German climate researcher Schellnhuber proposes limiting amount of CO2 to 3 tons a person per year & enabling private emissions trading

From Climate Depot

By: Marc Morano – Climate Depot

Via The Globe World news:


Three tons of CO2 per year per capita

If one were to apply a fundamental principle of justice, each person would have around three tons of CO2 a year at their disposal by the middle of the century, explains climate researcher Hans Joachim Schellnhuber from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). However, people in Germany are a long way from that.

Currently, each individual in this country causes about ten tons of CO2 per year. People with higher incomes emit significantly larger amounts of greenhouse gases. According to data from the Paris “World Inequality Lab”, many millionaires in Germany emit more than 100 tons of CO2 per person per year. Worldwide, several hundred thousand super-rich cause even more than 2000 tons of CO2 per capita annually.

Anyone who causes more emissions would have to buy rights

Schellnhuber therefore demands in an interview with the ARD magazine Panoramato introduce an individual CO2 limit and at the same time to enable private trading in CO2 rights. “Everyone gets three tons of CO2 per year, but if you need more, you just have to buy it,” explains the climate scientist – from others who consume less.

According to Schellnhuber, this would mean respecting the three tons as a “planetary guard rail” within the framework of a free society, but at the same time accepting the leeway that a market could provide. Because here two property rights are opposed to each other: the right to spend one’s money on something that is associated with high CO2 emissions and, on the other hand, the property right of all people, which consists in the fact that “we have an environment worth living in”. And there the common good must be higher, demands Schellnhuber.

In order to achieve an average of three tons of CO2 emissions per year, nobody would have to comply with this limit immediately. However, individual emissions would have to fall quickly from now on – initially to three tons by around 2030 and then further to zero by the middle of the century. 

From the point of view of climate researcher Schellnhuber, there must be radical clarity about what is necessary to stabilize the climate. This also means that it must be clear what each individual has to contribute. If you really take the climate crisis seriously and want to stop global warming below two degrees, then every citizen of the world would have three tons of CO2 at their disposal every year by the middle of the century.

The idea itself is not new

In principle, the idea of ​​private emissions trading is not new. The British government already discussed introducing individual CO2 certificates in the early 2000s, but then rejected the proposal. Climate researcher Schellnhuber was already working on the concept back then.

In 2009 he proposed the idea as chairman of what was then the “Scientific Advisory Council on Global Change” to the federal government under Chancellor Merkel – without success. “It was a missed opportunity,” says Schellnhuber today.

It is now time to re-examine this idea, wrote scientists from several renowned institutes in Great Britain, Sweden and Israel in an article in the journal “Nature” in 2021. They argue that such a system would provide incentives for behavioral change. A visible price for emissions influences purchasing decisions and energy consumption. In addition, he could raise awareness of the problem.



Czech Physicist Unloads on Hans Schellnhuber & his ‘master plan’: Says he is ‘German Nazi who calls himself a physicist’ and ‘a doomsday crackpot’

‘We should eliminate Schellnhuber et al. away from any influence on the Earth to prevent the civilization from repeating similar things that Germany ignited in the 1930s and 1940s’ — Denounces worry over ‘future generations’: ‘Countries can’t be controlled by people whose existence and interests are just speculations’

Flashback 2009: German Climate Advisor Schellnhuber ‘proposes creation of a CO2 budget for every person on planet!’

Czech Physicist Decries in 2009: ‘What Schellnhuber’s has just said is just breathtaking and it helps me to understand how crazy political movements such as the Nazis or communists could have so easily taken over a nation that is as sensible as Germany’

Another German Will ‘Unveil A Master Plan For A Transformation Of Society’ — Climate advisor Hans Schellnhuber declares human society needs to be managed by elite group of ‘wise men’

Prof. Schellnhuber in 2003: ‘The actual increase in global temps caused by anthropogenic perturbation is less pronounced than estimated in the last IPCC’ report

‘In the vast majority of stations we did not see indications for a global warming of the atmosphere…Most of the continental stations where we observed significant trends are large cities where probably the fast urban growth in the last century gave rise to temperature increases.’

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Sean Galbally
January 13, 2023 2:08 pm

Carbon Dioxide is an essential gas. At 0.04% of atmospheric greenhouse gases, its effect is negligible. Net Zero achieves nothing but poverty. The climate has always changed and will always change. It is due to the sun and nature NOT man. We can do nothing to change it, so we adapt to it.

Tom in Florida
Reply to  Sean Galbally
January 14, 2023 5:20 am

Orbital parameters overrule the Sun in climate changes.

January 13, 2023 2:09 pm

Would someone please introduce these morons to the concept of dignified self termination.

Bryan A
Reply to  HotScot
January 13, 2023 2:41 pm

I hope they realize that it would require a calculation to include the CO2 produced in the Coal/Gas fired grid sourced Generation of the electricity that recharges their virtue signaling Gilded Golf Carts

Bryan A
Reply to  Bryan A
January 13, 2023 3:02 pm

A coal powered Grid produces 2.26 lbs of CO2 per kWH generated.
A 100 kWH Tesla would produce >226 lbs per fill. That’s a Ton every 9 recharges.
If you recharge every other week that’s 26 charges per year, nearly 3 tons of CO2 just recharging your virtue signaling Gilded Golf Cart and at 250 miles per charge means driving no more than 7,000 miles per year

Which of course uses ALL of your annual allotment of CO2 just recharging your Gilded Golf Cart

Last edited 23 days ago by Bryan A
Reply to  Bryan A
January 13, 2023 5:59 pm

They expect you to not own a car… unless you can extort indulgences out of a score of peasants. Some mid level functionaries will have access to cars and be permitted to travel a little, let’s call them Outer Party Members. The “elites”, let’s call them Inner Party Members, will have full access to all means of unrestricted travel. Helicopters, private jets, etc. And access to all the resources you could imagine, the finest food and wine.

You’ll own nothing, you’ll live in a supplied concrete habitat pod. You’ll stay within 15km of your assigned pod at all times. You’ll eat ze bugz and you’ll be happy.

Reply to  Bryan A
January 13, 2023 7:00 pm

Leaving none for breathing. It’s soylent green for you!

Tom Halla
January 13, 2023 2:13 pm

The simplest thing to do would be to tell Schellnhuber to sit down and shut up until he demonstrates that his modest proposal would actually have any effect, other than raising taxes. That would also mean demonstrating ill effects from his postulated mechanism of warming, not just assertions.

January 13, 2023 2:18 pm

Is Schellnhuber going to put the effort to follow me around 24 hours a day to make sure that I comply, or is he going to farm out that part of the show.

If he is going to contract out the verification process, is he going to pay for that, or is he going to want me to pay for it.

For all of the idiots that think this concept is good, and they will get to make a few $ off of it … wrong. All profit you make will go toward an effective administration tax

Reply to  DonM
January 14, 2023 1:39 am

Is Schellnhuber going to put the effort to follow me around 24 hours a day to make sure that I comply, or is he going to farm out that part of the show.

Part of the millions of green jobs created by Nut Zero and run by an FSB type of outfit

Dave Yaussy
January 13, 2023 2:19 pm

If, as he says, the typical German uses 10 tons, the average American probably uses more. Say 12 tons, at at minimum. That means I need to find people I can buy 9 tons from, if I want to maintain my normal activities and life. No one in America is going to limit themselves to less than 3 tons, even the poorest person. So do I look overseas, and buy from the world’s poorest, most desperate people? Do I ask them to give up the use of the energy that, for the foreseeable future, is necessary to bring themselves out of poverty? And how do you even keep track of who has given up what, to whom?

The mind reels, but it strikes me that this is an excellent example of what the climate Malthusians want, expressed in a manner that most people will understand. And intensely dislike

Bryan A
Reply to  Dave Yaussy
January 13, 2023 2:45 pm

The average person produces 1/3 ton per year just breathing…
If you could just hold your breath…

John in Oz
Reply to  Dave Yaussy
January 13, 2023 5:35 pm

If I were a poor person receiving indulgences from CO2 gluttons in another country, I would be using those monies to improve my own lifestyle, perhaps to become just as CO2 profligate as those paying me.

Who would I pay once I reached a decent lifestyle and everyone has reached their CO2 limit?

Reply to  John in Oz
January 13, 2023 8:25 pm

Who would I pay once I reached a decent lifestyle and everyone has reached their CO2 limit?

That’s the whole point. Basic socialism requires everyone to level down to the lowest common denominator (which is often plain dead).

Reply to  Dave Yaussy
January 13, 2023 6:06 pm

Who would possibly enforce this, and how? The level of authoritarian control and brute force that would be required might stand a chance of making Communism seem not so bad.

What happens if you reach your allotment? Let’s say it’s November, it’s -20C outside and your allocated emissions limit is reached. They turn your power off. You perish from hypothermia within a couple of days. Some weeks later it is discovered that there was a clerical error and you really had 0.6 tons left.

Jeff Alberts
Reply to  MarkH
January 13, 2023 9:02 pm

Is your name Buttle?

Tom Abbott
Reply to  Dave Yaussy
January 14, 2023 3:14 am

“So do I look overseas, and buy from the world’s poorest, most desperate people?”

Isn’t this kind of like BitCoin: There’s no there, there. It’s all a mental exercise.

Those poor Third World people did not know they owned something of value just by being alive, thanks to Schellnhuber’s plan.

There are just too many people walking around absorbed in their delusions.

There is no evidence that CO2 needs to be reduced or taxed. There is no evidence that CO2 is anything other than a benign gas, essential for life on Earth.

If one thinks CO2 is a demon gas, they are delusional.

And you know what’s telling? I can say there is no evidence CO2 needs to be controlled on numerous occasions, and you never hear anyone come back and say “Oh, yes there is!” And the reason is because they can’t produce any evidence to back up such a claim, so there is silence.

There is no evidence showing CO2 is anything other than a benign gas, essential for life.

I’m not voluntarily paying a CO2 tax.

Last edited 22 days ago by Tom Abbott
January 13, 2023 2:41 pm

I do not believe I can exhale 3 tons if CO2 a year. What about methane? Can I include that as well?


Bryan A
Reply to  Bob Tisdale
January 13, 2023 7:42 pm

Time to lay off those Belchin Waffles

Reply to  Bob Tisdale
January 14, 2023 8:09 am

The end of beans as we know them. With no beef or beans, that will be the end of cowboys as they will all starve to death. They won’t be alone.

January 13, 2023 2:51 pm

” If you really take the climate crisis seriously and want to stop global warming below two degrees, then every citizen of the world would have three tons of CO2 at their disposal every year by the middle of the century.”

I don’t take it seriously, in fact it’s farce, so I guess I’m out!

Rud Istvan
January 13, 2023 3:00 pm

It is evident that Schellnhuber is well past his ‘best used by’ date, even at PIK. Ditto Wadhams, Hansen, Derocher, Oreskes, and many many other alarmists. None of their past due alarms have become reality. To be specific about the 4 named:

  1. Arctic summer sea ice didn’t disappear.
  2. Sea level rise didn’t accelerate.
  3. Polar bears are thriving.
  4. Merchants of doubt were proven correct by reality.

After 40 years of being wrong, it gets tougher to remain relevant. Ridicule is well deserved.

Curious George
Reply to  Rud Istvan
January 13, 2023 4:42 pm

It is not about “science”. It is about attitude. These comrades want to force us to happiness. 1938 all over again.

January 13, 2023 3:02 pm

Enough of this BS. Mankind cannot change the course of the climate, no matter what we do. But for every effort made to limit CO2 production, millions – ultimately perhaps billions – of people living in poverty will be forced to die prematurely. Anyone who wants to stop contributing about 1/3 ton of CO2 to the atmosphere can make that decision for themselves right now, and welcome. But don’t pass laws that will guarantee the death of others. Just stop.

Reply to  Nevada_Geo
January 13, 2023 3:53 pm

The “millions will die prematurely” part is entirely intentional. It’s psychotic death cult, but they will never admit it.

January 13, 2023 3:06 pm

3 tons of CO2 is 310 gallons of gasoline provided you stop breathing while driving your car.

Bryan A
Reply to  Giving_Cat
January 13, 2023 7:46 pm

310 gallons of gasoline at 30mpg is 9300 miles. Far better than the 7000 an EV supplies at the same CO2 emission level

January 13, 2023 3:08 pm

How, exactly, are they going to track this?

They would have to assign a carbon amount to every single transaction from a cup of coffee to a new house and report on it.

…and how, precisely would one build a new house? How many tons of carbon go into buying a house. Do you now build it over 30 years, one ton per year (I’d say three but that would mean not eating anything or staying warm for 30 years which I think might be impractical)

Reply to  davidmhoffer
January 13, 2023 6:22 pm

Digital currency linked to a digital “passport”. This will, of course, include a social credit score in addition to your “carbon footprint”. There are already credit card companies who will record your “carbon footprint” for you, and even cut off your access if you reach a defined limit.

You won’t be able to build or buy a house, or a car unless you are a favoured functionary of the “authorities”. Working as a bureaucrat or enforcer of the “authorities” will have its benefits (something which allows the “elites” to effectively blackmail the required workforce to subdue the remaining masses).

The “elites” will live in absolute luxury in large estates stages and maintained by select “employees” who receive preferential housing and amenities. These compounds will be surrounded by militarised no-go zones with drones, sensors and active measures to prevent any possibility of unwanted people coming within miles of the “elite”.

Resist digital currency like your life depends on it, because it does.

Reply to  davidmhoffer
January 14, 2023 4:10 am

rfid chips in you as well as objects you own tracking you(already for many)
and the planned CBDC tracks n taxes EVERY purchase you make
banksters hate bitcoin etc
until its THEIR bitcoin variant then its dandy

Last edited 22 days ago by ozspeaksup
Reply to  davidmhoffer
January 14, 2023 8:13 am

The simple answer, just higher tax on private jets flying to climate conferences.

January 13, 2023 3:13 pm

I’m happy to have the same ‘carbon footprint’ as our glorious leader, king Charlie Chump.

Here’s his footprint for 2018 … ( 3,271 ton )
Even if you divide that by the 130 people in his household, that’s still 25 ton each !!!

Last edited 23 days ago by 1saveenergy
Reply to  1saveenergy
January 13, 2023 3:37 pm

Charles the Halfwit….

Reply to  strativarius
January 14, 2023 1:41 am

You’re being unkind to halfwits

Hans Erren
January 13, 2023 3:15 pm

Schelnhuber will be 100 years old in 2050

CD in Wisconsin
January 13, 2023 3:21 pm

Am I mistaken or is Schellnhuber the one who admitted picking the 1.5 deg C temperature threshold number out of thin air for political purposes? Did he or anyone else ever produce any science to support it as an upper temperature limit?

God help us if the world’s governments keep listening to people like him.

Rud Istvan
Reply to  CD in Wisconsin
January 13, 2023 4:52 pm

2C. When EBM showed ECS was about 1.7C, his acolytes changed it to 1.5C. Schellnhuber wrong—the horror (shades of a famous movie finale—Apocolypse Now).

January 13, 2023 3:25 pm

These people are completely bonkers and deeply misanthropic to boot.

What next? Breath rationing?

CD in Wisconsin
Reply to  strativarius
January 13, 2023 3:47 pm

What next? Breath rationing?

Nope. Carbon sequestration masks that we have to wear over our faces. There are way too many of us humans on the planet.

Right-Handed Shark
Reply to  CD in Wisconsin
January 13, 2023 4:19 pm

It won’t help. Every cell in your body contains carbon that was once in the atmosphere as CO2, and will be again once you are gone. Had you never existed, the exact number of carbon atoms in your body now would still be in the air attached to two oxygen atoms. All life forms sequester CO2 for the duration of their lives, and return it to the atmosphere after death. Population reduction will increase atmospheric CO2 by the same amount of carbon that their bodies contain now, especially if they choose cremation. Burial will slow the process for a few years, but ultimately make no difference.

Chris Hanley
January 13, 2023 3:55 pm

Schellnhuber therefore demands …

Schellnhuber rhymes wth Schicklgruber.

Tom Abbott
Reply to  Chris Hanley
January 14, 2023 3:32 am

Same mentality, I think.

January 13, 2023 4:10 pm

I would like to donate my 3 tons of CO2 to be injected it at pressure into Schellnhuber’s exhaust system.

Reply to  honestyrus
January 13, 2023 9:28 pm

Have ever seen a wasp? Takes a lot less CO2…🤣

Reply to  schmoozer
January 13, 2023 11:25 pm

Nasty !!!

Matt Kiro
January 13, 2023 4:18 pm

I think if we stopped all climate model simulation computers, all climate doomsday articles and news coverage, no human would need to reduce their CO2 output.

Paul Hurley
January 13, 2023 4:26 pm

Private emissions trading? Does that mean we’ll have 8 billion little Enrons?

January 13, 2023 4:31 pm

How long before people start covertly releasing greenhouse gases to keep offset prices up and justify other political measures?

January 13, 2023 5:12 pm

Death to tyrants.

Ron Long
January 13, 2023 5:22 pm

“Anyone who causes more emissions would have to buy rights.” Looks like Herr Schellnhuber didn’t win the farting contest in his Fraternity and can’t wait to get even.

John in Oz
January 13, 2023 5:31 pm

Anyone that claims they/we/humans can “stabilize the climate” should be banned from ever publishing anything, ever.

January 13, 2023 6:31 pm

There sure are a lot of drop kicks writing papers who don’t have a clue about CO2 or the minimal effect that it can cause .
Our Labour Green government here in New Zealand have got the answer.
Yeah right .
They are allowing rich pricks from overseas to buy up our farmland and plant it in carbon forests .
They are not allowed to buy farmland to farm with sheep and cattle , cropping or dairying .
The nutters in government think this is a great scheme but what benefit is it to New Zealand?
The only advantage is the initial purchase price and the planting will flow in from overseas ,but from then on the only expenses are county rates and insurance premiums on the trees .
From then on our government will issue carbon credits which will flow overseas.
Where is the benefit to New Zealand?
A great way to bankrupt a country as when these farms were farmed they provided much work and exports of food and wool to the world earning foreign exchange for our country .

I quote from the Paris agreement on climate change that the UN issued in Artical 2 B
“Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster resilience and low green house gas emission in a manner THAT DOES NOT THREATEN FOOD PRODUCTION.”

The government will issue carbon credits which will flow overseas never to be seen again .
This is a disaster waiting to happen because they will be planting pines that will never be harvested so in many cases these will burn as dead pines are very inflammable .
The theory is that our native bush will grow below the pines and take over one day .
The theory has two faults , that the majority of these pines will be come fire hazards and burn and also at present any one with native bush on their farms cannot have carbon credits issued for increased growth at this time .

Reply to  Graham
January 14, 2023 4:14 am

vote that b*tch OUT asap, its your only hope

January 13, 2023 6:57 pm

Zero by the middle of the century? Would that include the half ton each of us emit per year by breathing?

January 13, 2023 7:28 pm

So no more athletes? Surely that training, all that running, pumping of weights, will see them with a plastic bag over their heads by October.

Does that mean that a couch potato can sell his credits? Imagine, Nadal wearing a shirt with Homer’s name in large font on the front. It’s that or the plastic bag….

Lee Riffee
January 13, 2023 8:27 pm

I’ve said this before, and I’ll say it again….those who do not know history are doomed to repeat it! In human history how many examples are there of people trying desperately to affect or control the weather and climate? If you know even a little bit of history (real history, not the made up bunkum that tries to pass as such) you then know that history is rife with such examples. Some of the ways in which humans have tried this were quite bloody, i.e., the Aztecs, Maya and other early south and central American societies cutting the hearts out of their sacrificial victims. All to appease various deities in hopes of having ideal weather….

Richard Greene
January 13, 2023 11:39 pm

Will violators be sent to German climate concentration camps?

January 13, 2023 11:40 pm

in 2021 China’s per capita CO2 emissions were a bit under 9 tons.

The response to the author should be yes, absolutely, right behind you, we are all ready to do our bit and save the planet.

Just as soon as China implements the exact same measures he is proposing to implement in Germany.

After all, this is all about equality and fairness, isn’t it?

January 13, 2023 11:55 pm

Every time they talk about tons of carbon, I see somebody stupid talking. The atomic weight of carbon is 12 and the atomic weight of oxygen is 16. When you burn carbon, your tacking on two oxygen atoms for a weight of 32. Roughly 2/3 of the weight of carbon dioxide is oxygen which was pulled from the atmosphere and only 1/3 is actually carbon added to the atmosphere. Your are being penalized for using something that was already in the atmosphere. The 3 tons they are talking about means you’re only adding one ton of carbon to the atmosphere.
And when the plants get a hold of it, the oxygen remains in the atmosphere with the carbon becoming part of the plant.

Bryan A
Reply to  Dena
January 14, 2023 11:55 am

Now Now, this is the New World Order…critical thinking is verboten

January 14, 2023 12:07 am

Just watch the black market develop in CO2 indulgences.

And a criminals charter for fake certificates. Can you imagine the emails from Nigeria?

January 14, 2023 12:11 am

Zil lanes for the important coming. Do Zil make EVs?

And Lada EVs for everyone else.

And don’t forget the EV tractor production figures on the national news.

Bryan A
Reply to  ThinkingScientist
January 14, 2023 11:57 am

Everyone else’s EVs will run on AA and AAA.
It’ll take hours to locate, test and replace depleted cells
It’s all part of the plan

Roger Collier
January 14, 2023 12:51 am

Schicklgruber could start with an immediate ban on state-subsidised gas guzzlers and a weight limit on electric cars.

Ed Zuiderwijk
January 14, 2023 2:06 am

Are we sure his name is not Schickelgruber?

Ed Zuiderwijk
January 14, 2023 2:21 am

Cows eat grasses. Sheep and goats eat grasses. Pigs eat grains and offal from animals which in their turn eat grasses. Humans eat grains and animals, hence grasses.

All grasses grow from sunlight and CO2 in the air. Hence every carbon atom in your body was a few years ago in the atmosphere as part of a CO2 molecule. Every molecule of methane in a cow fart has a carbon atom that originally, not so long ago was in a CO2 molecule. The methane oxidises in a few days, bodies decompose and the carbon atoms reemerge as CO2, closing the loop.

The ludicrous idea that cows are bad for the climate and that humans need a carbon budget only to breath is based on abject ignorance. Chase those people out of the village covered with tar and feathers.

Steve Richards
January 14, 2023 4:04 am

A great idea! So rich people will be able to do what they want and everyone else has to grovel.
You couldn’t make this stuff up!!

Last edited 22 days ago by Steve Richards
January 14, 2023 4:46 am

Let’s extend this thinking to large northern countries like Canada where winter heating and cost to transport basic goods the long distance between urban centers can be quite high.

Canadian government data shows average carbon use per capita over the last 5 years (excluding lower covid years) as between 19 and 20 tonnes per ha, double what they list for germany. Are we also to be held to 3 tonnes/person? Will we all have to move to Toronto and Vancouver so there’s no more transportation carbon? Who will run the mines to build EVs and grid backup? Who will manage the forests to make the low carbon tall wood buildings (surely cement and steel are now off limits at 3t/person)? Who will operate the farms so we can turn perfectly good food into fuel?

This is social credit by another name. Next step would be to add a system of carbon fines and carbon bonuses to keep the proles in line. Complain on social media about carbon rationing? – 10kg fine. Report your neighbor for a clandestine diesel generator? – 25kg bonus.

“If you want to keep a secret, you must also hide it from yourself.” Orwell, 1984.

Joseph Zorzin
January 14, 2023 7:56 am

“Everyone gets three tons of CO2 per year, but if you need more, you just have to buy it,”

Nah, if there will be limits- it must be on everyone- every billionaire. Put that in the proposed law and we can be sure it won’t pass. 🙂

Reply to  Joseph Zorzin
January 14, 2023 9:06 am

Joseph, that is the plan….just for the rich the $10k per year is insignificant, while for the average person, it causes them to turn down their thermostat, take the bus to work, eat tofu, take vacations by train instead of air. Meanwhile. those in charge will be selling carbon credits.

Last edited 22 days ago by DMacKenzie
January 14, 2023 8:53 am

proposes limiting amount of CO2 to 3 tons a person per year

That means a significant portion of your income will be expended by you purchasing carbon credits, paying carbon taxes, or paying extra for reduced carbon footprint items. In northern climates, you probably emit 4 or 5 tons of carbon, the remainder of the 10 or 12 tons being industrial production. At 3 tons allowable, about 3/5 to 3/4 of what you do every day will be emissions restricted by a powerful unelected petticracy….An option is to just adapt and get used to the weather of somewhere a couple of hundred kilometers closer to the equator than you are at present, for every degree of warming. You might have to give away a sweater.

January 17, 2023 7:11 am

Takes you back to the Warsaw Ghetto. Enough said

John the Econ
January 18, 2023 11:34 am

Love it. Sequester the poor unwashed to their ghettos as the wealthy buy their credits as continue life unabated and no longer having to mingle with the riff-raff.

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