Racial Inequality in the Deployment Of Rooftop Solar Energy in the US

From EurekAlert!

Fewer rooftop solar photovoltaics installations exist in African-American and Hispanic-dominant neighborhoods than in white-dominant neighborhoods, even when controlling for household income and home ownership

Tufts University

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Tufts University and the University of California, Berkeley, found that the deployment of rooftop solar panels has predominantly occurred in white neighborhoods, even after controlling for household income and home ownership, according to a study by researchers from: Credit Deborah Sunter, Ph.D., a professor of mechanical engineering at the School of Engineering at Tufts, and the study’s lead author.

MEDFORD/SOMERVILLE, Mass. and BERKELEY, Ca. (Jan. 10, 2019)–Although the popularity of rooftop solar panels has skyrocketed because of their benefits to consumers and the environment, the deployment has predominantly occurred in white neighborhoods, even after controlling for household income and home ownership, according to a study by researchers from Tufts University and the University of California, Berkeley, published today in the journal Nature Sustainability.

While solar energy is a popular, cost-effective, sustainable source of energy that can be deployed at large, utility-scale projects as well as on individual rooftops, deployment of rooftop solar has been uneven.

“Solar power is crucial to meeting the climate goals presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, but we can and need to deploy solar more broadly so that it benefits all people, regardless of race and ethnicity,” said Deborah Sunter, Ph.D., a professor of mechanical engineering at the School of Engineering at Tufts, and the study’s lead author. “Solar energy can be a resource for climate protection and social empowerment.”

Researchers combined data from Google’s Project Sunroof on existing rooftop solar installations across the United States with demographic data, including household income, home ownership, and ethnicity and race, from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. The Project Sunroof data includes information on more than 60 million rooftops, and almost 2 million solar installations.

“Advances in remote sensing and in ‘big data’ science enable us not only to take a unique look at where solar is deployed but also to combine that with census and demographic data to chart who gets to benefit from the solar energy revolution,” said Sergio Castellanos, Ph.D., a research faculty at UC Berkeley’s Energy and Resources Group and the California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). “This information allows us to think more deeply about the effectiveness of current policies and approaches to accelerating solar PV (photovoltaics) deployment.”

The study found that for the same median household income:

  • black-majority census tracts – or neighborhoods – have installed 69 percent less rooftop PV than census tracts (neighborhoods) where no single race or ethnicity makes up the majority (no-majority); and
  • Hispanic-majority census tracts have installed 30 percent less rooftop PV than no-majority census tracts. Meanwhile, white-majority census tracts have installed 21 percent more rooftop PV than no-majority census tracts.

When correcting for home ownership, black- and Hispanic-majority census tracts have installed less rooftop PV compared to no-majority tracts by 61 percent and 45 percent, respectively, while white-majority census tracts installed 37 percent more.

The study’s authors said more research is needed to help determine the root causes of the differences. They noted that the findings could be useful in developing better and more inclusive energy infrastructure policy and outcomes, including as part of the evolving ‘Green New Deal’ and programs at the state and federal level.

“Our work illustrates that while solar can be a powerful tool for climate protection and social equity, a lack of access or a lack of outreach to all segments of society can dramatically weaken the social benefit,” said Daniel Kammen, Ph.D., former science envoy for the U. S. State Department, and current professor and chair of the Energy and Resources Group, professor in the Goldman School of Policy, and professor of Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley. Both Sunter and Kammen have been fellows of the Berkeley Institute for Data Science (BIDS), and Castellanos is a fellow at UC Berkeley´s Data for Social Sciences Lab (D-Lab).

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Sunter, D., Castellanos, S., Kammen, D. (2019) “Disparities in rooftop photovoltaics deployment in the United States by race and ethnicity,” Nature Sustainability. DOI 10.1038/s41893-018-0204-z.

About Tufts University

Tufts University, located on campuses in Boston, Medford/Somerville and Grafton, Massachusetts, and in Talloires, France, is recognized among the premier research universities in the United States. Tufts enjoys a global reputation for academic excellence and for the preparation of students as leaders in a wide range of professions. A growing number of innovative teaching and research initiatives span all Tufts campuses, and collaboration among the faculty and students in the undergraduate, graduate and professional programs across the university’s schools is widely encouraged.

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92 thoughts on “Racial Inequality in the Deployment Of Rooftop Solar Energy in the US

    • Yeah, us whites have fallen for the hype of solar. If you live in the upper two-thirds of the US, solar simply cannot break even. In the southern third, there is still the maintenance and longevity problems, as the panels need cleaning, age, lose productivity, and even leak heavy metals. Then, there are the issues with the many fittings that penetrate the roof, abrogate the roof waterproofing, and cause leaks. Wind sees the panels as wings for lifting if the panels are not flush with the roof. Then, there are the circuitry issues as weather starts dismantling the many wires and connections in the whole solar panel system. The way it is presented, it sounds like an install and forget project but that is far from the real world.

      • The reason is obvious, even if a bit insensitive to point out. Black homeowners have already got their victim virtue established by birthright, so there’s no need for them to waste money by buying indulgences that they can show off to their neighbors. That’s exclusively the province of white progressives. And when you understand it as a mechanism by which they hope to expiate their own Original Sin of being both White and Wealthy, it becomes obvious that the more money that they can waste on schemes like this, the more credit they have earned for the Forgiveness of their Sins.

      • Exactly.

        “a resource for XXXXXX social empowerment… Our work illustrates that while solar can be a powerful tool for XXXXXX social equity, a lack of access or a lack of outreach to all segments of society can dramatically weaken the social benefit.”

        White racist liberals often think that “a lack of access” is the cause of differences due to individual choice. Maybe they don’t have driver’s licenses? Or they don’t know how to apply for subsidies? Sheesh. Yeah, their work illustrates that the problem is one of “outreach.”

      • I agree. It’s basically a cultural difference. One group values it, the other doesn’t. The apparent inequality is simply by choice, not a case of one group under the thumb of the other. The authors should have overlayed the question to each group, “How important is to you to contribute/be a part of green energy?” I’m sure that would line up with their results, regardless of income!

      • that isn’t the reason I got mine (and I am an old white guy). I got mine because I didn’t like paying out over $300 a month for electricity even after I put in impact windows (very energy efficient), added insulation to the crawl space, changed out the light bulbs to LEDs and bought a 3 stage pump for the pool (in FL). I got mine because I’m cheap.

        First full year electricity costs were $324 for the whole year. I calculated the payback at between 6 and 8 years though as they are beginning to produce a bit less each year it likely will be closer to 8 years. So, no virtue signaling here (as I don’t believe most of that green crap), just cheap.

    • Holy racial rooftops Batman!

      This paper is reminiscent of this scene from “Billy Madison”:

      “Mr. Madison, what you just said is the most insanely idiotic things I have ever heard.
      At no point in your rambling, incoherent response were you even close to anything that could be considered a rational thought.
      Everyone is this room is now dumber for having listened to it.
      I award you no points, and may God have mercy on your soul.”

  1. Are black and Hispanic households with the same income level as whites equally common in suburban settings, where houses suitable for PV panels are located? Or do they tend to be urban located where roof real estate is very limited? Or do they have more common sense?

      • That was certainly a factor that crossed my mind, certainly something that needs to be controlled in this sort of study.

    • Good questions. There is so much wrong with their assessment. If they can’t provide reasons (“more research is needed to help determine the root causes of the differences”) it’s only a wag. Also note the always present, “send more money” meme.

    • The study found that for the same median household income:

      black-majority census tracts have installed 69 percent less rooftop PV (photovoltaics)

      Hispanic-majority census tracts have installed 30 percent less rooftop PV

      The study’s authors said more research is needed to help determine the root causes of the differences.

      Maybe a study of “vehicle ownership” rather than “rooftop PV” would provide a clue?

      ps

      ps

      ps

      Home ownership is a serious consideration of whether or not to install rooftop PV

    • Because you’re a modern Progressive Leftist, and the corner stone of your belief system is the color of an individual’s skin.

      • “the corner stone of your belief system is the color of an individual’s skin”

        How does that differ from the KKK?

        • In theory I fail to see a difference. In practice, the extreme Left in the U.S. savagely beats people, but I’ve heard of no one being burned at the stake.

  2. Pretty amusing, I must say. There must be all kinds of interesting statistics regarding the “upkeep of the house” practiced by different racial groups. Somewhere.

    It is however, far to easy to fall into “stereotype rationale” on this. Whether or not a house owner of any color, creed or country club membership sizes, designs, buys and installs a roof mounted solar panel power generating and management system depends a LOT on whether they feel “the inspiration” to do something relatively techy-edgy.

    Myself? I would expect to find a strong correlation of solar-panel-house-owners and the kind(s) of hobbies that the homeowners have. For instance, it wouldn’t surprise me one iota that my fellow members at the DIYAudio (online) club have a far higher rate of solar-panel installs than the folks that hang out (as a hobby) at the local bar. Homeowner, or not.

    Just saying,
    GoatGuy

  3. Meanwhile, by a far majority, most Americans don’t have solar panels on their roof at all.

    Yet somehow, of the handful of Americans that do, academia once again cries foul because after counting the beans it appears that the “white” skinned human variant is statistically more likely to have solar panels on his roof. That observation isn’t necessarily bad in and of itself, but then I see this lovely bit assuming that this should influence policymaking: “The study’s authors said more research is needed to help determine the root causes of the differences. They noted that the findings could be useful in developing better and more inclusive energy infrastructure policy and outcomes, including as part of the evolving ‘Green New Deal’ and programs at the state and federal level.”

    Policymaking from the leatherback chair at its finest!

    • Obviously, people who sell and install solar panel systems must be racist.
      The solution is to require sensitivity training.

      • What’s ‘race’ to do with this in the first place? For real. It is just a proxy of profession, education, income, and how many green morons you have in the family.

    • Once again, I’d like to thank all of you for your generous subsidies for the solar panels we installed. I’d have installed some anyway, just to cut down on AC bills(solar power and air conditioning power are pretty closely correlated). But thanks to stupid government programs both state and federal we now pay essentially zero for electricity- government grants paid for about 2/3 of the cost of installation, and now, thanks to stupid laws in Pennsylvania, our electric bill is just about zeroed out. We get bills that average less than $100 a month and also get checks to the tune of $1200/year for something called renewable energy credits. That means virtuous liberals can can “buy” all their power from renewable resources like mine because the power company is compelled by law to get 20% of their power from “renewables”.

      It’s a big scam, but we’ll benefit until folks wise up and demand changes to the laws.

      • Thereby having a “climate impact” – oh God! Warmer water = more evaporation = more “greenhouse gases” (water vapor) will be released. We’re all doomed!/sarc

    • Have you checked what tuition is at Tuft lately? I haven’t but I know without checking it would be “unaffordable, and definitely not worth the money even if I had it” territory.

  4. You can easily separate the sheep from the goats in a non-racist manner if you just apply as a criterion, people with more money than brains. That group across all racial lines is more likely to spend their own money stupidly.

  5. “more inclusive energy infrastructure policy and outcomes”???

    Did they forget diversity? What is wrong with these authors. We need to increase the diversity of energy policy makers SO THAT energy infrastructure policy is more inclusive. There is only one thing to do…Start a quota system to ensure that all policies have an equal and diverse make up so that more inclusive outcomes are forced upon a racist Green Energy industry.

    We need Federal Judges to weigh in on this immediately to enact fair quotas to protect well-off minority middle income home owners so that they receive their fair share of government subsidies.

    (Just in case someone doesn’t get it, that was ALL sarcasm.)

    • How is it that we have marginalized the transgendered and gender-confused communites in all of this? Not one word of acknowledgement that Big Green enforces archaic gender norms?

  6. A study by Ferroni & Hopkirk 2016 shows that after 25 years, solar panel farms in Germany & Switzerland produced only 82% of the energy required to manufacture, install, & maintain them. It also demonstrated that at this point in time (at current solar panel efficiency) latitude 35N (approximately the southern border Tennessee) is the solar energy break even line. After 25 years of operation, solar farms north of this line produce LESS energy than it takes to manufacture, install, & maintain them, while solar farms south of this line produce more.

    I know this article specifically refers to rooftop solar panels, but it looks to me like about half of them will never generate enough electricity to break even.

  7. Clearly some in the USA have examined the risk benefits of putting solar panels on their roofs and decided they have better things to do with their time and money.
    Clearly the Tufts’ academics thing they are wrong and this is an example of disrimination. The Hispanics probably have big families and are educating them.
    The needs of the white population are not theirs.

  8. “While solar energy is a popular, cost-effective, sustainable source of energy” Hot water solar perhaps, not the PV they’re talking about.

    • Did I read correctly that they googled 60 million homes with 2 million having solar? If so, it looks like 3% is the new definition of “popular”.

  9. “Our work illustrates that while solar can be a powerful tool for climate protection and social equity, a lack of access or a lack of outreach to all segments of society can dramatically weaken the social benefit,” said Daniel Kammen, Ph.D., former science envoy for the U. S. State Department, and current professor and chair of the Energy and Resources Group, professor in the Goldman School of Policy, and professor of Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley.
    ………………….
    A Ph.D and extensive credentials are not worth much if it leads one to make a nitwit statement like this.
    There is no evidence that any part of the statement is true.

    • Indeed, Dr. Kammen deeply disgraces himself as a critical thinker with that statement. That statement clearly only plays to the ignorant, partisan Liberal base (at Berkeley mostly) who see everything through the lens of identity politics.

      At some point in his career he probably could have recognized this problem with his gibberish statement. But the brainwashing goes deep when you are immersed in a culture he is in, and where any “snowflake triggering” mis-step by a faculty member can have a screaming hoard of sit-down protestors storming your office in minutes.

      • Absolutely right. Maybe virtue-signalling (and gullibility) are less prevalent with our black and Hispanic brethren?
        But I guess there isn’t much Grant money in pointing that out.

        • Thesis: white guilt played out on susceptible morons then appears as virtue signalling behavior.
          Tesla in the garage, solar panels on the rooftop, soda straw and plastic bag bans.
          All Evidence of repressed guilt behaviors.

          Probably a psychology PhD dissertation to be had in that thesis.

    • “… and social equity…”

      Remember, the claim that Climate Science is just a cover story used in order to bring in a global government are nothing more than paranoid right wing nutjobs. Honest. Completely honest.

      /snark

    • Wanna bet that what a professor of nukular engineering teaches at Bezerkly is that nukes are inherently unsafe and cause social inequality?

    • Anyone else notice the obviously racist assumption in that paragraph?

      ….or a lack of outreach…..

      That suggests that minorities as a group are somehow less capable of understanding the “advantages” of solar installations compared to the general population and need a special “outreach” to raise their awareness.
      (Very similar to the racist assumption that minorities are way less capable than “white folk” in obtaining an ID.)

      I am also delighted that Tufts has introduced Social Justice into their Engineering Department.
      Dr. Sunter, “You go girl!”

  10. This goes hand in hand with the NAACP in Portland saying the signs the city is putting on old red brick buildings (owned or in mostly Black neighborhoods) saying they would be unsafe in an earthquake are racist. The issue is the signs devalues the buildings.

    Of course, when the big one hits and most of the casualties are in the older red brick buildings we will hear how it’s the racist’s city council’s fault.

  11. I’m fed up with the social engineering crap being foisted on people today. You can’t even fart without there being a racial/ethnic/religious/gender reason for it. We’re being manipulated to divide us and nothing more.

  12. Clearly what we need is non coloured, non gender specific, vegan enviromental renewable energy generation so the uptake is improved.

    • So true! How did they forget about microaggressions against the vegan community in all of this? The relevance is so glaringly obvious as to be incandescent /ridicule

  13. Two takeaways in my mind:
    1) This statement is ironic: “Our work illustrates that while solar can be a powerful tool for climate protection and social equity, a lack of access or a lack of outreach to all segments of society can dramatically weaken the social benefit,”
    I say ironic because they now want to prey on the black and hispanic community to further plague this group.

    2) This sounds like a marketing study for how to move solar by using the race card to get funding.

  14. News Flash:

    White kids stick their fingers in outlets more than minority kids. MAJOR INEQUITY.

    Government programs should be established to get minority kids sticking their fingers in outlets AT LEAST at the rates of whites, or RACISM!!!!!!!!!!!!

  15. My flabber is completely gasted.

    For those with limited time, the Reader’s Digest version of this study is “Poppycock.”

  16. This is simple: the non-black and non-latino folks have more money. Which they freely squander, especially when motivated by 30% tax credits.
    The only things this all proves is that, once again, government income transfer goes to the upper middle class rent seekers who voted for that type of politician.

  17. Maybe Obama could come out of retirement, go back to his first profession and replicate his triumph as a key contributor to the genesis of the sub-prime crisis – but this time with those racist solar panels?

  18. The main motivato for solar roofing is economics and those discriminatory economics (by swapping power on the grid for an equal amount for free off the grid -with exceptions due to peak hours) these solar owners are getting paid retail for power that actually has little value (uncontroillable) and, what’s worse, causes reliable power generator plants to operate at lesser capacities, and less capacity operation means higher priced output, which non-solar roof neighbors mostly pay for. Solar roof output should NOT be allowed onto the grid and installation subsidies should NOT be allowed. This will reduce the number of solar roofs, lower the costs of power from the grid, save lots of money much better spent on advanced nuclear power, which is the obvious future power source (at least obvious to the British, the Canadian and the Asians, who’s govts seem to be smarter than everyone else’s) . Is there a law against studies of the problems with solar roofs? They are not hrd to find.
    Notice that the same racial differences show up in electric car sales – EV blogs are chock full of pimply faced White guys, with hardly a Black guy to be found. Ditto for all green endeavors.

  19. Shouldn’t they be comparing race according to economic groups? Are they saying that there aren’t any poor white people? I don’t consider our family to be poor. We have discussed solar and the cost does not justify the expense nor the return on investment. The only way the return could be equal is to artificially raise the cost of electricity. And then only equal. Then you have to think about the present value of the money and the trade off between a high grade investment yield and sinking the money into a fixed asset with the attendant deprecation. Good accounting would have to account for the declining yield in the solar panels as they age, insurance ( damage from wind, hail, water ) and maintenance ( the wiring, and I’ve never seen a battery that doesn’t decline with age).
    Governments, people and other groups are addicted to what has been described as hopiumn. We’ll put up the solar panes and windmills and hope it’s a good investment. If it were a good investment, government wouldn’t have to support it thru subsidies nor would they have to force people to buy their electric thru green projects first. Somehow, in the vain belief that the local coal fired plant is causing the ‘ the canary in the coal mine’, the Arctic to melt, or the Maldives to already be underwater. You can say that ‘ no more snow’ is a cheap shot, but all 3 of these things, along with a long list of failed predictions/projections, has not occurred nor likely to.

    • Based on that reasoning, perhaps the blacks in the same economic group are smarter than the whites. Why waste money on something that is going to make you poorer?
      Here’s an example, many members of my family went the traditional route of getting degrees. Some advanced. My nephew in particular graduated 1st or 2nd at Stanford, unemployed. Fluent in Chinese, Russian and French. You would think that with the trade the US does with China somebody would snap him up. Sends out resumes and never hears back. Other members are struggling to pay the student loans and are not making half of what was quoted as the market would pay them.
      When I apply for a job, I leave off my education entirely.
      Who’s making better decisions?

  20. This is identity-politics poison.

    There are massive cultural differences between white, black, and hispanic people. Contrary to the assertion above, not we DON’T need more research into exactly which of these causes this particular difference in outcome. There is no cause for any Government action – people are just making the choices they think right for themselves. It really doesn’t matter if whites buy more solar panels than blacks.

    The world would be a much better place if people could just ignore s*t that doesn’t matter and relax. And despite provoking my response, I think it would also be a better place if posts like this never received the oxygen of publicity.

    [Of course it’s obviously White Guilt at the root of this phenomenon…]

  21. who gets to benefit from the solar energy revolution

    Holy dimwit batshit! Who gets the freaking ‘benefit’? I’m sorry, mixed power is cheaper than renewable when bought from the grid. Why should intermittent power be a benefit?

  22. Man, the amount of unbelievably stupid crap in this “study” boggles the mind.

    “popularity of rooftop solar panels has skyrocketed because of their benefits to consumers and the environment” –

    LMFAO try “because of government mandates and subsidies that reward consumers for adding useless, destabilizing power to the grid and raising the cost of electricity for everyone” – the only thing that will be “skyrocketing” if more of this useless crap is fed into the grid is the price of electricity.

    “popular, cost-effective, sustainable source of energy” –

    LMFAO try re-reading my reaction to the first point above regarding it being “popular” – “popularity” would be ZERO without government mandates and subsidies; as for being “cost effective,” only if you IGNORE the ACTUAL costs; as for “sustainable,” show me the solar panel made with absolutely NO fossil fuel contribution at all (you can’t, and therefore, it isn’t “sustainable”); as for it being a “source of energy,” show me one that returns enough energy to replace that which is involved, “cradle to grave,” in its production, installation, maintenance and disposal, accounting for ALL added costs including costs of destabilizing the grid and making less efficient use of BASE LOAD (i.e. REAL) electric power generation; you can’t.

    “Solar power is crucial to meeting the climate goals presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” –

    LMFAO Not only is it NOT “critical” to “meet the “climate goals” of the IPCC, which are based on complete fiction, but the use of solar panels doesn’t do anything about it; the more solar and wind “power” is added to the grid, the higher electric prices go, but CO2 emissions are NOT being reduced, since you need to have virtually the same fossil fuel based generation as you need without the solar and wind due to the intermittency problem.

    “we can and need to deploy solar more broadly so that it benefits all people, regardless of race and ethnicity,”

    LMFAO the ONLY people who “benefit” from solar are the people selling solar panels to suckers and the “investors” who are “mandate and subsidy mining”; and since solar causes electric prices to go UP, it HURTS the very people this colossally STUPID “study” claims to seek to “help” through the imposition of more useless “renewable” power generation.

    “Solar energy can be a resource for climate protection and social empowerment.” –

    LMAO Solar will not “protect” the climate, which requires no “protection.” Solar wouldn’t even “protect” the climate if the Eco-Nazi climate BS was reality, since it does NOTHING about CO2 emissions, given intermittency and the requirement for essentially the same amount of fossil fuel powered backup generation anyway.

    “Advances in remote sensing and in ‘big data’ science enable us not only to take a unique look at where solar is deployed but also to combine that with census and demographic data to chart who gets to benefit from the solar energy revolution,” –

    LMFAO there IS no “solar energy revolution;” just a “solar energy boondoggle” where more rich, politically connected, and (ironically, given the tone of this “study”) mostly white scum to pocket boatloads of ill-gotten profits by forcing their useless product down people’s throats through government coercion.

    “They noted that the findings could be useful in developing better and more inclusive energy infrastructure policy and outcomes, including as part of the evolving ‘Green New Deal’ and programs at the state and federal level.” –

    LMFAO There’s nothing “better” about energy infrastructure that costs more than existing infrastructure and is less reliable, which is exactly what “renewables” ARE. The “Green Screw Deal” will screw over poor people more than others, making its negative impact WORSE for so-called “minorities,” and will NOT benefit them. It would benefit nobody except the already rich, politically connected scum that can position themselves to profit from the scam.

    “Our work illustrates that while solar can be a powerful tool for climate protection and social equity, a lack of access or a lack of outreach to all segments of society can dramatically weaken the social benefit,”

    LMFAO – WHAT “social benefit” – skyrocketing energy prices?!

    The fact that this twaddle comes from an institution of supposed “education” is both astounding and saddening – yet at the same time, given the leftist “thought bubble” of academia these days, not unexpected.

    • Can’t think of a point you’ve made that I would disagree with. My reply to Kenji is (or should soon be) above regarding why I put them on my roof top. Selfish and cheap are the only reasons. I think I’ve made at least half of the points you made to others.

      What will happen to them when they reach their life expectancy – I don’t know. I don’t believe I’ll have the home that long and I expect the next buyer to be more of the MSM educated person who will think it is fantastic to buy a home with solar panels over a similar one w/o PV. I do find occasional reasons to love the ignorance of those who don’t understand science and listen to the MSM.

      I deal with data all the time and have been tracking their output over the 4 years I’ve had them and their output has dropped 3% over the four years and also a decrease from one year to the next year.

  23. “…Although the popularity of rooftop solar panels has skyrocketed because of their benefits to consumers and the environment,…”

    “Solar power is crucial to meeting the climate goals presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,….”

    The 2018 E.I.A. numbers for U.S. electricity generation by source are not posted on their website yet, but solar energy’s contribution to U.S. electricity generation in 2017 was only 1.3% according to the E.I.A. How exactly then does rooftop solar (or any other solar type) qualify as an energy source that has “skyrocketed” in popularity with consumers? I don’t see a hell of a lot of rooftop solar panels here in Wisconsin…during the cold weather months here in the northern tier of states they make zero sense.

    How does Dr. Sunter plan on dealing with all the toxic waste that solar panels leave behind at the end of their useful lives if we try an scale them up more forcefully against fossil fuels and nuclear?

    If solar panels haven’t demonstrated an ability to scale up meaningfully against fossil fuels and nuclear power in the nearly 65 years they’ve been around, how exactly are they going to be “crucial” to meeting the Paris Climate Accord goals? Shouldn’t Dr Sunter be look at the possibilities of 4th gen nuclear instead?

    How does someone with a PhD demonstrate such illiteracy on the subject of solar energy? Questions, questions, questions…..and I would love to hear her answers. How someone like her earns a PhD I’ll can’t help be wonder.

  24. No doubt this is caused by how solar companies market and sell their products. They are obviously discriminating against non-whites. How do I know? Because every ethnic/racial/economic class does not have equal and proportional solar panel installation.

    I smell class-action lawsuit!

  25. “The study’s authors said more research is needed to help determine the root causes of the differences.
    The ONLY relevant statement in the study….

  26. Things that affect Solar Panel ownership. 1. Unsuitable roof. 2. Renter, 3. Condo owner, 4. Tree shading, 5. Priorities [e.g., cellphones, supersize flat screen TV, new car every 3/4 years, cruises, vacations, $200 sneakers, etc., etc.] 6. Credit rating [also affected by #5]

  27. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=goh2x_G0ct4

    Whitey on the Moon
    By Gil Scott-Heron

    A rat done bit my sister Nell.
    (with Whitey on the moon)
    Her face and arms began to swell.
    (and Whitey’s on the moon)
    I can’t pay no doctor bill.
    (but Whitey’s on the moon)
    Ten years from now I’ll be paying still.
    (while Whitey’s on the moon)
    The man just’ upped my rent last’ night.
    (’cause Whitey’s on the moon)
    No hot water, no toilets, no lights.
    (but Whitey’s on the moon)
    I wonder why he’s upping me?
    (’cause Whitey’s on the moon?)
    I was already paying him fifty a week.
    (with Whitey on the moon)
    Taxes taking my whole damn check,
    Junkies making me a nervous wreck,
    The price of food is going up,
    And as if all that shit wasn’t enough
    A rat done bit my sister Nell.
    (with Whitey on the moon)
    Her face an’ arm began to swell.
    (but Whitey’s on the moon)
    Was all that money I made last year
    (for Whitey on the moon?)
    How come there ain’t no money here?
    (Hm! Whitey’s on the moon)
    You know I just about had my fill
    (of Whitey on the moon)
    I think I’ll send these doctor bills,
    Airmail special
    (to Whitey on the moon)

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