Wining and Climate Change in California

Oh dear, another alarming press release from Stanford’s Noah Diffenbaugh. Apparently according to his super duper climate model, climate change is going to affect only premium wine grapes. So it appears Ripple, Franzia Box wine, and MD 20/20 are safe from climate change. Winos everywhere are rejoicing.

Diffenbaugh must not get his data from GISS, because they show the temperature as significantly higher in Napa, CA over 100 years ago and the last 7 years of data is downtrending sharply.

Source: http://data.giss.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/gistemp/gistemp_station.py?id=425745160030&data_set=1&num_neighbors=1

It seems the hottest annual temperature in Napa since 1900 was during the 1998 El Niño peak. Hmmm. Of course even that might be elevated a bit, since I found the USHCN station is sited next to an air conditioner vent and a large parking lot.

And in Walla Walla, Washington, another area studied, there appears to be no century scale trend in the data:

Source: http://data.giss.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/gistemp/gistemp_station.py?id=425727880040&data_set=1&num_neighbors=1

But what effect do observations have over the power of models and worrisome press releases sounding the alarm? Apparently none. Thank goodness we can safely exclude the last 110 years of data in favor of the model.

From Stanford UniversityGlobal warming could alter the US premium wine industry in 30 years, says Stanford study

Higher temperatures could significantly impact California and other premium winegrowing regions of the United States in the next 30 years, according to a new study led by Stanford University climate scientists.

Writing in the June 30 edition of Environmental Research Letters, the scientists report that by 2040, the amount of land suitable for cultivating premium wine grapes in high-value areas of northern California could shrink by 50 percent because of global warming. However, some cooler parts of Oregon and Washington State could see an increase in premium grape-growing acreage due to warming, according to the study.

These results come on the heels of the researchers’ 2006 climate study, which projected that as much as 81 percent of premium wine grape acreage in the U.S. could become unsuitable for some varietals by the end of the century.

“Our new study looks at climate change during the next 30 years – a timeframe over which people are actually considering the costs and benefits of making decisions on the ground,” said Noah Diffenbaugh, an assistant professor of environmental Earth system science and a center fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford, who co-authored both studies.

Climate change, from global to local

Most U.S. wine comes from the West Coast. California alone produces on average more than 5 million gallons per year, accounting for about 90 percent of the nation’s total wine production, according to the Wine Institute, a trade organization representing California winemakers. The institute estimated the retail value of the state’s wine industry in 2010 at $18.5 billion.

Higher temperatures could hurt California and other premium wine-growing regions of the United States by 2040, according to a new study led by Noah Diffenbaugh of Stanford University. Credit: Sascha Zubryd, Woods Institute for the Environment

The new study focused on premium wines – the 25 percent most expensive wines on the market – and how global warming could affect growing conditions in four premium wine-producing counties by 2040: Napa and Santa Barbara counties in California, Yamhill County in Oregon’s Willamette Valley and Walla Walla County in Washington’s Columbia Valley.

“We focused on these counties because their mild climates have made them major sources of high-quality grapes, and because they represent both cool and warm growing conditions,” Diffenbaugh said.

But that could change, and soon.

“There will likely be significant localized temperature changes over the next three decades,” Diffenbaugh said. “One of our motivations for the study was to identify the potential impact of those changes, and also to identify the opportunities for growers to take action and adapt.”

Climate change for lovers of fine wine

The study was based on the assumption that there will be a 23 percent increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases by 2040, which could raise the average global temperature by about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) – a conservative scenario, according to Diffenbaugh. “World governments have said that to reduce the negative impacts of climate change, global warming should be limited to an increase of 1 degree Celsius,” he added.

To predict how much land area will be suitable for premium wine grape cultivation in coming decades, Diffenbaugh and his colleagues used a very high-resolution computer model that incorporated local, regional and global conditions, including factors such as coastal wind speeds and ocean temperatures. The researchers compared their simulations to actual weather data collected between 1960 and 2010 to see if their model could accurately “predict” past temperatures.

Using the climate model and the historical weather data, the researchers predicted that by 2040, all four counties are likely to experience higher average temperatures during growing seasons, along with an increase in the number of very hot days when the thermometer reaches 95 F (35 C) or above.

In the experiment, the scientists divided premium grape varieties into separate categories based on their tolerance to different temperature ranges. For example, Napa Valley – widely known for its pinot noir, cabernet sauvignon and other premium wines – has historically experienced growing seasons with an average temperature of less than 68 F (20 C) and fewer than 30 very hot days. Grapes that thrive in that climate have done well there.

According to the study, the average temperature in Napa Valley during the growing season could increase as much as 2 F (1.1 C), with the number of very hot days increasing by 10. As a result, the amount of land with historically hospitable growing conditions could shrink by half over the next three decades, the study found. In Santa Barbara County, the amount of suitable grape-growing acreage with similar climate conditions is projected to decline by more than 20 percent as temperatures rise.

“I was surprised that local temperature changes could have such a big impact on an important industry with only 1 degree Celsius of global warming.” Diffenbaugh said.

The study also predicted higher temperatures in Oregon and Washington by 2040, but with potentially different outcomes for winegrowers. Oregon’s Willamette Valley could see a slight increase in the amount of total suitable acreage and a large increase in area suitable for more valuable varieties, according to the study. But in Washington’s Columbia Valley, varietals that are sensitive to severely hot days could see a 30 percent reduction in suitable land area, the results showed.

Risky business

The researchers also looked at how much land could be available to growers who adapt to warmer conditions, such as by planting heat-tolerant vines or altering their cultivation practices. The study found that suitable acreage in Napa and Santa Barbara counties could actually be increased if growers are able to produce quality grapes that can tolerate up to 45 very hot days and average temperatures of 71 F (22 C) in the growing season. However, varieties currently grown in those conditions tend to produce considerably lower wine quality and value, the authors noted.

Winegrowers, with their knowledge of which cultivation techniques are most appropriate in a given climate, could benefit from the study’s forecasts of temperature conditions, Diffenbaugh said.

“Climate change over the next few decades is of particular relevance for the wine industry,” he said. “It’s a big investment to put plants in the ground. They’re slow to mature, and once they mature they’re productive for a long time.”

Some decisions growers make now could affect their vineyards in 30 years, he added, whether they consider the potential effects of local climate change or not. Moving a vineyard to a cooler location or planting different varietals could be costly for winegrowers, the study said. But in areas where less drastic temperature change is likely, growers may be able to maintain the quality of their grapes by using existing cultivation and winemaking techniques, Diffenbaugh said. Possible strategies include special trellis systems that shade vines, using irrigation to cool plants and adjusting fermentation processes in the winery.

“It’s risky for a grower to make decisions that consider climate change, because those decisions could be expensive and the climate may not change exactly as we expect,” Diffenbaugh said. “But there’s also risk in decisions that ignore global warming, because we’re finding that there are likely to be significant localized changes in the near term.”

“Humans are amazingly resilient, and individual growers will of course make decisions as they read the signs on the ground,” he added. “We’re trying to understand how the climate that works so well for growing great wine grapes right now might be affected by even modest global warming. We can’t know the future before it happens, but if we don’t ask the question, we may be surprised when reality unfolds.”

###

Other coauthors of the study are Michael White of Utah State University, Gregory Jones of Southern Oregon University and Moetasim Ashfaq of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a former postdoctoral researcher at Stanford.

The study was supported in part by a National Science Foundation CAREER award to Noah Diffenbaugh.

This article was written by Sascha Zubryd, a science-writing intern at the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford University.

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John Marshall

Selective climate change? That’s a new one.
During the RWP 2000 years ago the Romans were growing red grape varieties north of York in the UK. Wish we could now but alas it is too cold.

What is sad that you were able to show how feeble their claims are really easy.They should have done their research more thoroughly before making such obviously erroneous claims.
I live in a popular wine region of eastern Washington.There,I see no evidence of heat related stress showing up in the vineyards.It is always the concern about the winter cold hurting them.That gets into the news some years,about winter damage.Some concern for mildew crops up too.
NEVER have I read of heat hurting them.
In Desert Aire Washington.They have for the last few years been adding a lot of new acreage for grapes.The expansion has been startling to me.Because I wonder if they can sell that much for a profit? Saturating the market with grapes?
It is hot there in the summer,and ideally situated along the Columbia River.That is why it is such a hotspot for agriculture.

John Trigge

Does anyone have the production figures to compare with the average temperatures for the past 10, 20 or 30 years? Is there any correlation with the ACTUAL temperatures? Did the yield drop in those years with higher than average temps as this ‘study’ is claiming that this will be the result with even a 1.1C rise in the average.

mike sphar

Not to worry, there are only about 5 businesses that control 95% of the grape harvest worldwide. They will buy their grapes from the best vineyards at the lowest cost whereever grapes are grown. A lot of grape production in the Southern Hemisphere has put pressure on the North growers as these buyers have shifted some attention to harvests overseas.
Recently, last summer, the gentleman who bills himself as Dr. Vino at UNR made a trip to China, as growers in China are looking to get into the biz. UNR prides itself with developing grapes in tougher growing climates as a found in Northern Nevada.
Grapes are very adaptable and grow in every state of the Union. There are some excellent grapes harvests coming from areas in Central California such as Lodi, and the Shanandough Valley region.
The profs from Stanford need to get off the Farm and do a little field research.

jack morrow

Diffenbaugh maybe should change his name to Fluffinbaugh because his “team” report is so much fluff. Another taxpayer loss of revenue.

1DandyTroll

So, essentially, they need to do some more research but are in dire need of some more cash, and besides, on your way out, please buy the new and approved super gene grapes from our good friends in the corner.
One of the most hilarious thing I’ve witnessed is climate communist hippies eating sugar coated chocolate sipping “fine” wine, complaining over world starvation and water problems and oil dependencies. To note: my country doesn’t produce cocoa nor much “fine” wine, so those products has to travel quiet a bit, but we produce too much sugar even during these e85 days. :p

Eyeballing the first chart above (Napa St. Hosp.) I compute the mean temp since 1910 to be roughly 15C. Before 1910 it seems to be about 16C. What caused the big, 1C, drop in 1910? Change in location, instruments or procedures?
Or did the Napa “climate” really change in 1910?
Reminds me of the October 2005 drop in the geomagnetic AP Index.
Is it a real climate shift or just “weather”, or just a measurement artificact?

Steeptown

Gordon Bennett! It’s worse than I thought.

@me
> Eyeballing the first chart above (Napa St. Hosp.) …
… one more point. This chart looks like a “hockey stick”, except the artifact is on the left, not the right.
😐

Dingoh

It is interesting to look at how these themes are propagated around the world. Some seem to be tested in one “market” before being rolled out in other places.
A couple of weeks ago the same story was peddled in Australia. – http://www.perthnow.com.au/lifestyle/climate-change-threatens-australias-wine-industry-study-warns/story-e6frg3pu-1226074876207

One of the best ways to predict future temperatures in the grape growing areas is to observe what varieties the wineries are planting, as they are the stake holders who bet their own money on the future. I don’t hear B.C. ice wine makers making plans to get out of the business.
And also, I calculate only a 15% increase in CO2 by 2040.

starzmom

Quick, capture those graphs before they get adjusted!

MikeL

So let get this straight, the study says that the Napa area will , might or could experience a 1.8 degree increase in temperature in the next 30 years. I have been to the Napa area several times and have personally experienced temperature swings on the order of 30 to 40 degrees over the course of 1/365 years and you mean to tell me that the grape vines in Napa are just gonna die. These idiot pseudo scientists should really get a life and look into finding a different career path.

The researchers also determined that prior to mankind’s introduction of added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, temperatures in rarefied wine-growing regions fluctuated less than .001 degree Celsius year to year, and less than .005 degree Celsius decade to decade. Similarly, until human emissions of co2, rainfall, soil moisture, cloud cover, and wind were essentially unchanging. Until now, that is.
Lead author Noah Diffenbaugh also confirmed that the concept of “vintages” was just a playful game played by vintners and the public, even though everyone knew that no year’s wine was better than another’s, until co2 started wielding an effect. He also noted that he liked wine quite a bit.
He is reported to be receiving psychotherapy to deal with the trauma of the best wine-making regions getting exposed to changing atmospheric conditions in the decades to come.

Pamela Gray

Idiot.
It isn’t heat, it’s number of sun days that count for growing wine grapes. Unless he is thinking water shortages.
Grapes, and the way they are planted, allow this delectable fruit to grow in many different temperatures, as long as sufficient sun days can get to the grape cluster. You can even grow grapes in Tibet, planted in special deep trenches to protect the roots from freezing in winter. It takes a minimum of 5 years to get grapes off of a Tibet vineyard.
Then there are gnarly head grapes. This type of grape vine is not trellised. Instead the trunk is allowed to get thick and rigid, allowing the branches, leaves, and clusters to grow atop the trunk untrellised (thus the name). The grapes are smaller and yield is less, but the flavor is supreme.
Idiot.

Magnus A

I think this would be slightly easier to read if one indenting the whining article.

So you’re saying a warm period Chateau Ripple 1905 is the same quality as a Chateau Franzia vintage 1943 from the cooler times?
Hah! I laugh dryly with a hint of fruitiness at the piquant naivete and unsophistication of such a claim.
Mike
who has been taking Communion since 1961

Bruce Cobb

“One of our motivations for the study was to identify the potential impact of those changes, and also to identify the opportunities for growers to take action and adapt.”
The other (much larger) motivation, of course, was $$$$$.
“I was surprised that local temperature changes could have such a big impact on an important industry with only 1 degree Celsius of global warming.” Diffenbaugh said.
Heh. I’ll bet he was “surprised”. More like delighted. Talk about confirmation bias.
Winegrowers must laugh at “studies” like these.

Cirrius Man

Interesting, but….
In Australia, 1998 Grange is rated as possibly the best vintage ever, and this was due to it being a hot dry ripening season which created a more intense flavour with rich tannin. This is not unusual and in fact for Shiraz grapes, hotter weather is generally linked to the best years. Since all premium Shiaz tends to be dry grown (ie: no irrigation) to create a more intense wine but with smaller yeilds, it is possible that premium shiraz could be impacted by global warming as there could be an over supply due to the warmer temperatures….

Tom Bakewell

Cyprus has produced wines from the carbonate covered southern flanks of Troodos Mountain for thousands of years. As can be the case for lots of Mediterranean coastal areas, the late summertime temps are quite warm. So I just can’t see heat being considered a threat to growing grapes.
Maybe the reason no one ‘does their homework’ before making a research proposal is that they might not like the information they find.
Grrr.

rbateman

“Humans are amazingly resilient, and individual growers will of course make decisions as they read the signs on the ground,” he added. “We’re trying to understand how the climate that works so well for growing great wine grapes right now might be affected by even modest global warming. We can’t know the future before it happens, but if we don’t ask the question, we may be surprised when reality unfolds.”
One sided, the globe has been warming and will continue to warm relentlessly without pause, there are no other possibilities or outcomes.
Might as well have said this instead:
Humans are amazingly resilient, and individual growers will of course make decisions as they read the warming on the ground,” he added. “We’re trying to understand how the warming that endangers growing great wine grapes right now might be affected by even more global warming. We can’t know the warming before it happens, but if we don’t ask the hottest ever question, we may be surprised when warming unfolds.

benfromMO

Just remember folks, this study is based on the premise of “possibly” and “could” assuming that global warming/climate change/climate disruption is happening.
This is roughly about the same as any climate change study out there…basically worthless because it just assumes that we are warming and that this warming is due to man with no proof on how much of the warming is due to man and how much is natural. Another worthless study…just remember the universities that put this fluff out, they sold out.
Any university that is willing to take money to do fake/pseudo science like this obviously can not get funding with real science, and as such you can safely say that these universities just do not hack it with real science. I used to think Stanford was a good university, but after this study? Not sure, they after all are willing to put their name on it……

John A

The best scientific research that can be bought by Exxon Mobil…

Doug in Seattle

I wonder if any vineyard owners pay any heed to such studies. Like sunsettommy and gary above, I have seen an explosion of wine growing in the inland Pacific NW (rain shadow country) over the past 30 years with vines replacing fruit orchards. The quality of NW wines has also greatly improved.
While some of the improvement and growth is likely a result of better techniques, it seems likely it may also have something to do also with the warmer and drier weather we have seen during those 30 years.

Henry Galt

“California alone produces on average more than 5,000,000 gallons per year….
The institute estimated the retail value of the state’s wine industry in 2010 at $18.500,000,000”
In round figures?
$3,700 per gallon, or
$462.50 per pint?
Nice work, if you can get it. Sorry, but I question every number coming out of their mouths now-a-days.

alan france

Quote:
“California produces over 5 million gallons of wine”
Multiply by 100 and you might get close!

Federico

Only an idiot wine grower would follow this experts advice. I bet you this esteemed gent would never have risked a single cent starting a winery in the 70s. The chutzpah of these ivy league scum. They might be scooped, but in no way are they educated.
So much double talk inthe dribble he spouts. I’m the end he will never be held responsible. Tjeydhould strip himof hisdegrees andmake hi pay for any losses incurred from following his advice.

Scott Brim

Anthony: “Diffenbaugh must not get his data from GISS, because they show the temperature as significantly higher in Napa, CA over 100 years ago and the last 7 years of data is downtrending sharply.”
Could the significant expansion of vineyards in the early part of the 20th Century have affected the microclimate of the Napa Valley, cooling it in comparison with what was normal for the late 19th Century?

Alexander K

And if it gets colder in the Napa Valley?

grayman

From what i read on this post, these authors did not acually get any temp records of the areas they studied or even talk to the growers themselves. They just sat in their offices and played with their computers and viola a (worse than we thought) study. If this is what constitutes a real scientific study

Swedish Pete

How stupid can these people be? They should have done their research more thoroughly before making such obviously erroneous claims.
” California alone produces on average more than 5 million gallons per year, accounting for about 90 percent of the nation’s total wine production, according to the Wine Institute, a trade organization representing California winemakers.”
Well if they had gone to the the Wine Insitutes home page. http://www.wineinstitute.org/resources/statistics/article83 they would have found that California produced a lot more that 5 million gallons more like the 631,575,325 gallons in 2009.

GogogoStopSTOP

Here’s some history lessons for the good Heir Doctor Professor Noah Diffenbaugh:
A. The Romans believed that if you couldn’t grow grapes or olives, you were barbarians for living in the cold too long. And they were smart enough to use air to insulate the wine from the grubby hand of humans!
B. The Spaniards came to conquer the American south & south west because they believed the same thing, except for one caveat: That was that you had to sweat & suffer to find gold… to wit, you could only find it in the “desert.”
So Napa, Sonoma, Russian Valley, lets drink to 500 ppm of CO2 & stomp away, stomp away!

Mac the Knife

Nothing but Ripple and MD20/20 will be left?
Ahhhh – The Wrath Of Grapes….

Jimbo

Meanwhile, back in the real world.

Napa Valley Register – March 31, 2011
The recent growing season had just three days over 100 degrees compared to a typical growing season having between 10 and 14 days over 100. While we appreciate the writer noting that the Napa Valley Vintners commissioned the most extensive climate research in the industry and writing that the research team has not found rising temperatures outside of some winter to early summer increase of just one degree in overnight temperatures to date, the science proves that climate change that would change grape phenology has not happened. We are not being “deniers,” but simply put, those who enjoy wine cannot be tasting climate change in Napa Valley wines.

Henry Galt

Swedish Pete says:
Thanks Pete.
@$30.00 per gallon. Phew. It’s much better than we thought 😉 $3.75 per pint. That I can afford.

Scott Brim

Doug in Seattle, you remark, in reference to the expansion which has occurred in the production of wine in the Northwest over the last 30 years, that “While some of the improvement and growth is likely a result of better techniques, it seems likely it may also have something to do also with the warmer and drier weather we have seen during those 30 years.”
A question for Doug: does the temperature record and the precipitation record for the last 30 years support your remark for the Northwest’s wine growing regions individually, and also for the Northwest as a whole?
By the way, there is a large vineyard about a quarter mile from my house which employs the most up-to-date practices, but the unseasonably cool weather we have had here in Eastern Washington over the last three months has not done it any favors.

F. Ross

More raisins anyone?

RobertvdL

Listen and get sick, if you can listen until the end.
The Climate Show 15: Michael Ashley and the ineducable Carter

Pamela Gray

Federico says:
July 2, 2011 at 8:00 am
“…Tjeydhould strip himof hisdegrees andmake hi pay for any losses incurred from following his advice.”
Trying to drink it all up are we, before it shrivels up under the hot CO2 driven temperatures?

Jimbo

Cold as well as heat can also be a problem.

Lower prices and a smaller harvest combined to push the value of the Napa Valley grape crop down by 8 percent in 2010.
In addition, a remarkably cooler-than-average growing season and extended harvest contributed to the $33 million decline in grape revenues, bringing total value of Napa’s 2010 grape crop to $449 million.
http://napavalleyregister.com/news/local/article_14f96404-35a4-11e0-92d5-001cc4c002e0.html

robinedwards36

Environmental Research Letters should attempt to get their papers peer reviewed. Am junior sub-editor could easily do a better job than their currrent “peers. Preferably they should inject a bit of commonsense into what they publish. 5 million gallons is 90% of the total US annual wine business? Come on, get real. Ah! I’ve understood it now. At the unit price suggested by the paper not many will want to take wine regularly. It must be a very high end market.

Shevva

There not even trying now, ten minutes with the xBox, don’t even bother looking at any real world data and then hand out, plam up for the $$$, oh yer and a published paper of course.

GogogoStopSTOP

There are many comments asking why he would have written this paper/press release/ad/etc,etc… My perspective: MONEY! It’s quite obvious he applied for a grant to “study” the Napa “climate” & used & used old material that’s not even close to covering the intended area.
Isn’t it the way things are done nowadays in Climate Change science?

Latitude

From Stanford University
Most U.S. wine comes from the West Coast. California alone produces on average more than 5 million gallons per year, accounting for about 90 percent of the nation’s total wine production, according to the Wine Institute, a trade organization representing California winemakers. The institute estimated the retail value of the state’s wine industry in 2010 at $18.5 billion.
=====================================================================
U.S. students fare poorly in global test, especially math
Among 34 nations, American teenagers rank 14th in reading, 17th in science and 25th in math.
http://www.thonline.com/news/national_world/article_38146a88-7c40-571b-8dad-87c50d2371c0.html

AGW enthusiast: “Oy!, that be merely “local,” not global, so nothing there matters.”
Skeptic: “O.K. let’s take a time machine to S. America, kids….”
The oldest thermometer record there is Lima:
http://climatereason.com/LittleIceAgeThermometers/Lima_Peru_Large.gif
It shows a steady median temperature of about 23°C.
The forecast this week for Lima on WolframAlpha.com shows a steady temperature of 22°C, which happens to be the average yearly T back to 1970 as well.
That’s 260 years of S. American “warming.”
Do they grow grapes there?
http://www.vincentprat.info/gallery2/g2-download/3138-3/PICT6360.jpg
-=NYC=- Ph.D.

crosspatch

Why do people believe that greenhouse warming would make for higher high temperatures? It doesn’t. It raises the average by moderating LOW temperatures. It raises the nighttime low, not the daytime high. It makes it harder for the Earth to shed heat via radiation at night because, according to the hypothesis, IR would heat CO2 in the atmosphere and some of that would be re-radiated back to the ground. The impact would be greatest in extremely dry areas where the effect isn’t swamped out by atmospheric water vapor, such as at the poles in winter. This is easily masked, though, through things such as land use changes such as urbanization and irrigation that also increase nighttime lows.
If there were any impact from CO2 warming, it would be seen as a moderation in temperatures at the South pole in the winter. As far as I know, we see no such moderation of winter low temperatures at the South pole. As far as I can tell from actual observations, it just isn’t happening.

In Burrito

Oh Noes! The Pelosi congressional district will be reduced to Franzia Box Wine?!
IWTTT! (It’s worse than we thought!)

dtbronzich

I was going to mention Sun days (I’m originally from Saratoga, California, where my uncles worked in the Paul Masson vineyards, back when Paul Masson had their winery on Saratoga Avenue) but Pamela Grey beat me to it. I was going to mention that they worked longer in hot years than in cold, but most of the posts here mention that. I could have mentioned that grapes, and viticulture are from the Mediterranean, specifically from the hotter regions of Greece, Italy, Spain, Israel, Tunisia, Malta, Algeria and Morocco, but that seems pointless to point out that the best Algerian grapes are grown on the borders of the Sahara. After all, the paper was researched by professionals.

John Tofflemire

Presumably Diffenbaugh will next advise the Bordeaux region growers how to adapt to these temperature changes. Wait a minute, these growers have adopted to temperature changes over the centuries far greater than what this clown is telling us will take place over the next 30 years. And people in lands distant to Bordeaux have been happily buying this region’s wines for hundreds of years.

Unattorney

NSF career award funded this. This program is such a scam and a huge ripoff. Teleobama gives out millions to his pet leftie academic pals with no oversight.