Reducing Cows´ Methane Emissions

From Burger King, without comment.

Cow farts and burps are no laughing matter. That’s why we’re working to change our cows’ diet and help fight climate change.

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Ian Magness
July 14, 2020 10:15 am

Thanks for the Friday Funny, er on a Tuesday.

David S
July 14, 2020 10:19 am

Gas-X for cows?

Rick C PE
Reply to  David S
July 14, 2020 12:11 pm

Maybe my Bean-O stock investment will finally pay off.

July 14, 2020 10:28 am

What effin climate change? Hint, it’s that yellow thing in the sky, morons!

July 14, 2020 10:29 am

“No laughing matter”.
I beg to differ and I will, just as soon as I stop laughing.

Paul S
July 14, 2020 10:31 am

I’m speechless. This is unreal. Where does it stop?

Reply to  Paul S
July 14, 2020 1:08 pm

They came up with a Whopper of an idea.

Reply to  Paul S
July 14, 2020 2:21 pm

wither at the beginning OR end of the digestive tract…

Reply to  Paul S
July 14, 2020 8:00 pm

How deep is the depth of crassness and inanity?
What a silly question.
All the way down of course.

CD in Wisconsin
July 14, 2020 10:32 am

Note to self: Don’t eat at Burger King anymore. Low Carbon Land? Please, give me a break.

I have to admit it though: The kid in the white hat and clothing in the video did a very nice job.

Reply to  CD in Wisconsin
July 14, 2020 12:54 pm

Cowboy Greta.

July 14, 2020 10:33 am

The inmates have surely taken over the asylum.
I never thought I would be glad to be an old man in average health.

I’ll likely be gone, and someone will have to clean up this mess.
We can only hope that that ‘someone’ is from our side, and not from Russia, China, or one of the Islamic cockamamie theocracies.

Shoki Kaneda
July 14, 2020 10:39 am

My two Longhorns can fart all they want and F anybody that doesn’t like that.

July 14, 2020 10:49 am

It appears that since they stop with the grass feed over the last three months of the beeves lives, the beeves produce less methane (?) during this time, and Burger King is going to claim that they are doing this to save the climate.

(And there are only 5 people of color (if Asians are officially included as such) in the video; And they ripped those poor kids out of their culture and made them wear ridiculous clothes; And they paid the white singer & the old white guy in the elevator more than the others people of color; And so this just proves that Burger King has a culture of systemic stupidity as well as systemic racism);

July 14, 2020 10:50 am

Bizarre…the kids really are brainwashed and so it appears, is Burger King. I suppose they are just trying to ahead of the Mob that will soon be burning down their joints, because climate change and evil poisonous CO2.

But really, wouldn’t the same grass the tens of millions of Bison used to eat do the same thing? Or wouldn’t the grass if left to its own devices just rot back to methane and CO2 anyway? It is all terrestrial ‘carbon’ instead of fossil carbon, so their whole argument is busted anyway. Next…

Michael Fitzgerald
Reply to  Earthling2
July 14, 2020 11:09 am

In North America, methane emissions from cattle are indeed calculated to be about the same as the methane emissions once produced by the vast herds of bison that used to roam the continent. Who would have guessed that Buffalo Bill Cody was such a farsighted climate activist?

Lachaln Flawse
Reply to  Michael Fitzgerald
July 15, 2020 1:27 am

Ruminants actually produce very little EXTRA in terms of, what is finally Carbon Dioxide.
Plants turn CO2 into proteins and sugars. One of two things happens
1. The cattle eat the plants and process them
2. The plants rot and produce CO2 and Methane which quickly becomes CO2.

I animals eat the plant some of the C is stores as fat and protein. The remainder is exuded in the form of s..t and farts. S..t goes back to the soil and into plants. The Methane produced quickly becomes CO2 which is, AGAIN, used by the plants to produce plant growth. PLEASE!!! Somebody!!! Please show me how a single atom of carbon is created????????? Sure ,if animal numbers suddenly expand rapidly, you get a very very minute increase in Methane levels. The effect is indiscernible in reality.

Reply to  Lachaln Flawse
July 15, 2020 9:20 am

Yes. Like Lachaln said.

I have explained this umpteen times, but it falls on deaf ears. People should always ask “so where does the Carbon go?” Same argument goes for planting trees.

There are (at least) two carbon cycles: Fast carbon cycle (approx 5 years): carbon is removed from the atmosphere, resides for a while in an animal or plant, then through some form of digestion returns to the atmosphere. Slow carbon cycle (hundreds of thousands of years): carbon is, for example, removed from the atmosphere in plankton shells and sinks to the ocean floor as deposits of limestone.

Farting around with the fast carbon cycle has no significant impact on CO2 in the air.

Reply to  Lachaln Flawse
July 15, 2020 7:30 pm

> “Somebody! Please show me how a single atom of carbon is created.”

Well, it’s quite simple, really:

They took a global tour – some magic cows to find
They took great care to guarantee their brains were left behind
For cognitive impairment has to seem to be quite sound
Or denialist projection won’t be seen to hold its ground
But where do the magic cows all live, the ones creating heat?
The cows that fart by magic much more carbon than they eat?
For magic cows make carbon and they have to let it go
Releasing evil carbon to the atmospheric flow

Where was this global tour? – the magic cows were there
Where food for magic cows is made with carbon from the air
Now carbon makes the world go round and magic cows all know
That alchemizing molecules with magic makes them grow
Where comes the extra molecule? No cow has ever told
But man’s deludination loves a witch’s tale that’s bold
And “carbon-neutral” undermines the meme men try to sell
While magic molecules are wrought by alchemy so well

Reply to  Earthling2
July 15, 2020 7:42 pm

Not to mention the fact they are a carbon sink, like trees.
They should be dried, pelletized, and sent to Drax.

Ron Long
July 14, 2020 10:58 am

Guilt-free whoppers from Burger King? Or, actually, Guilt-reduced whoppers? from Burger King. What will Wendy come up with to top this? Big Mac attack? WATTS certainly has a mixed audience!

July 14, 2020 11:02 am

Climate change knob has two farts:
Fart 1: CO2 with atmospheric concentration 400 farts per million
Fart 2: Methane with atmospheric concentration 722 farts per billion

July 14, 2020 11:03 am

He has a great voice, shame he cant actually play guitar.

Reply to  Matt_S
July 14, 2020 6:30 pm

More than a few medias you watch have been “shopped”. Everything you see and hear can be adjusted so the scene bares no resemblance to the original action. All it takes is money.
This ad was very well polished.

Gordon A. Dressler
July 14, 2020 11:04 am

Dear BK,

Get back to me after you first present the scientific data that shows methane is a significant cause of climate change™.

BTW, just citing that methane is a “greenhouse gas” won’t cut the mustard, as they say.

J Mac
July 14, 2020 11:14 am

Wow! That was really lame…..

Reply to  J Mac
July 14, 2020 12:29 pm

I’m so Beyond BK.

Reply to  Scissor
July 15, 2020 7:35 am

Yep. BK and Wendy’s lost this customer when they took a knee and paid off BLM. Both chains have many stores in truck stops, but this trucker ain’t buying their stuff. Increased the larder in the truck.

July 14, 2020 11:22 am

It’s not the cows that make the methane. It’s the bacteria that live in their guts. With all that’s been discovered lately about the importance of gut bacteria for human health, it’s positively cruel to even think of modifying the interior biology of cattle guts away from the way that nature intended it to be.

Reply to  decnine
July 14, 2020 11:40 am

I didn’t hear them mention feeding them kelp, which supposedly reduces the methane emission. I suppose that could just be another feed, but what if they wipe out the natural kelp ‘forests’ for methane free burgers. Oh, the insanity. Sure am glad I discovered this site many years ago now, and have learned to think more critically. That’s the purpose of all these articles, right?

Reply to  Earthling2
July 15, 2020 1:30 am

PLUS the grass they didn’t eat ROTS and turns into METHANE!!!!!!!!! NOTHING changed.
This is what the models don’t include – the NATURAL production of Methane from rotting vegetation.

July 14, 2020 11:33 am

I’m sure it will make their sales go up into the atmosphere like that veggie burger that they came out with did.

I think it’s a struggling corporation trying to come up with a gimmick to try to restart the company, rather than retool and work to make restaurants that people want to go because of service.

I always like the charbroiled burgers. But not the wait to get them.

Coeur de Lion
July 14, 2020 11:42 am

It’s nonsense. It’s nonsense. It’s nonsense! Please stop !

Keith Harrison
July 14, 2020 11:46 am

Readers may find the following on chemical meat interesting:

July 14, 2020 11:55 am

Burger King debuts a Whopper made from cows who burp less methane
Burger King will begin selling Whoppers sourced from cows that belch out less methane as the fast-food industry grapples with a questionable sustainability record.

Reply to  Cam_S
July 14, 2020 5:28 pm

The Vegan alternative runs into the same problems.

old construction worker
Reply to  Cam_S
July 15, 2020 4:51 am

I want to know who is going to count the cow farts.

Reply to  old construction worker
July 15, 2020 9:06 am

There are more environmental engineering degrees being given out than can be actually used (or turned into an engineering license).

Now they have something to do.

July 14, 2020 11:57 am

I think this is cattle abuse.

July 14, 2020 12:09 pm

Surely the production of rice in paddy fields and the Methane it produces, the staple diet for the vast majority of the World (and growing by millions every year), far exceeds the falling consumption of Beef?

Nick Graves
July 14, 2020 12:41 pm

More marketing bullmethane..

Joel Snider
July 14, 2020 1:04 pm

Well, I won’t even be driving by a Burger King from now on.

Tropical Lutefisk
July 14, 2020 1:12 pm

Maybe BK should focus on making their food edible and accurately fulfilling orders. They are the absolute worst fast food chain for quality and service. Not that I eat a lot of fast food, but it’s one that never tempts me.

Michael Jankowski
Reply to  Tropical Lutefisk
July 14, 2020 1:57 pm

Advertising appeals to the stupid and gullible, so this is quite appropriate.

July 14, 2020 1:45 pm

Burger King or hungry jacks here in Australia have been offering vegan burgers for some time now.
Most “meat” restaurants offer at least 1 vegan dish, however vegan restaurants don’t offer at least 1 meat dish.

Kevin kilty
July 14, 2020 1:57 pm

In 1988 or thereabouts a “scientist” interviewed by Drover’s Journal calculated the effect of domesticated ruminates as equivalent to 0.004 celsius. Heat wave.

Michael Jankowski
July 14, 2020 2:03 pm

FWIW, BK falls under RBI (Restaurant Brands International).

RBI also owns Tim Hortons and Popeyes.

It’s Canadian.

That is all.

July 14, 2020 2:09 pm

After 1984 and Fahnheit 451and many more warnings, we are finally there – big brother have take over, and you should not think for you self anymore. It is now dangerous to be critical to the system, but if you have been brain washed all through you time in school, you find big brother is there only to help you and secure your world for all the evil people who try to open your eyes for the real world out there. Young people reading this – please go and investigate how much to have been fooled! Kind regards Steenr

Rud Istvan
July 14, 2020 2:10 pm

After Charles made me laugh, I had to do the research, since Inused to own a dairy farm.

Cows are ruminants. They have two stomachs. The first is filled with methanogen archea ‘bacteria’ that digest ‘grass’ (alfalfa on my farm) cellulose into digestible simple sugars. Part of this process is the cows chewing their cud to aid this process. Eventually the cud passes into the second stomach for nutritional digestion. So it cud burps, not farts, that produce methane.

BK claims that adding lemon grass to finishing feed (68% corn) reduces burped methane by1/3. Suppose that is true. Dunno. Then BK is bragging about rounding error.

Some math. BK says livestock produce 14.5% of methane. Beef cattle are 41% of that, so ~5.95%. Now beef cattle are slaughtered at about 24 months, and ‘finished’ for 3-4 months in feedlots. So finishing is ~15% of the animals life, accounting for (5.95*0.15) of its methane emissions, or 0.89%. If lemon grass Reduces that 1/3, then global reduction would be (0.89*0.33). ~ 0.29%.

BK is big, but only 11.5% of food service by revenues. Food service is 69% of beef, and of that 63% is ground beef. So BK is bragging about (0.29*0.69* 0.63*0.115) a maximum reduction of ~0.014% of methane. And that is high, because it is only the Whopper only in company owned restaurants when most are franchised. An actual result as absurd as the ad.

JimH in CA
Reply to  Rud Istvan
July 14, 2020 2:53 pm

There is also a ‘wild fire’ reduction to take into account, as they call it here in NorCal.
My cattle graze on native grassland here in the Sierra foothills, reducing what would be 2 ft. tall grasses to about 3 inches, before we move them to summer pasture higher in the Sierras.
So there is a 90% reduction of the grasses that would burn and create huge amounts of CO2 and ash smoke…..don’t forget the asthmatic kids and PG&E .!
No one takes into account the ‘disaster avoidance’ of cattle grazing….Remember Paradise ?.
[ but that was flammable homes, too close together, while most of the oaks were just fine’. I’ve flown over Paradise and seen 1st hand ].

Reply to  JimH in CA
July 15, 2020 1:32 am

If they didn’t burn they would rot and produce???????? yep!!!!!! METHANE

Steve Case
July 14, 2020 2:18 pm

The You Tube video winds up with the note at the end:

Since we are part of the problem,
we are working to be part of the solution.

Burger King needs to explain what “The Problem” is. Exactly how much is methane on course to run up global temperature? No one ever answers that question. Fill in the blank: Methane is increasing ____ parts per billion every year and by 2100 that will likely run up global temperature ____ degrees. Nobody ever answers that question and anyone who actually tries to find answer on an internet search comes up empty. The reason for that is it’s essentially zero. But we have local governments: San Jose, CA; Brookline, MA and some others that have passed regulations banning natural gas hook-ups in new construction based on nothing more than pure bullshit.

Bill Rocks
July 14, 2020 2:19 pm

Henceforth I will not eat there.

Reply to  Bill Rocks
July 14, 2020 5:31 pm

That is the correct green response and please do not procreate.

July 14, 2020 2:25 pm

Formerly 60 MILLION bison, 40 MILLION pronghorn, 20+MILLION elk, 6 MILLION wild horses. Mostly ruminants, but all grass eating gas bags. Why do we let them scoot by with such tripe?

July 14, 2020 2:41 pm

Sherlock Holmes had a clue about the dog that didn’t bark (and presumably wasn’t loudly flatulent either). Burger King doesn’t seem to have a clue.

Ed Zuiderwijk
July 14, 2020 3:13 pm

On a positive note. Someone is reintroducing European bison in Scotland. Where they can fart to their hearts content. As do humans when fed on a diet of veggies.

July 14, 2020 3:21 pm

Ahh, cows “emit” methane, ain’t nothin’ you gonna do to change that.

Ed Zuiderwijk
July 14, 2020 3:21 pm

That’s where the revolution starts. With country boys deprived of the T-bone stake. The woke would have no chance in hell.

July 14, 2020 3:26 pm

Cows cannot put out any more “carbon” than the take in.

That makes them CARBON NEUTRAL !

Reply to  fred250
July 15, 2020 1:34 am

Cows create not a SINGLE ATOM of Carbon.
Why is this hard to understand?????????????????????

Tom Abbott
Reply to  LFlawse
July 15, 2020 5:15 am

There was a good article published on WUWT some time ago that describes how cows are carbon neutral and how farmers should be subsidized to raise more cattle, because they are so good for the environment, but I can’t seem to find it with a search

Rhoda R
July 14, 2020 3:37 pm

I’ve always found Burger King a bit creepy since they introduced their “King”. Nothing has happened since then to change my mind. BK can go out of business in any fashion they chose – just don’t ask for a government bail out.

July 14, 2020 3:44 pm

The stupid Madison Avenue ad agency knows nothing about beef. The wooden cutout cows are all Holstein DAIRY cows, not beef cattle. And the kids are all city-born actors embarrassingly playing fake country kids. Of course, that is par for the course for a commercial that is full of misinformation. Btw, Burger King fake char-broiled burgers give me heartburn, so I never go there.

July 14, 2020 3:51 pm

It’s almost 12:00pm here in the middle of the U.K., and no WUWT regular is going to read this now – especially as I haven’t posted for quite a while. I normally just bang on about the CO2 scam.

BUT . . . .

Forget Ruminants only eating grass and farting methane. Let’s revisit Vegitarianism!

If it’s for religious belief (or it’s for ecological reasons) that humans wish to transform from being natural omnivores to then decide/choose to become herbivores, then I blame them for methane. I also blame them for not eating enough vital protein to maintain their immune system to repair skin tissue, muscles and internal organs during Covid. Without protein, you’re stuffed. Yes, Like many of you, I wonder why certain Asian communities are at high risk.

It’s no wonder that all the tinned vegetables, nuts, seeds and Quorn soya disappeared when panic buying set in – after all, half a dozen eggs and a chicken breast has far more protein than a pack of goji berries.

Jainism – strict vegetarians, Sikhism – actively promote vegetarianism, India – home to more vegetarians than any other country, Hinduism – 33% vegetarian, Buddhists – expected to abstain from eating meat. Taoism – meat abstinence, etc, etc.

So, there’s a surprise. Asian communities (and Vegans) are at higher risk from Covid-19. And they fart more methane from their chick pea & berlotti bean diet than any of us – especially me and my missus who (incidentally) have both just finished our delicious 12oz sirloin steak with homemade bernaise sauce, new potatoes and green salad.

I’m surprised that the MSM hasn’t picked this up!

John in Oz
July 14, 2020 4:38 pm

I am wondering how they built ‘Low Carbon Land’ as its construction would probably have many plastic components and the roller coaster looks like it’s made of steel rather than lumber.

July 14, 2020 5:04 pm

Enteric methane from livestock is not a problem and will never be a problem raising the worlds temperature.
All fodder consumed by farmed animals has absorbed CO2 from the air.
The very small amount of methane emitted during digestion is broken down in the upper atmosphere into water vapour in 8 to 12 years .
The process is a cycle and not one additional atom of carbon or molecule containing carbon ie CO2 and CH4 is added to the atmosphere .
Farmed live stock that consume forage have four stomachs and the methanogen microbes break down the cellulose and multiply rapidly .
The microbes then move on through the other stomachs were they are absorbed as food .
Enteric methane was introduced by activists as an green house gas emission at the Kyoto accord and it should never be included in any countries emission profile .
How can a cycle ever increase the levels of either methane or CO2 in the atmosphere?
The only way that methane levels increase is by adding additional methane to the atmosphere .
World methane levels were steady from around 1999 to 2009 which coincided with static coal production world wide of around 4.7 billion tonnes .
From 2008 coal production has soared and topped 8 billion tonnes in 2018
Methane levels have moved up since 2008 in line with coal production .
Blame the Coal and leave the Cows alone as they are not a problem and can never be a problem .
The theory of global warming is that mankind is extracting and combusting fossil fuel that has been locked up for millions of years .
Methane from livestock was included with no scientific analysis or debate .
How can a closed cycle increase methane or carbon dioxide levels ?
This shows how those scientists pushing global warming hysteria are dishonest as they should be able to see the facts for themselves and even if they believe in global warming they should be able to state the obvious that a closed cycle can never increase greenhouse gasses.
I have been following this scam for over 30 years and enteric methane is still the only emission that is not extracted from below the earths surface .
When believers are challenged about the inclusion of enteric methane they come up with how bad methane is ,and the estimation that farmed livestock emit 90 million tonnes of methane every year world wide .
They conveniently forget that much more than that breaks down every year and that any increase comes from fossil fuels .
Burger King here in New Zealand are in receivership and guess what they were pushing a non meat burger so they probably deserved what has happened .
Proud to be a dairy farmer exporting food to the world .

Reply to  Gwan
July 14, 2020 5:55 pm

I see that I left out a vital word in this sentence “methane is broken down in the upper atmosphere in 8 to 12 years into water vapour and carbon dioxide”

Lachaln Flawse
Reply to  Gwan
July 15, 2020 1:46 am

No it ain’t!!!!
Originally Methane was supposed to last 12 years in the atmosphere.
Oh Gee!!!!! We got that wrong – it lasts 7 years!!!!
Oh good heavens hoodatthunkit – Mehtane lasts 5 years
Last I saw they have now started to admit to three years!!!!
Hells bloody bells – in some places it wouldn’t last a week!!!!!! Methane is an EXTREMELY explosive gas. A couple of good lightning flashes would wipe out nearly all mehtane in the surrounding air!!!

Bruce Cobb
July 14, 2020 5:13 pm

Burger King went from selling Whoppers to telling them.
Good example of green washing, I guess. They need to placate the Greenies, and assuage any guilt that they might have about eating meat. “Hey, it’s green meat, so all good.”

Tom Abbott
Reply to  Bruce Cobb
July 15, 2020 5:18 am

“Burger King went from selling Whoppers to telling them.”

Good one, Bruce!

Mad Mac
July 14, 2020 5:27 pm

I haven’t had a Burger King since the late 60’s. A classmate of mine and I were going in to order but stopped to watch the burgers being charbroiled as they passed thru the flames on a chain conveyor belt. At the end of the chain there was a guy putting the condiments on and placing everything on buns. We saw him as he actually drooled on a burger before putting the top of the bun on. He just shrugged and let it go. Needless to say we didn’t eat there and I haven’t since.

Jesse Mohrbacher
July 14, 2020 6:24 pm

Hank 4 he’s not.

July 14, 2020 7:21 pm

Maybe if they got rid of their flame broilers and microwave their burgers they’d cut a whole lot more of GHG in the overall impact.

Mike Dubrasich
July 14, 2020 7:42 pm

Now it seems BK is selling alarmist Koolaid. Drinking it anyway.

There’s a change coming. The Big Corps that have chugged the liberal Koolaid are drowning in red ink. More Koolaid won’t save them. Nobody is going to miss BK when it goes under, either.

Gerald Machnee
July 14, 2020 7:55 pm

**Since we are part of the problem, we are working to be part of the solution**

They got the first half of the sentence correct. With their ignorance of climate, they accepted the BeeEss, so now they are part of the problem. Suckers are born every minute.
As for the second half of the sentence, they will waste a lot of money before finding out they will not be part of the solution unless they educate themselves.

Patrick MJD
July 14, 2020 8:18 pm

Would it not be better to demonstrate that the human contribution to the ~1.8ppm/v CH4 is adding to whatever climate crisis there is?

Ian Coleman
July 14, 2020 8:35 pm

I have nothing intelligent to say on this topic, but there is no way I would even consider passing up an opportunity to write a post on the subject of farts. Every bird, mammal, amphibian and reptile farts. I myself have farted on numerous occasions., and in fact I have set aside a brief period next Thursday during which I shall fart. So how come cattle farts are being singled out as particularly dangerous? This does not seem fair.

Michael Mann has probably farted. I can’t prove this, obviously, but it is likely that an investigation would confirm that supposition. Of course, the air that has been expelled from his mouth in the service of speech has been quite a bit more harmful, but look, the guy has farted. Almost certainly. So he can fart but cows cannot? Come on.

Al Miller
July 14, 2020 10:02 pm

Climate lies are an anti capitalist scheme. That, unlike the CO2 scam is true and verifiable.

July 14, 2020 10:59 pm

“Cow farts and burps are no laughing matter. That’s why we’re working to change our cows’ diet and help fight climate change”

Maybe CO2 from bovine enteric fermentation is no laughing matter but its interpretation in terms of AGW climate change is indeed a laughing matter because these carbon flows along with things like respiration are carbon cycle flows and not a perturbation of the carbon cycle with fossil fuel carbon dug up from under the ground. Details in two links below.

Reply to  Chaamjamal
July 15, 2020 1:35 am

Cows create not a SINGLE ATOM of Carbon.
Why is this hard to understand?????????????????????

July 15, 2020 1:02 am

If this is to be taken seriously someone will have to grow an awful lot of Lemongrass. Where, and how much water, fertiliser, pesticide etc will it use? Did I miss the ecological audit among all the marketing guff?

Patrick MJD
July 15, 2020 2:19 am

I liked the Whopper over the Big Mac. I guess I will give both a miss.

Patrick MJD
July 15, 2020 4:01 am

I think we are all missing the meme here; Low carbon, high dollar cost land.

July 15, 2020 5:11 am

Cattle guys on twitter say that a cow eats 23000 grams a day and they are feeding 100 grams of lemon grass, not sure how effective that will be, but it is a great marketing play with the people who don’t know much about where their food comes from.

Kevin A
July 15, 2020 6:43 am

July 15th 2020 0530, 42.5 degrees feels like 34 degrees with the 15mph wind and 60% humidity, as I break another 2 ton bail apart to feed 4 steers I have been grooming for fall slaughter, cursing the biting wind and trying to remember where I packed my winter clothing … The herds around here have been increasing as more land is put back into production since the CRP program is expiring. Millions of dollars are being invested to bring hundreds of thousands of acres back into production. If this creates more carbon and raises the temperature, great, but it will not, C02 is not the thermostat of the earth, C02 is a political tool to be used on the herd.

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