusion and fluid flow (in the case of eruptions.) Glaciers introduce no energy to the system.
At the end of the last ice age, sea level was rising at about 1.5 meters per century, which is at least five times faster than at present.
Recent ice loss has been much less. Heat flows very quickly out of 1200C rock near the surface. Without the constant introduction of new energy from the hot spot underneath Iceland, all volcanism would rapidly cease.
You might want to read this quote from the Scientific American article:
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=ice-cap-thaw-iceland-volcanoes

“We believe the reduction of ice has not been important in triggering this latest eruption,” he said of Eyjafjallajokull. “The eruption is happening under a relatively small ice cap.”

u.k.(us) (13:55:03) :
The timing of the eruption at Mt. St Helens was controlled by the collapse of the north face, but the mechanism was meltwater creating steam pressure.

This guy is one of the leading experts on the subject of explosive vulcanism.
http://www.ees1.lanl.gov/Wohletz/Publications.htm
Worth reading his papers.

uno2three4

The eruption dates for El Chichon and Pinatubo are reversed in post. I think Pinatubo was in 1991 also.

Scarlet Pumpernickel

The only time volcanoes really were affected by glaciers was towards the end of Snow Ball earth, when there was too much Ice, they came back with a vengeance?

Scarlet Pumpernickel

PS why doesn’t Mnt Kilimanjaro erupt? All that climate change I mean land clearing has made the glacier melt, so why is it dormant??????

Scarlet Pumpernickel

Richard Telford (13:35:15) :
I thought some more about the article you linked.
Of course there was an increase in explosive volcanic activity at the end of the last ice age. There was massive amounts of glacial melt water infiltrating into magma chambers, causing Mt. St. Helens style eruptions. I would say that the author came to the wrong conclusion about the cause.
Nevertheless, the total amount of heat dissipated is controlled by the first law of thermodynamics. Over time, volcanoes can’t release any more energy than they receive from the mantle underneath.

DCC

“IMHO the reason Mt. St, Helens erupted so explosively, was the sudden collapse of the north flank of the volcano, which instantly depressurized the magma.”
There is a difference between depressurization causing liquefaction, as hypothesized in the article, and unburdening. Collapse of the flank might well have triggered a magma flow, but the explosion was the result of magma causing steam when it came in contact with water. That was also true of the Indonesian volcanoes.

Raven

I see no reason to assume that the water vapour response to tonnes of volcanic ash would be the same as the water vapour response to more CO2.
For example, rain drops require some sort of seed. An atomosphere with a lot of dust would have more seeds and could therefore be drier because the water forms into rain much faster.
The automatic presumption that the response to different forcings would be the same is evidence of the tunnel vision that infests the climate science community.

Jason everett

This is mildly OT but I find extremely worrying.
I’m in the UK and we are currently in an election period. I just posted a question on the BNP website. Now for those non UK residents on this site which are the majority, The BNP are widely viewed as a racist/facist site. I posted one message and was banned from the site. What question did I ask?
Has anyone seen any ash from the Icelandic eruption or is this a test run on shutting down EU airspace.
I know Anthony really dislikes ‘Nationalist/Racist’ organisations but this struck me as really strange. I think one of the moderators should post a similar question to various uk blog sites and see if you get banned.
Getting scary.
Don’t care if it’s snipped but follow it up please as this is very wrong.
Best regards

Peter Miller (14:04:57) :
The quote you gave wasn’t mine, it was from this article.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/296/5568/727
What they are saying is that the volcano dried out the atmosphere, causing less of a greenhouse effect and further cooling. That is a positive feedback, which is what climate models predict for water vapor.

Big Al

An interesting note, Mt Pinatubo blew up in the middle of a typhoon . Was it low barometric pressure that triggered the explosion?
Or maybe rainwater from the typhoon that did it.
I’ve never heard a explanation for it.

KimW

The concept that melting of ice cover over a volcano causes an eruption, is stark staring raving insane. Just for a start, the thickness of material over any eruption vent is highly variable, yet eruptions happen. The scale of the forces involved in an eruption is so immense, that removal of a 100 metres or so of ice is utterly trivial. As for the 6th Century eruption of Krakatoa, it may well be as suggested, but there are a very large number of volcanoes on this planet.
I used to be an avid reader of Scientific American, but gave up reading it as it began to concentrate on polemics rather than science.

sam bailey

Well.. I have been very interested in this.. now.. I think most reasonable minds.. would agree.. the link of tectonics(earthquakes..) and volcanism.. what is very important.. is the clustering of mega thrust quakes.. that seem to be more prevalent during slight spurts in solar activity.. during minimums.. or precedent to entry to a minimum.. bringing us full circle.. the sun.. inducing volcanic events.. now.. crrrrrazy yeah.. but….

David

If we assume an increase in volcanic activity over the next five years and have some major eruptions, and it cools down temperatures, should this be considered natural, and not an excuse for CAGW advocates?
For over 15 years we have had little in the way of volcanic eruptions of a magnitude capable of affecting worldwide temperatures. The recent lack of volcanic eruptions, as well as future increasingly frequent and intense eruptions, are “natural” and can not be discounted by any antropogenic position.
This will not stop pro CAGW advocates from making an excuse if temperatures drop, but that excuse will not be valid.

Amino Acids in Meteorites

Richard Telford (13:35:15) :
You make the assumption the everything that happens in the earth is caused by co2. The paper you point out does not.

Amino Acids in Meteorites

from 2/22/10
Joe Bastardi debates Bill Nye. They cover volcanoes for about 1/3 of the time. Bill Nye doesn’t seem to understand climate. Everything is co2 to him.

Janice The American Elder

“An estimated 160 cubic kilometers (38 cubic miles) of pyroclastic trachyandesite was ejected, weighing approximately 1.4×1014 kg (see above)”
I believe the weight is being expressed in scientific notation, but the ten to the fourteenth is showing as 1014. Perhaps it would be better to express it as 1.4E14.

rbateman

Scarlet Pumpernickel (14:41:55) :
That’s a good question for vulcanologists. Half of the distribution of volcano eruptions is purely random. A majority of the rest like to cluster around Solar Minimum, and less than a majority around Solar Maximum.
I’m not a math whiz to express the equation.
Maybe someone has already been there, done that, and never came up with anything, or maybe nobody has seen fit to bother with it.

Amino Acids in Meteorites

MODERATOR ATTENTION
it looks like uno2three4 is correct
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
uno2three4 (14:38:37) :
The eruption dates for El Chichon and Pinatubo are reversed in post. I think Pinatubo was in 1991 also.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
please fix the simple wording mistake in the post

u.k.(us)

stevengoddard (14:34:28) :
u.k.(us) (13:55:03) :
The timing of the eruption at Mt. St Helens was controlled by the collapse of the north face, but the mechanism was meltwater creating steam pressure.

===============
Thanks for the video link, very cool!
After watching it many times, i still say the eruption was due to the sudden release of the “cap”.
What caused the landslide?
I say the magma pushed the flank past it’s “tipping point”, which combined with some liquifaction?, and the known instability of volcanic structures, led to the sudden collapse and the uncontrolled expansion of the gases contained in the magma.
Then pour cold water on it, eh!
I was 18 when it happened, it still amazes me.

Amino Acids in Meteorites

More recent volcanic events which lowered global temperatures, were the 1983 eruption of Mount Pinatubo and the 1992 eruption of El Chichón.
Should be
More recent volcanic events which lowered global temperatures, were in 1983 from the April 1982 eruption of El Chichón and in 1992 from the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo.
El Chichón
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Chich%C3%B3n
Mount Pinatubo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pinatubo#1991_awakening

Lonnie Schubert

Cold kills. Warmer is better.

Interesting site blogging about the Iceland event… lots of links to photos and other aspects of this event. WUWT is highlighted on this thread…
http://scienceblogs.com/eruptions/2010/04/a_quick_note_on_thawing_ice_ca.php#comments

Fitzy

Jason everett (14:52:49) :
I think there is a precautionary principle at work, that does have some political gain, but you may be drawing a long bow here Jason.
There may be some financial gain to shipping and ground transport, as distributors and travellors find other ways to get from A to B, but shutting down Europes air travel will probably cost incredible amounts of Euro’s. Not something the E.U wants, its bad for business and bad for a taxation.
I would presume the Air Authorities are covering their backsides more than anything sinister, imagine being the guy who uneccessarily sent a jetliner to its doom, sobering thought.

Pete

OT but http://news.scotsman.com/scotland/Team-plans-to-row-to.6231705.jp
Maybe next year won’t be such a good idea!

pft

There is a vast amount of energy contained by the mantle. The idea that climate change can precipitate the release of this energy via changes in surface loading (sea levels changes, ice loading changes, plates drifting, land masses rising/sinking) makes sense.
However, to argue that climate change in the 20th century has been sufficient to trigger increased vulcanism seems dubious at best. Sea levels have been increasing since the last ice age (120 meters and rising) and glaciers have retreated from as far south as New York/Pennsylvania. Changes of this magnitude over thousands of years may or may not be affecting vulcanism today. Sea levels increasing 3 mm year for short periods seems insignificant by comparison.
Our current period is of pretty low volcanic activity, despite the recent activity. We are due for another ice age. Perhaps the recent volcanic activity is a prelude of what is to come, perhaps not, but those aerosols in a period of low solar activity could make summer a bit cool.
Upon entering an ice age, the reduction in sea levels may release methane hydrates which would slow the cooling. Increased vulcanism serves to slow warming and increase cooling. Both released stored carbon.
Without vulcanism, our store of usable carbon on the surface would soon be depleted, and the carbon footprint would accelerate to zero. No carbon, no life, at least not as we know it. These climate cycles may be a necessary part of the carbon cycle.

Hu Duck Xing

Apologies to FZ.

Hu Duck Xing

Interesting! I guess the brackets took out the quote. I’ll try again;
‘But I said “Look here brother
who you jiving with that pyroclastik debris?”‘

Sam the Skeptic

Jason Everett
The BNP is making valiant (if probably futile) attempts to appear as a rational mainstream party during this campaign.
This probably explains why it is unhappy with fruitcake comments about “shutting down EU airspace”. There are enough real problems around at the moment without conspiracy theorists inventing any more.

nandheeswaran jothi

sam bailey (15:10:59) :
i don’t know if it is crazy. does anyone jnow of any study that counts serious volcanic eruption to solar minima/maxima?

Aaron W.

The earths temps should plummet once the La Nina arrives and the current ash in the atmosphere starts to reflect sunlight.