Winter kills: Excess Deaths in the Winter Months

108,500 Deaths in the US in 2008; 36,700 in England and Wales Last Winter; 5,600 in Canada (2006); 7,000 in Australia (1997-2006 Average); Thousands in Other Developed Countries

Indur M. Goklany

Since extreme cold has gripped much of the Northern Hemisphere, some newspapers have been keeping a tally of the number of deaths obviously caused by extreme cold (e.g., freezing). But the BBC’s Health Correspondent, Clare Murphy, in a very timely and, in my opinion, excellent article, How cold turns up the heat on health, reminds us that many more deaths occur from chronic conditions that are exacerbated by cold weather.  She also notes that, “For every degree the temperature drops below 18C, deaths in the UK go up by nearly 1.5%.”

Following is a compilation of excess deaths during the winter months (compared to what occurs on average during the rest of the year) in a number of developed countries in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Unfortunately, our politicians complain about the warmth and would like to make the climate cooler if they could, even as they bemoan the costs of health care.

United States. 2001-2008

Figure 1: Average daily deaths for each month, United States, 2001-2008. Sources: 2001-2004 data from National Center for Health Statistics, DataWarehouse at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/statab/unpubd/mortabs/gmwkIV_10.htm, and National Vital Statistics System available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/deaths.htm; 2005 data from Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2006, Volume 55, Number 20, 6 pp (PHS 2007-1120); 2006 data from Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2007.  NVSR Volume 56, Number 21, 6 pp (PHS) 2008-1120; 2007-08 data from Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2008.  NVSR Volume 57, Number 19, 6 pp.

The figure above, based on data from the US National Center for Health Statistics for 2001-2008, shows that on average 7,200 Americans died each day during the months of December, January, February and March, compared to the average 6,400 who died daily during the rest of the year. In 2008, there were 108,500 “excess” deaths during the 122 days in the cold months (January to March and December; it was a leap year).

Canada, 1991-2006

Figure 2, based on data from CANSIM for 1991-20068, shows that on average 656 Canadians died daily in January compared to 546 per day in August.  In 2006, there were 5,640 excess deaths during the winter months in Canada.

Figure 2: Average daily deaths for each month, Canada, 1991-2006. Source: CANSIM (2009).

England & Wales, 1950/51-2008/09

Figure 3: Excess winter mortality, England and Wales, 1950/51–2008/09.  Source: UK ONS (2009).

Figure 3 shows that despite an increase in the population of England and Wales, excess winter deaths have generally declined since the 1950s due, probably, to increased affluence, better heating and insulation, clothing and any warming (whether due to UHI or global warming). [Also, some readers may know more about this, but I believe rationing was still in force in the UK in the early 1950s. Poor nutrition would have exacerbated mortality.]

However, last winter (Dec 2008-Mar 2009), there was a remarkably large jump in the excess number of winter deaths, perhaps due to colder/damper weather and increased fuel prices.  The UK’s Office of National Statistics states:

“In the winter period of December to March 2008/09 there were an estimated 36,700 more deaths in England and Wales, compared with the average for the non-winter period (see definition below). This was an increase of 49 per cent compared with the number in the previous winter 2007/08. This is the highest number of excess winter deaths since the winter of 1999/2000, when excess winter mortality was nearly a third higher than in 2008/09.”

It will be interesting to see the figures when data are available for this year.

Other Developed Countries

Figure 4: Monthly percentage variation in mortality compared to yearly average over the last years in European Mediterranean countries and other selected countries worldwide. Countries in the legend are listed according the absolute number of average deaths per day observed, in descending order. Source: Fagalas et al. (2009).

Finally, Figure 4 shows the percent variation in monthly mortality relative to annual averages for recent years in various developed countries.   Notably, even Greece and Cyprus (!) have greater mortality in the winter months, even though one would not classify either of them as particularly cold places. See the Table above.

References:

Falagas ME, Karageorgopoulos DE, Moraitis LI, Vouloumanou EK, Roussos N, Peppas G, Rafailidis PI (2009). Seasonality of mortality: the September phenomenon in Mediterranean countries. CMAJ 181(8): 484-6.

<!–[if !mso]>
Advertisements

  Subscribe  
newest oldest most voted
Notify of
Terry Jackson

So, could this be a better correlation to sunlight? Most of my relatives have died in the winter, and cold was not a factor.
What is the correlation between cold and births, allowing an appropriate gestation factor? We have seen a quite positive correlation with power outages in years past, if you believe the press stories.

rbateman

Cold kills. The last sensation is you don’t feel it anymore, and just want to go to sleep. A deadly lullaby.
Last year it was a fight for survival in the Yukon. This years the jaws of cold has spread.
And yet, they still want us to believe that global warming causes global cooling. An equally deadly lullaby.
Don’t prepare, don’t adapt, warming is coming soon. Now go to sleep.

kadaka

18 – (1/0.015) = -48 2/3
-48 2/3 * 9/5 + 32 = -55.6
So if it drops to -49C (-56F), everyone dies?
Maybe a linear relationship isn’t exactly correct…

Alan S. Blue

Is the sun back to sleep over there too? Sheesh.

In Oz, the deaths go down pretty deeply for Dec, Jan and Feb, and Oz is hotter than most developed countries, being the only one with any, let alone significant, tropical areas. We can get 40C on the coast even in Sydney, and 50C inland is not unusual, although not many live inland (funny, that).
And heat would kill people? I don’t think the evidence supports that.

John Lish

I can confirm Indur that rationing was in place until the early 50s in the UK. There’s some academic argument as to the health merits of the policy though.

I started a small compilation of cold deaths late 2009 http://ecotretas.blogspot.com/2009/12/december-2009-cold-death-toll.html but have stopped, as there are so many news around. Got to 500, but these were only media related accidents. I cannot imagine how much more really die. The World needs much more attention on this problem than Global Warming!
Ecotretas

Peter Pond

Not sure why the Greek researchers (Falagas et al) felt that winter in Australia was four months long, compared to the normal three months in the northern hemisphere countries considered. In my part of Australia, winter is usually only July and August (= 2 months), and I am in the southern half of the country.
Perhaps because Melbourne (Australia) has one of the largest Greek populations in the world and it also has the ability to have winter days any month of the year? (Aussie from elsewhere in the country reckon Melbourne to be a city where you can easily experience the four seasons in the one day).

Mal

Terry Jackson (23:00:32) :
“So, could this be a better correlation to sunlight? Most of my relatives have died in the winter, and cold was not a factor.”
I studied influenza a few years ago and a large number of deaths in older people are due to lung infections, particularly flu and associated pneumonia.
Regarding higher flu/pneumonia in winter, studies show that flu spreads better when it is colder and in higher absolute humidity.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071019090004.htm
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209205148.htm
Flu vaccines also don’t work as well with older people due to a reduced immune response. The current N1H1 is an exception as older people seem to have some immunity.
Regarding sunlight. Sunlight produces vitamin D which seems to enhance the immune system. A lot of people consider vitamin D a better alternative to flu vaccine. I had my flu vaccine just in case. Besides I am in Beijing, and sitting outside in -20C to generate vitamin D is not my idea of enhancing my health.
Mal

Paul R

Peter Pond (00:08:45) :
Not sure why the Greek researchers (Falagas et al) felt that winter in Australia was four months long, compared to the normal three months in the northern hemisphere countries considered. In my part of Australia, winter is usually only July and August (= 2 months), and I am in the southern half of the country.
I think it’s just the way the winter months are written for the Northern hemisphere, for some reason December was put last.
I overlooked it at first glance myself and I’m not even Victorian.

The high number of cold related deaths in the UK compared to the US is a national scandal and the politicians should be ashamed of themselves.

Maybe theres method to the malthusian madness – significantly increase power costs, significantly increase fuel poverty and significantly increase cold related deaths!
http://twawki.com/2010/01/07/mass-genocide-deathly-cold/

Richard

From the BBC: First their propoganda and lies:
From the BBC weather Centre:
Climate researchers predict that the UK climate will become warmer, with high temperatures in the summer becoming more frequent and very cold winters more rare. Winters will become wetter with heavier rain more common.
Some scientists have suggested that a warmer world will be a sicker world.
..The effects on general UK health are likely to be less severe than in other parts of the world.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/human_health.shtml
(This page was last updated in July 2009 We have left it there for refernce)
Someone Please copy it before they remove it.
Less Severe? You mean fewer persons will die of the extreme heat?
BBC Thursday, 14 February, 2002 “Some pensioners have had to choose between buying food and fuel, and campaigners say 30,000 people die annually from cold-related diseases… The energy review published by the UK Government spells out the way to a much cleaner, more efficient economy. It is a radical vision of the sort that comes once in a generation…Some environmental campaign groups have criticised the review for not rejecting nuclear power outright…” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/1820923.stm
BBC Monday, 15 September, 2003 “Every winter an EXTRA 20,000 to 50,000 people die because their homes aren’t warm enough ..the National Consumer Council.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3109154.stm
BBC Monday, 24 October 2005 “Cold ‘kills eight OAPs each hour’ ” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4371096.stm
BBC Monday, 19 December 2005 “There are between 60,000 and 80,000 cold-related deaths in the UK annually, but many disabled people have no option but to cut back on heating their houses, even though living in low temperatures often aggravates the effects of their impairments.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/ouch/2005/12/in_the_balance.html
BBC Monday, 13 March 2006 “The charity Age Concern has predicted that 20,000 over-65s will die between December 2005 and March 2006 from cold-related illness.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/the_daily_politics/4801534.stm
“Thousands of older people die each year from cold-related illnesses in the winter months, according to Age Concern. The charity told BBC London’s Evadney Campbell that in six years more than 150,000 over 65’s died.”
http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2007/12/07/croydon_cold_kills_video_feature.shtml

ChrisM

Winter deaths in Britain in the 1950’s were also probably connected to the terrible smogs (smoke & Fog) caused through everybody burning coal fires, this caused many deaths through breathing problems and tailed off when the clean air act was introduced.

moorlandhunter

Maybe Labour will now ban winter and the blame the Tories or the NHS or any other organisation for the natural seasonal death rate.
I can almost hear Gordon Brown now, “ We have banned winter. It’s the right thing to do.”

Ed Murphy

Anthony,
Have you seen this?
http://icecap.us/images/uploads/PDOAMOTEMP.jpg
Doesn’t look good.
Save the people instead of the manatee.

TerryS

Re: kadaka (23:07:12) :

18 – (1/0.015) = -48 2/3
-48 2/3 * 9/5 + 32 = -55.6
So if it drops to -49C (-56F), everyone dies?
Maybe a linear relationship isn’t exactly correct…

Your maths demonstrates that if the temperature drops to -49C then the average number of deaths will have gone up by 100% , not that 100% of the population will die.
In other words, if on average 1000 people die at 18C then 2000 will die at -49C.
The relationship wont but linear but 1.5% is a good approximation for the normal temperature range of the UK.

Patrick Davis

Certainly for the UK, cold deaths are not unusual however, one thing is for sure as fuel prices rise and “weather” become hasher, the numbers will increase and not only in the retired/poor demographics.
Of course the UK gubmint will celebrate. Increased revenue (CO2 taxes), decreased costs (Those pesky OAPs not drawing their pensions), planet saved and population reduced. Job done tick. They can all go pat themselves on the back, job well done.

Adam Gallon

O/T, but WUWT readers may like to have a play with this website.
http://www.rimfrost.no/

Benjamin

The U.S. has 108,500 to Canada’s 5,640 excess deaths. That’s quite a difference.
Insights, anyone?

Benjamin

Terry Jackson (23:00:32) : “So, could this be a better correlation to sunlight? Most of my relatives have died in the winter, and cold was not a factor.”
I have no idea, Terry. But I suppose a good start might be to look at regions within a country, like comparing Florida with Minnesotta, and see how the winter deaths compare.
Or even northern states compared to each other. Who knows what that would turn up? As I noticed, the excess winter deaths in Canada compared to the U.S. are quite stark, and that couldn’t be because Canadian winters are sunnier…

oldgifford

I seem to remember reading that it’s not so much hypotermia that kills the old folk in the UK, but when they get cold it reduces their immunity to any other problems they have like weak hearts.
I vaguely remember rationing but I think the general consensus was that the population was much healthier then because of the lack of meat in the diet. But in the fifties we were poor, our housing was damp and cold, and life was tough for a lot of people.

Kate

The Daily Mail has an interesting story today:
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1241209/BBC-probes-bias-science-coverage.html
BBC probes bias in its coverage of science and the environment
07th January 2010
The body which oversees the BBC is to launch a full-scale review into whether its coverage of science and the environment is biased. The BBC Trust acted after a string of complaints that the corporation is acting as a cheerleader for the theory that climate change is a man-made phenomenon. There have also been concerns over its coverage of genetically-modified foods and the MMR vaccine.
The year-long investigation will establish whether the complaints are justified – and could result in guidelines on how to treat important scientific stories. It will scrutinise the way the BBC has handled scientific debate in areas which affect ‘public policy’ and are ‘matters of political controversy’.
Richard Tait, BBC trustee and chairman of the governing body’s editorial standards committee, said: ‘Science is an area of great importance to licence fee payers, which provokes strong reaction and covers some of the most sensitive editorial issues the BBC faces.
‘Heated debate in recent years around topics like climate change, GM crops and the MMR vaccine reflects this, and BBC reporting has to steer a course through these controversial issues while remaining impartial. The BBC has a well-earned reputation for the quality of its science reporting, but it is also important that we look at it afresh to ensure that it is adhering to the very high standards that licence fee payers expect.’
A scientific expert will be hired to lead the review and it will concentrate on coverage of the issues featured in its news and factual output to see whether they meet the corporation’s Royal Charter and requirement that controversial subjects are covered impartially. The review will also focus on the way the BBC reports on new technologies including Wi-Fi wireless internet.
The review comes after repeated criticism of the broadcaster’s handling of green issues. Critics have claimed that it has not fairly represented the views of sceptics who do not agree that climate change is caused by human action, leading to a string of complaints over coverage of the issue.
Lord Monckton, a leading climate change sceptic, has claimed that his views have been deliberately misrepresented by the BBC. He said he had been made to look like a ‘potty peer’ on a TV programme that ‘was a one-sided polemic for the new religion of global warming’.
Earth: The Climate Wars, which was broadcast on BBC 2 in September 2008, was billed as a definitive guide to the history of global warming, including arguments for and against.
Last night, Lord Monckton, a former adviser to Margaret Thatcher, said: ‘My complaint against the BBC is not about one programme, it is that there has been a relentless institutional prejudice against the very large number of eminent climate scientists who fundamentally disagree with all the major conclusions that we are told inaccurately is the scientific consensus about climate change. It is high time the BBC examined itself.’
……………………………………..
So there you have it. Look out next year for the verdict. In the meantime, the British Brainwashing Corporation can carry on broadcasting whatever it wants.

Don Keiller

And from that well-known organ of AGW propaganda, the BBC.
Global warming dominates the headlines, but in the UK the cold of winter is much more hazardous to health – especially for the elderly and the sick.
For every degree the temperature drops below 18C, deaths in the UK go up by nearly 1.5%.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/8442413.stm

TerryS

Re: Terry Jackson (23:00:32) :

So, could this be a better correlation to sunlight? Most of my relatives have died in the winter, and cold was not a factor.

I doubt it. Where I live in the UK we are now experiencing our second day of sunshine since the snow fell on Tuesday. The outside temperature is -3C. Tomorrows forecast is the same. This pattern of sunlight with low temperatures is not that uncommon in the UK so if the deaths where correlated to sunlight I would expect them to pick that up fairly quickly.
They do check for health related correlations to sunlight as I’ve seen figures years ago that correlated the numbers of suicides and people suffering from depression with the amount of sunlight.

meemoe_uk

Excellent dig. WUWT should keep a close watch on mortality vs cold.
It’s argueably the most cutting inflamatory taboo for AGWer’s that they are compounding the very serious cold death problem during the 20 year gleissburg solar minimum we now face with their global warming rhetoric. Not murder in the 1st, but perhaps a skeptic lawyer could issue an intetnt to sue every AGWer for manslaughter by willful neglect.

DirkH

Did i get that right, the swedes are the only people that like to live in the cold and die when it’s getting warmer?

DirkH

“TerryS (03:06:39) :
[…]
I doubt it. Where I live in the UK we are now experiencing our second day of sunshine since the snow fell on Tuesday.[…]”
In the northern countries, you will not produce any Vitamin D during the winter months even when the sun is shining. The sun is too low; its rays have to go through too much atmosphere and the UV is essentially absorbed. Forget it and do some Vitamin D pils instead. I think it’s called a “polar winter”. Or use a sunbench if you want to.
You can build up Vitamin D storage during the summer months simply by getting a tan, exercize outdoors etc… It’s stored in the fatty tissue. But you can’t build up any through sunlight in the winter months.

DirkH

“DirkH (03:14:33) :
Did i get that right, the swedes are the only people that like to live in the cold and die when it’s getting warmer?”
Sorry 😉 New Zealand and Sweden have the same color in that graph…

jcl
Patrick Davis

Just got a text messages from my mum in Clanfield, Hampshire, UK. They are snowed in. Snowed in!!! So much for Gorebull warming.

AdderW

It is sooo much more dangerous to die from cold than it is to die from heat, there, settled.

R.S.Brown

For those who like to chant about “departure from normal” and then
say how much “warmer” most of Canada is since the cold has slipped
down into US48:
http://www.weatheroffice.gc.ca/canada_e.html
…no danger of defrosting the tundra up north !
Most of these tempertures will still kill you… it might take a half hour more than other years.

Gary

There is a jump in mortality rates for the US in July and August that returns to the pack in September. Vacationing from work and school is more dangerous here than elsewhere. Or is it excessive exposure to air conditioning?

DR

What about China?

Benjamin (01:26:40) :
> The U.S. has 108,500 to Canada’s 5,640 excess deaths. That’s quite a difference.
> Insights, anyone?
Speculation:
The winter storm track is consistently south of Canada, so Canadians expect it to be cold and prepare for it.
In the US, the storm track rarely makes it as far south as it is this winter, so people are often unprepared and don’t have good insulation, heat, snow tires or winter skills.
Also, a lot of American retirees move south to escape the cold and may not be able to handle it when it catches up to them.
Maybe the CDC or NIH could apply for some climate change funding to look into it.

One thing I would like to see is not just the numbers of deaths but a percentage based upon population. As some one asked upthread about why American deaths are higher then Canadian deaths there are two reasons why. One, America has a population of approximately 330 million versus Canadas 33 million. As well all houses up here in Canada are built for winter conditions and properly insulated. A lot of American houses in the south have no insulation and don’t have a proper furnace when you get cold snaps like what Florida is currently going through. That will have an effect on cold deaths.

DirkH
Wondering Aloud

Benjamin
The US population is about 15 times as large? Your quite starck thing is not, it may be a small difference in rate. But, the main reason the numbers are so much higher in the US are that the population is that much larger.

David S

kadaka (23:07:12) :
“18 – (1/0.015) = -48 2/3
-48 2/3 * 9/5 + 32 = -55.6
So if it drops to -49C (-56F), everyone dies?
Maybe a linear relationship isn’t exactly correct…”
Interesting argument. Of course when you extrapolate to the extreme condition you probably get bizarre results. As an example if the temperature dropped below -48.67C more than 100% of the population would die. But as a practical matter I think that if the temperature in the UK dropped to -48.67C the death rate would skyrocket.

Peter Dunford

Death from cold is AGW’s elephant in the room.
The (mostly Northern hemisphere) excess deaths from cold that would be avoided by a few of degrees extra heat vastly out-weigh the (mostly Africa and Southern hemisphere) extra deaths that would caused by that same heating.
I think Bjorn Lomborg looked into it in “Cool It”, I forget the figure, but it was about 10-1.

JonesII

Al Baby has protected himself, just in case of such eventuality, with thick layers of grease around his body, which will preserve him from extinction.

?

kadaka: You should read more carefully

Here’s a quick redo of the numbers into “Deaths per 10,000 population”,
which makes the proportions nicely visible.
United States 3.52
Canada 1.65
Britain 5.92
Australia 3.16
New Zealand 3.67
Japan 4.00
France 3.84
Italy 6.22
Spain 5.13
Sweden 4.28
Greece 5.13

Hey Polistra. Thanks for that break down into deaths per. Goes to show that Canada knows how to deal with winters.

matt v.

The global changes in average surface temperatures caused by the detonation of 100 Hiroshima-size weapons in the cities of India and Pakistan (50 weapons in each nation) would act to decrease the length of growing seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. In some places like Canada (see map below) the decreases in average temperature would have drastic effects upon the ability to grow the annual wheat crop. It is predicted that wheat exports would cease for three or more years; the global decreases in grain production would be severe and would likely lead to a global nuclear famine affecting hundreds of millions of already hungry people (see the article by Dr. Ira
http://www.nucleardarkness.org/warconsequences/reducedcanadianwheatgrowing/
Now assume that global average surface temperatures decline is due to periodic and regular normal planetary cycles. It only takes 1-2 C decline in average temperatures during the growing season or a shortened growing season due to an extended extra cold spring like happened in parts of Canada in 2009 to seriously cut our crop harvests. The average summer temperature in 2009 in the Canadian Prairies dropped 1.1C and 0.3 C in the Prairies and Northwestern Prairies . There was a 20% drop in Canadian crops . So we are coming very close to the danger zone in crop losses already in some regions of North America . The same could be coming to Europe and Asia as well.
My purpose for posting this is that with all the alarmism, unreal hype and focus on global warming 100 year from now [which may turn out to be a false threat entirely], we are ignoring the fact there is a real threat which is much more immanent ], namely a natural cool cycle of 20-30 years . Crop shortages , fossil fuel shortages , inflation, and economic turmoil like the 1970.s are a very real possibility unless we get real about where our focus is . Cutting carbon dioxide emissions or focusing only on global warming will not heat our home during these cooler periods but oil and gas may help us to survive .Lets not panic and demonize fossil fuels prematurely. It may be our salvation until we develop other sources of clean energy in comparable volume and cost.

For an pretty thorough examination of the seasonality of weather-related mortality across the U.S. I would recommend this paper:
http://www.int-res.com/articles/cr2004/26/c026p061.pdf
From it, I prefer to conclude, that more people die in the winter because it is winter, not because it is cold.
-Chip

Benjamin

Wondering Aloud (06:48:58) : “The US population is about 15 times as large? Your quite starck thing is not, it may be a small difference in rate.”
Yes, I had thought of that before posting. But as a percentage of population (for whatever that’s worth), Canada has about 50% fewer winter deaths than the U.S. Kind of odd, considering that it gets colder up there. But maybe that does explain it. But I’m more inclined to think that…
Ric Werme (06:08:26) : “Speculation: The winter storm track is consistently south of Canada, so Canadians expect it to be cold and prepare for it.”
I wondered the same too. But people living out in the country down here usually do prepare (they love to let us city-slickers know that kind of stuff). And in the city, unless one doesn’t have heat to begin with, how much preparation is required to turn up the heat, wear heavier clothes, blankets, etc?
So there’s still much to wonder about there. I did think of another possibility, though since posting.
One thing I do know about Canada, having been to Toronto, Montreal, and Calgary many times… No homeless people. Or if they do have them, they’re few and/or very well hidden! I haven’t come across anything that shows this to be the case, so it’s still speculation. Still, this might well explain the difference, or at least a good part of it.
Anyway, I was wondering if there was anything on this that confirms why. One of the reasons I’m wondering about this is that it might figure into the healthcare “debate”. Socialists love to point to Canada as a shining picture of health whenever the U.S. is mentioned in the same paragraph, but maybe coming down on the winter deaths would put a dent in their argument (and perhaps put money to better use, to really save some lives).
Been looking around, and I’ll keep my eyes open, but if anyone has a link I’d much appreciate it!

David Hall

Watts going on ?
When there is an exceptional waether event in the UK (heavy prolonged rainfall with floods, or a cold snap), there is almost always an accepted reason for why it happens, which is a change in the position of the jet stream – coming lower over the UK rather than just over the top of Scotland.
But now? Exceptional cold over Europe (including the UK), Russia, China, most of the USA ?? Has anybody a sensible reason for the whole Northern hemisphere suddenly suffering great cold?
has it to do with the quiet Sun? No doubt the IPPC will just laugh that out of court…..

Benjamin

PaladinPhil (08:27:03) : “Hey Polistra. Thanks for that break down into deaths per. Goes to show that Canada knows how to deal with winters.”
Same here! I should have looked at the other countries, instead of just the U.S. and Canada…