Study: Climate Change is Making People Angrier Online

h/t Dr. Willie Soon; According to a study, hate speech increases on social media when temperatures rise above 30°C (86F).

Climate Change Is Making People Angrier Online

Hate speech increases on social media when temperatures rise above 30°C (86F), new research says.

By Laura Millan Lombrana
13 September 2022 at 20:47 GMT+10

Climate change is making us angrier online. A lot angrier.

Hateful comments spike on social media when temperatures rise above 30 degrees Celsius (86 Fahrenheit), researchers at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research have found.

“It’s an indicator of how well people can adapt to high temperatures,” said Annika Stechemesser, lead author of the study published in The Lancet Planetary Health earlier this month. “If temperatures go too hot or too cold, we found that there’s an increase in online hate speech, no matter the socioeconomic differences, religion or political beliefs.” 

Global warming of about 1.1°C on average since pre-industrial times has unleashed all sorts of extreme weather events across the world. This summer, drought and a string of heat waves hit Europe, China and the US. For humans, heat is associated with psychiatric hospitalizations, increased rates of suicide and more domestic violence, according to research. 

And aggressive behavior online has been linked to violence offline too. Incensed posts have led to more violence toward minorities, including mass shootings, lynchings and ethnic cleansing, according to the Council on Foreign Relations, a New York-based think tank.

Read more:

The findings of the study;

Temperature impacts on hate speech online: evidence from 4 billion geolocated tweets from the USA

Annika Stechemesser, MSc , Prof Anders Levermann, PhD , Leonie Wenz, PhD 

Open Access Published:September, 2022DOI:

The prevalence of hate tweets was lowest at moderate temperatures (12 to 21°C) and marked increases in the number of hate tweets were observed at hotter and colder temperatures, reaching up to 12·5% (95% CI 8·0–16·5) for cold temperature extremes (–6 to –3°C) and up to 22·0% (95% CI 20·5–23·5) for hot temperature extremes (42 to 45°C). Outside of the moderate temperature range, the hate tweets also increased as a proportion of total tweeting activity. The quasi-quadratic shape of the temperature–hate tweet curve was robust across varying climate zones, income quartiles, religious and political beliefs, and both city-level and state-level aggregations. However, temperature ranges with the lowest prevalence of hate tweets were centred around the local temperature mean and the magnitude of the increases in hate tweets for hot and cold temperatures varied across the climate zones.

Read more:

Interestingly the study finding doesn’t seem to say quite what the Conversation said. The study finding appears to be that hate tweets are lowest when temperatures are closest to the mean temperature for the region, which suggests people feel least distressed when temperatures feel normal for their locale. The variation in intensity of this effect in different climate zones is also intriguing.

Even if the study methodology and conclusions are correct, and that is a big if, this does not appear to imply global warming would cause everyone to become angrier. Global warming is gradual on a human timescale. Most people who move to warm places like Florida don’t stay permanently angry, they adapt – just as people would adapt to any gradual changes in the local climate. And if they feel too warm, they can just switch on the air conditioner, providing energy remains affordable.

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Joe Gordon
September 13, 2022 6:06 pm

Did they also study the poster’s proximity to airport runways and air conditioner vents?

Fun with anagrams, I guess. You could call it the Urban Hate Island Effect.

Reply to  Joe Gordon
September 14, 2022 5:14 am

My theory is Crooked Joey Biden is causing anger….and he is a very angry old man.

oeman 50
Reply to  Joe Gordon
September 14, 2022 9:03 am

I wish I had said that!

John Garrett
September 13, 2022 6:06 pm

My god.

It just gets stupider and stupider.

Reply to  John Garrett
September 13, 2022 6:47 pm

And depraved. NPR says children are never too you to learn about anal.

Reply to  Scissor
September 13, 2022 9:17 pm

Nor are they too young to go through gender reassignment surgery.

Not Dan
Reply to  John Garrett
September 14, 2022 2:10 am

I would suspect that is where the anger originates, dealing with these stupid people.

Richard Page
Reply to  John Garrett
September 14, 2022 6:34 am

Oh I don’t know – the ramping up of the climate change scam occurred entirely within the modern period of warming so is purely an artefact of overly warm, angry idiots. On the other hand, the report is from PIK so not a credible source by it’s track record!

September 13, 2022 6:07 pm

odd. I get angry when it drops below -20F. couple days every winter.

Reply to  billtoo
September 14, 2022 3:49 pm

Winter pisses me off every year when I write the heating check. Ho Ho Ho.Yeah, right.

Tom Halla
September 13, 2022 6:13 pm

My first question was who classified tweets as “hate”.
Having moved from Northern California, where the typical summer temperature was too cool to raise most melons, to South Central Texas, where it is normally 90 F plus in the summer, I did not notice any more irate people in Texas. Rather fewer, in fact.

Larry in Texas
Reply to  Eric Worrall
September 13, 2022 7:13 pm

I’m afraid that’s going to change real soon, Eric, as the cost of the February 2021 power debacle becomes clearer. Nothing is being announced before the election because of the reaction it is going to generate (no pun intended).

Reply to  Larry in Texas
September 15, 2022 4:51 pm

I just got locked in for 3 years.

If this is true, I may hop to another plan just as this manifests. It costs me $100 t jump plans.

Reply to  Tom Halla
September 13, 2022 6:34 pm

That was something that I was curious about too. Turns out they’re using AI to categorize the tweets using the UN definition, which is quite broad (“any kind of communication in speech, writing or behaviour, that attacks or uses pejorative or discriminatory language with reference to a person or a group on the basis of who they are, in other words, based on their religion, ethnicity, nationality, race, colour, descent, gender or other identity factor”).

Of particular interest so far is looking at Section 1.g of their Supplementary appendix of the underlying paper. Of all the “hate tweets” they identified using the AI, they manually reviewed 1000 of them. What they define as “hate speech” in their manual review seems mostly to be certain demographics using their particular vernacular.

They look to conclude that ~70% of the identified tweets are actual “hate speech”. Though, I think if you actually looked at them as a rational person and took into account the socially acceptable language within the sub-cultures in which the tweets occur, then the amount of actual hate speech (inasmuch as there is such a thing) would be incredibly small.

They discuss this a little in their Discussion section, but seem to be mostly dismissive of the effects:

“Although in general it is impossible to accurately classify all hate speech due to its many incarnations, subtlety,75 sarcasm, and context dependence, the robustness checks we conducted on the quality of the dataset suggest that the data present a representative sample of hateful discourse on Twitter. However, some of the expressions included in tweets have a different connotation based on the cultural context in which they are used. Specifically, some proportion of the tweets classified as hate contain the N-word with the spelling variant ending in “a” which has, in contrast to the spelling with “er”, according to some sources been reappropriated as a type of endearment in some communities.76 However, the use of the word and its variants remains highly controversial. In the examples observed in our data (appendix p 7), the context is typically aggressive and derogatory. However, we cannot be sure that all instances in the dataset containing this particular slur are genuinely hateful.”

Rick C
Reply to  MarkH
September 13, 2022 6:52 pm

I’m not a tweeter (twit?) but I get the impression that, aside from the bots trying to steal identities, Twitter is mostly about hating the other side. Seems like at least 50% has been “we hate Trump and everyone who voted for him”.

Reply to  Rick C
September 13, 2022 7:07 pm

I am not a twat (one who tweets) either. Twitter might be the worst method of trying to actually determine the real sentiment of a population. It’s a cesspool of narcissists. Jordan Peterson wrote an interesting article on it called Why Twitter is Insane back in July (he reads it, under the same title on YouTube without needing to get past the Telegraph’s paywall).

Larry in Texas
Reply to  MarkH
September 13, 2022 7:20 pm

But it calls into serious question many of the premises of this study, which they crayfish around with in trying to support their definition of “hate speech.” A term often used by the Left to intimidate those who disagree with their faulty logic on just about every disputable political issue.

People are just too soft these days. I just try to laugh this nonsense off.

Dave Fair
Reply to  MarkH
September 13, 2022 8:24 pm

Mark, you actually took the time to read this “study?” You need to get a soothing hobby.

Reply to  Dave Fair
September 13, 2022 11:25 pm

I suggest skeet or sporting clays. It’s not that soothing but you get to make loud bangs and break stuff.

Dave Fair
Reply to  Brad-DXT
September 14, 2022 12:45 am

Its more fun to practice with your concealed carry sub-compact high-capacity pistol at the range. You get the loud bangs, but just punch holes in paper. Out in the desert, however, you get the satisfaction of destroying stuff.

The real game, though, was combat in Vietnam. The targets shot back and sometimes hit you. Bummer. Lots of cripples at the local VA hospital. I volunteered there until my wife’s health required my attention.

Last edited 18 days ago by Dave Fair
Reply to  Dave Fair
September 14, 2022 6:42 am

Bless you for volunteering.

Dave Fair
Reply to  mkelly
September 14, 2022 3:31 pm

Thank you.

Reply to  MarkH
September 13, 2022 9:52 pm

If rap music was tweeted it would be mostly classed as racist and misogynist even though the actual song wasn’t.
I have a feeling they need to look at a larger sample to test their AI.

Reply to  PCman999
September 14, 2022 2:25 am

Some guys were playing rap music at work one day… I decided to recite the lyrics to the song they were listening to to them… the look on their faces was priceless.

Reply to  Tom Halla
September 13, 2022 7:29 pm

Leftists have a nasty habit of defining anything they disagree with as hate speech.

Reply to  MarkW
September 13, 2022 9:07 pm

And it’s also entirely subjective. To the point that in the UK, if you say something online that someone else subjectively feels offended by, you can be visited by the police and convicted without any trial of a “non-crime hate incident”, something that will come up on a police background check, like when you apply for a job, etc.

Reply to  MarkH
September 13, 2022 9:30 pm

With that onus upon everyone, why does anyone in the UK have a twitter account?

Tweeting that the sky is blue is bound to offend someone.

Reply to  H.R.
September 13, 2022 11:53 pm

 the sky is blue


Reply to  Redge
September 14, 2022 4:56 am

🤣 🤣 See?

Wait a sec. Someone is knocking at the door.

“Well hello, Officers. What seems to be the problem?”

Reply to  MarkW
September 14, 2022 6:44 am

In the land of free speech how can there be hate speech? Rudeness should not be illegal.

Alexy Scherbakoff
September 13, 2022 6:31 pm

I guess that’s where ‘Hot under the collar’ comes from.

September 13, 2022 6:48 pm

The undoing of aspirations for ‘success’ in life imo stem from too many university graduates of fringe-relevance studies desperately trying to produce something, anything of relevance to the lives of ordinary punters, dutifully reported by other graduates of fringe “journalism” courses, which of course the increasingly irrelevant MSM publishes immediately without thought.

Epic failures all around.

Michael E McHenry
September 13, 2022 6:50 pm

I suggest they watch the 1957 movie “12 Angry Men”
That was 65 years ago!

Last edited 19 days ago by Michael E McHenry
James Stagg
September 13, 2022 6:57 pm

What a crock!

(Is that “hate” speech?)

Pete Bonk
Reply to  James Stagg
September 13, 2022 7:09 pm

Only against pickles and sauerkraut, James.

September 13, 2022 7:25 pm

How do they tell where the allegedly angry commentators are located?

Reply to  MarkW
September 13, 2022 10:31 pm

Probably by logging the IP addresses that they get from their ISP when they log on. It’s not going to be extremely accurate, but might locate you to a town/suburb level.

You could spoof your location by using a VPN, but those people just wouldn’t show up in their data. Basically, someone (either private enterprise or government) can get almost all information about what you do online, including where you are when you do it.

Reply to  MarkW
September 13, 2022 10:35 pm

They ask Twitter, Google, Apple, Microsoft etc.

Reply to  MarkW
September 13, 2022 11:02 pm

That’s my question too. The two answers prior to mine assume Twitter FaceBook etc convert the IP address to a rough location. Do studies like this actually get such bulk data from the social media companies?

Reply to  Felix
September 13, 2022 11:50 pm

Is it not the case that most people allow their location to be available? I constantly get requests on commercial web sites that say something like “allow your location to be used?” because, for one reason, large retailers, to some extent, offer different merchandise in different places. Most certainly, though I make every effort to keep such information offline, it is evident from search results that my location is used to decide what results to present (depending upon the type of information sought).

Reply to  AndyHce
September 14, 2022 1:03 am

The social media companies certainly have my IP address and a rough idea of my geographic question. The question is, how do these researchers claim to get that information so they can get the local temperature? Do the social media companies include the rough geographic location with bulk data dumps which are available to the researchers?

Reply to  MarkW
September 14, 2022 8:08 am

When I fire up MapQuest from my work account, I show up as being located at corporate headquarters, which is thousands of miles away from where my desk is actually located.

September 13, 2022 7:29 pm

climate: Figuratively, of mental or moral atmosphere, from 1660s.

Reply to  n.n
September 13, 2022 9:55 pm

Low point in temperatures – high point in hate.

September 13, 2022 7:29 pm

So, all is sweetness and light in the wintertime?
I hadn’t noticed!

Note the bit about “according to the Council on Foreign Relations, a New York-based think tank”
I’m trying to think where I’ve heard that name before …
Members of the Council on Foreign Relations – Wikipedia

Last edited 19 days ago by JCalvertN(UK)
another ian
Reply to  JCalvertN(UK)
September 13, 2022 7:40 pm

Would that be cabin fever with an internet connection?

Reply to  JCalvertN(UK)
September 13, 2022 10:32 pm

Now is the Winter of our … content.

Said literally no-one ever.

Richard Page
Reply to  MarkH
September 14, 2022 6:41 am

Not much mention of discounted camping equipment either – amazing how that one line has seen so many deliberate misquotes over the years.

another ian
September 13, 2022 7:36 pm

Does the lead author get a Ph.D. for that?

Richard Page
Reply to  another ian
September 14, 2022 6:45 am

I think everyone at PIK has them – the ‘Potsdam hilarious Diploma’ is a comedy award for the most ridiculous and absurd climate change related routine.

September 13, 2022 7:41 pm

The parade of useful idiots never stops.

September 13, 2022 8:13 pm

I agree with these knuckleheads, every time we get a heat wave all the crackpots come out of the woodwork blaming fossil fuels. That makes me angry. I can handle the heat, stupidity, not so much.

Richard Page
Reply to  Bob
September 14, 2022 6:49 am

And every full moon. And every time there’s a big public event. And every time somebody points a news camera their way. Lets face it, there are a lot of crazy people out there just waiting for any excuse to act up!

Giordano Milton
September 13, 2022 8:20 pm

Hard to separate terms these days. There are a LOT of emotion drivers at work.

Dave Fair
September 13, 2022 8:22 pm

How can one trust people who say things like: “Global warming of about 1.1°C on average since pre-industrial times has unleashed all sorts of extreme weather events across the world.” Weather was much more severe when it was colder. We now live in a much more equitable climate with fewer natural disasters and famine events.

Reply to  Dave Fair
September 13, 2022 10:00 pm

I hate it when climate change fanatics start off a supposed scientific article with their statement of faith. They may be thinking like the Nazis that repeating a lie enough will eventually convince people – it’s been true to a point so far but people are starting to see the lie as the predictions get more and more ridiculous and the weather is just the same old same old.

Reply to  PCman999
September 14, 2022 8:15 am

That reminds me of a story I heard about the code breakers during WWII.
It seems that loyal Germans started and ended pretty much every communication with Seig Heil.
Once the code breakers noticed this trend, they would first check for any solution that would give then Seig Heil in those locations. Made breaking the codes a lot easier.

September 13, 2022 8:30 pm

If correlation was causation then social media causes global climate change.

Reply to  dk_
September 13, 2022 11:56 pm

If correlation was causation then social media causes global climate change.

Well consider the amount of CO2 spewing energy required to power the massive databases of unsocial media accounts and it probably does

Oh! Sorry, Twatter, Farcebook, Instacrap etc are powered by unicorn farts

September 13, 2022 9:47 pm

Clown scientists are now running the climate mental asylum!

Isn’t obvious from their own data that the hate tweets drop off dramatically after temperatures reach the mid to high 30s, especially for the cold temp areas who are least likely to be used to the higher temps?

The hate tweets might start rising with temps as their fingers thaw after shoveling snow but we northerners get very chill and friendly once temps get properly hot and the skimpy outfits come out.

September 13, 2022 10:04 pm

Are there more racists and other haters in Northern Europe or on the beaches in Southern Italy?

More hate and violence in Chicago or Miami, or Los Angeles for that matter? How about compared to Rio de Janeiro?

Richard Page
Reply to  PCman999
September 14, 2022 1:50 pm

Wasn’t it a mayor of a town in Southern Italy that decreed that no overweight or ‘ugly’ women were allowed to go onto the beaches there? Does that constitute hate speech?

September 13, 2022 11:12 pm

Is there any recognized, objective measure of “hate speech”. Or is anything that offends someone’s sensitivities “hate speech”?

The Dark Lord
September 13, 2022 11:14 pm

since the global average hasn’t moved in 20 years Climate Change won’t be causing more hate …

September 13, 2022 11:24 pm

Easy to prove if true. People living in tropical climates would be in a an extreme state of continual fury, while those in cool climates would always be calm and loving.

Mike Maguire
September 13, 2022 11:43 pm

So that’s why we witnessed widespread world peace during the Little Ice Age(-:

Previous to that, during The Medieval Warm Period, the world was dominated by hatred and anger! There were constant widespread wars caused by evil people, who were driven by the
very warm temperatures.

As soon as the global temperature dropped below the anger tipping point, at the start of the Little Ive Age, all wars ended and people from every country……race, creed, religion and gender, hugged each other, held hands and broke out into an uncontrolled chorus of Kumbia. 2

Mike Maguire
Reply to  Mike Maguire
September 14, 2022 10:50 am

Kumbia = Kumbaya (my Lord)

Who also sang this awesome song before?

September 13, 2022 11:45 pm

The prevalence of hate tweets was lowest at moderate temperatures

Considering Twitter was only founded in 2006, I’d like to see the data from the early 20th century before taking this propaganda study seriously

September 13, 2022 11:50 pm

Study: Climate Change is Making People Angrier Online

No, what’s making people angrier online is the algorithms more of the one-sided drivel they usually read instead of a balanced view of the world


September 14, 2022 12:20 am

As an expert on this subject who is also largely responsible for deciding the discourse future of the internet from 1989 onwards… I call absolute bullshit.

The “standard” of determining whether someone is angry has slipped way way down.

Internet literacy has led people to understand just how grammatically incompetent others are.

The increase in availability since “internet” and “world wide wut” became available of mobile and quick access has greatly gone up.

Masturbation-bias, the tendency for people to claim things support their egotistical assumption has become something that isn’t even taught against in schools.

Almost any fuckwit on Earth can now select spelling corrections to the words in their own language on a cellular device, but it doesn’t help out when someone is trying to use curse words; this is why the urban dictionary has exploded in promiscutuity to the point where almost every combination of two words can mean “fuck a whore/mother”. I have seen many many many many new insult words come from simple misspelling. 99% of the Earth doesn’t even understand the difference between trolling and trawling and I tried to explain once to a poor idiot about rules 3 and 4 of the disney animation studios on what would get you fired is that rule 3 is “no matter how shocking or depraved, it has already been drawn and you will not do it on the clock” and 4 is “rule 3 with Mickey Mouse in it”, thus Rules 3,4. Through incompetence they left out the comma and thus “rule 34” was born through idiocy. I am literally responsible for causing that shit.

There are about 2.5 billion more people with access to the internet because its the only entertainment they can afford or are allowed to use while their incompetent governments abuse and enslave them.

There is no difference in the amount of anger in the world. People are just unloading where they can’t be punched in the face by a random stranger.

Someone would also have to scientifically prove “climate change” exists at least one time as well.

Last edited 19 days ago by Prjindigo
September 14, 2022 1:09 am

Non sequitur redefined.

September 14, 2022 1:10 am

If I remember correctly murders in Chicago go up when it’s hot.

Richard Page
Reply to  rah
September 14, 2022 6:51 am

Does the heat make murders more common or just easier to find the victims?

Peta of Newark
September 14, 2022 2:14 am

Is this Off Topic or wildly On Topic?

The Topic being: This Modern World – which social media is but one (tiny??) part

You judge:

Do remember, pretty much everything you might apply to your skin is absorbed and is in your bloodstream inside 20 minutes tops

That video is full of gems about Micro Nutrients, Trace Elements, Vitamins and antibiotics (e.g. = Glyphosate tho not by name)
He even mentions Kwashiorkor = Beer Belly basically.
(Fortunately something very rarely seen in this Never Better World)

edit: Note esp his words at 55:10

Last edited 18 days ago by Peta of Newark
Ben Vorlich
September 14, 2022 2:43 am

How much of this is down to people arguing about whether or not a hope spell/drought/thunderstorm is down to climate change or is just weather

I spend a lot of time reading comments in the UK online Daily Mail, I find many quite entertaining.

What seems to trigger spats in the comments are climate change change articles. These usually have a large number sceptical comments which have reponses from the warmist brigade about denial. Our friend from the Home Counties makes an appearance for time to time.
I would guess that these comments would fall into the hate category.

September 14, 2022 2:46 am

Of course this happens: when the temperature is average there’s less to whine about, whereas for each one degree above average you get an exponential increase in alarmism.

Geoff Sherrington
September 14, 2022 4:15 am

Did they collect any data from Australia? Not much T trend in UAH LTAust data for the last decade. Geoff S

September 14, 2022 6:39 am

In an odd way I agree with the headline.

I get angry about having tax money given to people to buy EV’s.
I get angry about knowing wind mills and solar pains will give intermittent service or cause blackouts.
I get angry that political leaders desire praise from foreigners rather help their citizens.
I get angry when people lie to my face about much better I will be with my thermostat set at 68 rather than 70,

There are many things I get angry about due to climate change.

And no I didn’t spell panes wrong.

Tony K
September 14, 2022 6:40 am

I’m always in the best mood when it’s above 30°C.I live in a place where summer temperatures rarely go over 23°C.It’s 16°C here today.I wish the global warming/climate change frauds were right.The climate and weather has been the same here for the past 60 years.

September 14, 2022 6:57 am

Did they overlook the obvious confounding variable? When weather is near the mean, people indulge in more outdoor activities and thus are not as focused on social media (though the number of people walking in the park with their head down looking at their phone is alarmingly high!) Tweets during moderate conditions are probably more concerned with the activities partaken during such clement weather. Hard to be “hateful” (which I think is defined as disagreeing with a leftist) when you are busy playing disc golf.

James Snook
September 14, 2022 7:33 am

Every time I see the word Potsdam I get angrier and ANGRIER !

Richard Page
Reply to  James Snook
September 14, 2022 1:57 pm

Frederick I of Prussia (father of Frederick the Great) raised a regiment nicknamed the “Potsdam Giants” as they were all very tall men. Since then Potsdam has been associated with pygmies of the intellect.

September 14, 2022 7:39 am

So now we finally understand the mind of the Islamic extremist terrorist. They live in hot countries. It’s not their fault. Their climate made them do it. They should all move to Northern Europe to be much more calm and contented. …Oh, that’s right, I forgot. They ARE!

Andy Pattullo
September 14, 2022 8:07 am

Idiocy – complete idiocy. Publishing nonsense like this should lead to real consequences and reparations for all the wasted time and missed learning.

M Courtney
September 14, 2022 9:57 am

A) When hot for the time of year people stay in the shade.
B) While staying in people spend more time online.
C) The longer people spend online he more likely they are to find something that antagonises them.
D) The more antagonised people are wen online the more the say hurtful things.
This seems logical. It arises from the stated evidence. But it states that anything that drives more internet use would have the same effect.

September 14, 2022 10:44 am

How many tweets are issued by the frozen dead? I guess that’s a question for the whistleblower who worked at Twitter.

Gunga Din
September 14, 2022 11:37 am

” Climate Change is Making People Angrier Online”Simple solution.
Eliminate everything that makes it possible for people to go online!
VOILA!! No more “anger”!
Everyone will feel peaceful as they huddle around the fire in their cave.

Mark - Helsinki
September 14, 2022 1:25 pm

So we haven’t reached peak rent seeking yet.

This is not only a terrible study, it’s embarrassing

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