34 Years of Flawed, Failed & Grossly Misrepresented Global Sea Level Rise Speculation

Guest essay by Larry Hamlin

For decades climate alarmists in the UK, EU and U.S. have been making flawed and failed exaggerated claims regarding accelerating global level sea level rise being caused by increasing man made CO2 emissions as one means of politically bullying the world’s nations into mandating immensely costly, bureaucratically onerous and completely ineffective global CO2 reductions from these nations.

The flawed CO2 reduction schemes in the EU and UK have created significant declines in energy availability and reliability because of these nations excessive reliance on unreliable, nondispatchable, backup power reliant and costly renewable energy. These politically contrived emissions and energy incompetent policies have resulted in greatly increasing energy costs for EU and UK nations that negatively impacted their economies while significantly increasing their dependence on energy from other nations. 

This energy dependence includes greatly increased needs for natural gas, petroleum and coal supplies obtained through other nations and especially from Russia which (before sanctions) provided about 40% of the EU’s natural gas energy as well as being the EUs main supplier of crude oil (27%) and hard coal (49%). This data and other information concerning the EU and UK self-inflicted climate alarmist driven energy and economic debacle is addressed herehere and here.

The EUs efforts to build additional liquified natural gas terminals to wean itself off Russian gas is estimated to take at least three years with existing available import shipping facilities already maxed out. Renewables would take even longer. Any new LNG cargoes will have higher costs than the existing Russian pipelines. EU policy makers are stuck with politically damaging options including rationing energy and using more coal which means dumping climate goals. When push comes to shove emission reductions will take second place to economic survival with this huge energy and emissions policy turnaround already underway and being led by Germany.

Loss of western energy expertise in Russia resulting from sanctions could led to much higher emissions in Russia which is the largest emitter of methane in oil and gas production that leaks from its fossil-fuel infrastructure. China has become the major global manufacturing center producing emissions for the world making it far and away the largest emitter (emissions twice those of the U.S. with more emissions growth to come) and because of its global manufacturing role doesn’t even bother to play lip service to the alarmist driven propaganda hyping climate change goals. China along with economic growth desired by other developing nations will clearly push future global emissions upward as noted below.    

Global emissions are climbing again and will clearly continue to climb ever upward in the coming years. After about a 5% reduction during the pandemic of  2020 global emissions have seen record highs in 2021 according to IEA with a 6% increase over 2020 levels with the CO2 atmospheric levels showing no trace of the 5% reduction in year 2020 as shown below. So much for the absurdly phony year 2021 scientifically false “climate emergency” proclaimed by the Democrats trying to support their failed COP26 debacle in Glasgow at a time when all 5 acknowledged global temperature anomalies measurement systems have been declining for the last 6+ years.

During all this global energy and economic turmoil caused by harebrained net zero-renewable energy climate alarmist propaganda the latest report was released by NOAA and other government agencies attempting to justify claims of ever-increasing rates of global sea level rise caused by man- made CO2 emissions. 

While the harsh political and economic reality of the excessive renewable energy net zero policy mandate consequences and stupidity are now clearly visible and impossible to hide the alarmist world of global mean sea level rise is floundering with the ability to accurately “predict” future global sea level rise outcomes moving further into the future as demonstrated by the results of most recent year 2022 government sea level rise report published over the last 34 years starting with an historic Senate hearing in 1988.     

The long and scientifically unsupported exaggerated history of flawed and failed rising sea level alarmist claims began in earnest in the U.S. in 1988 political theatrics showcase hearing in the nation’s Capital.    

The Democratic Party escalated the politically driven climate alarmist dubious rising sea level claims in a hearing held on June 23, 1988 by the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the Senate Dirksen Office Building in Washington D.C. addressed in detail here.

Dr. Michael Oppenheimer, Senior Scientist, Environmental Defense Fund wrongly testified that:

“Global mean temperature will likely rise at about 0.6 degrees F per decade and sea level at about 2.5 inches per decade.” 

“These rates are about six times recent history.” 

“Every decade of delay and implementation of greenhouse gas abatement policies ultimately adds perhaps a degree F of warming, and no policy can be fully implemented immediately in any event.”

NOAA global tide gauge data updated through year 2020 (more than three decades after the 1988 Senate hearings) estimates that the global absolute rate of sea level rise is about 0.7 inches per decade (between 1.7 to 1.8 mm/yr.) which is strikingly below Dr. Oppenheimer’s claim of 2.5 inches per decade increase.

Furthermore Dr. Oppenheimer’s claim that each decade of delay in implementing greenhouse gas abatement policies (global emissions grew by nearly 65% between 1988 and 2019 with this growth entirely dominated by the world’s developing nations led by China and India) adds another 1 Degree F of warming would mean that the three plus decades of continued growth in greenhouse gas emissions that have occurred since the 1988 hearing would have considerably increased his estimates of 0.6 degrees F temperature anomaly increase per decade and 2.5 inches of sea level rise increase per decade – assuming his alarmist claims ever had any merit.

Of course, all these flawed and proved false increasing global sea level rise claims made in the Democrats hearing were headlined in the climate alarmist propaganda press (just as they continue to be 34 years later only with newly flawed and fabricated erroneous global mean sea level claims) as shown below in the headlines of the June 24,1988 New York Times.

The first UN IPCC AR1 (FAR) climate report issued in 1990 provided yet another opportunity for climate alarmists to fabricate more flawed and failed exaggerated “predicted” claims about global sea level rise with the following study assessment.

“Simple models were used to calculate the rise in sea level to the year 2100, the results are illustrated below.”

“The sea level rise expected from 1990 to 2100 under the IPCC Business as-Usual emissions scenario is shown in Figure 12.” 

The FAR report notes that using the Best Estimate “predicted” case “The “predicted” rise is about 20cm (7.9 inches) in global mean sea level by 2030, and 65cm (25.6 inches) by the end of the next century.”

The FAR report High Estimate “predicted” estimate for year 2100 was 110cm (43.3 inches) and the Low Estimate “predicted” was 30cm (11.8 inches).   

Using NOAA’s absolute rate of global sea level rise noted above of between 1.7 to 1.8 mm/yr. discussed above establishes that the increase between 1990 and 2030 would be about 7cm (2.75 inches over 40 years or 6.87 inches per century) not the 20cm “projected” in the FAR study with the NOAA estimated value being about 1/2 of what the Low Estimate “projection” of the FAR study graph shows for year 2030.

Additionally using this NOAA absolute sea level rise value results in the global sea level rise increase between 1990 to year 2020 being about 5.2cm (2 inches in 30 years).

The graph below shows a comparison of the NOAA linear trend measured tide gauge data for Los Angeles, California (used as an example of more than 100 U.S. NOAA coastal tide gauge measurement stations showing linear sea level rise data trends) over the period from 1923 through 2021 compared to the “predicted” accelerating sea level rise curves portrayed by the UN IPCC FAR study that falsely assert sea level rise acceleration starts in 1990.

For the 31-year period between 1990 and 2021 (NOAA tide gauge data updated through year 2021) the Los Angeles tide gauge data shows a steady increase of about 3.2cm (1.27 inches) which is about 1/2 of the FAR Low Estimate value “predicted” curve with no acceleration present as wrongly portrayed in the FAR study global sea level rise “predicted” curves. 

Hundreds of additional measured tide gauge data locations worldwide (using GLOSS/PSMSL world tide gauge station data) can be compared with the accelerating sea level rise curves as shown in the FAR “predicted” study as shown below for the more than 210 year long Brest France tide gauge measured data reflecting no acceleration with a steady sea level rise trend over its long history of about 0.33 feet (10cm) per century.

The FAR study over states the rise of global sea level rise by about a factor of 3 (year 2030 7cm increase versus 20cm increase by FAR’s Best Estimate “predicted” sea level rise with sea level rise acceleration starting in 1990) higher than the NOAA determined absolute sea level rise rate of 1.7 to 1.8 mm/yr. – yet another flawed and failed UN IPCC sea level rise scenario “predicted” outcome that the world’s nations were being asked to accept via this “settled science” based on flawed “scenarios” that falsely attempted to justify mandates for highly questionable, ineffective and costly CO2 reduction mandates.

Moving on to the year 2012 study by government climate alarmists attempting to fabricate sea level rise increasing claims the Global Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment report is shown below.

This report was carried out by the Obama Administration reflecting his belief  that we would be able to look back upon his nomination and tell our children that “this was the moment when the rise of the oceans began to slow and our planet began to heal.”

Besides the monumental hubris of this statement, it is apparent that President Obama was ignorant of the fact that the oceans have been rising for thousands of years since the end of the last ice age.     

The rates of ocean sea level change have varied significantly over this time period with more recent studies showing greater detail of ocean sea level change information over about the last two hundred years. These changes in ocean sea level have occurred as a result of natural climate driven outcomes as clearly shown in information (slide #36) from a presentation by Dr. Judith Curry regarding global climate science issues.

By the end of the Obama Administration in January 2017 the rate of sea level rise at both Honolulu and Woods Hole (6 miles from  Martha’s Vineyard Island) remained unchanged from January 2009 when he took office at 0.51 feet per century and 0.98 feet per century respectively (as shown below by NOAA tide gauge data updated through year 2021) thereby revealing that Obama’s post Presidential decisions to spend tens of millions of dollars to build and buy huge coastal mansions at Honolulu and Martha’s Vineyard coastal locations were unfettered by his and the Democratic Party politically contrived shenanigans about “the rise of the oceans”.

Additionally, the rates of sea level rise at both of Obama’s huge coastal mansion locations remain unchanged through year 2021 from those present during the 8 long years of the Obama Administration demonstrating that not only was he not able to slow “the rise of the oceans” but more importantly that Obama and the Democrats phony climate alarmist sea level rise claims were nothing but politically driven propaganda not science.  

Like all government politically driven future sea level rise studies by climate alarmist’s new versions of accelerating global mean sea level rise claims are fabricated using sea level rise “scenario” models that show their completely speculative sea level rise trends accelerating in the future that the world will supposedly experience unless we act immediately to reduce CO2 emissions. This 2012 study sea level rise “scenario” models are shown below with sea level rise acceleration starting about year 2000 (as shown below) a decade later than the FAR study 1990 acceleration start year.

The 2012 report proposes 4 speculative global sea level rise scenarios but states very confidently that “We have very high confidence (>9 in 10 chance) that global mean sea level will rise at least 0.2 meters (8 inches) and no more than 2.0 meters (6.6 feet) by 2100.” The report offers a mid-range for its global sea level rise “scenario” of about 3 feet. 

The term “high confidence” represents “expert opinion” by the authors of the report and is not derived from calculated probabilities for “scenarios” which of course have no defined probabilities as discussed below

Compared to the FAR study the “new” year 2100 magically arrived at highest global sea level rise number is now 6.6 feet versus just 3.6 feet in the FAR study emulating the usual IPCC “it’s worse than we thought” mantra utilized for each new UN published climate report. Addressed below is a discussion of the lack of both certainty and credibility behind the new “worse than we thought” global sea level rise scenario “projections” (note the term “projection” is now used instead of the term “prediction” as used in the FAR study clearly showing the degree of certainty in these sea level rise claims is declining) from this Obama Administration study.        

The alleged purpose of this study was to “help” local cities and communities “plan” for future sea level rise that could impact their locations. The report contains the following huge methodology uncertainty stipulations and inadequacies regarding the validity and applicability of these global mean sea level rise scenarios that will supposedly impact coastal communities and cities in the future:

Scenarios do not predict future changes but describe future potential conditions in a manner that supports decision-making under conditions of uncertainty”.

Probabilistic projections of future conditions are another form of scenarios not used in this report because this method remains an area of active research. No widely accepted method is currently available for producing probabilistic projections of sea level rise at actionable scales”.

Thus, specific probabilities or likelihoods are not assigned to individual scenarios in this report, and none of these scenarios should be used in isolation”.

None of these scenarios should be used in isolation, and experts and coastal managers should factor in locally and regionally specific information on climatic, physical, ecological, and biological processes and on the culture and economy of coastal communities.

Scientific observations at the local and regional scale are essential to action, and long-term coastal management actions (e.g., coastal habitat restoration) are sensitive to near-term rates and amounts of SLR.” (This would include use of hundreds of long time period local tide gauge measurement data which is unmentioned in the study)

Exactly how local communities and cities are supposed to use these scenarios for local sea level rise “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” purposes given these extensive uncertainty limitations and inadequacies is unexplained.

Of course, when the climate alarmist news media address these studies all uncertainty limitations and inadequacies concerning the studies monumental guesswork are carefully concealed. 

Instead media emphasize the flawed application of 6+ foot highest global mean sea level rise “projection” increases by 2100 to coastal locations (as noted numerous times in these global mean sea level rise government reports coastal sea level rise is subject to locally driven specific assessments that differentiate outcomes at these locations from GMSL outcomes) with alarmist headlines as shown, for example, in the L. A. Times article shown below. 

These sea level rise climate alarmist news articles grossly exaggerate and misrepresent what these studies actually say by concealing huge study uncertainty and inadequacy limitations while hyping the speculative and ill-defined sea level rise scenario guesswork.

This often repeated pattern of flawed, failed and grossly misrepresented sea level rise studies is further addressed in the following material.

The 2012 Global Sea Level rise study discussed above was updated in a 2017 report shown below.

The 2017 report addressed the differences between this new study versus how the 2012 study was approached and conducted as discussed below from items noted in the 2017 report which discusses key sea level rise components, uncertainties and assumptions.  

Parris et al. (2012) recognized the need for an interagency effort to define a set of future possible GMSL rise scenarios for coastal planning, policy, and management to allow for recognition of trend changes and adaptive management strategies (USACE, 2013)

Because of the large uncertainties involved in predictions of the land-based ice melt contribution to GMSL rise and the significant consequences associated with impossible-to-rule-out extreme outcomes, Parris et al. (2012) recommended a scenario approach covering a broad range (0.2 m to 2.0 m GMSL rise by 2100) of existing sea level study results (trends, process modeling, semi-empirical approaches, etc.).” 

“In order to bound the set of GMSL rise scenarios for year 2100, we assessed the most up-to-date scientific literature on scientifically supported upper-end GMSL projections, including recent observational and modeling literature related to the potential for rapid ice melt in Greenland and Antarctica.”

To ensure consistency with these recent updates to the peer-reviewed scientific literature, we recommend a revised ‘extreme’ upper-bound scenario for GMSL rise of 2.5 m by the year 2100, which is 0.5 m higher than the upper bound scenario from Parris et al. (2012) employed by the Third NCA (NCA3).” (Third National Climate Assessment NCA 2014)

“This report articulates the linkages between scenario-based and probabilistic projections of future sea levels for coastal-risk planning, management of long-lived critical infrastructure, mission readiness, and other purposes. The probabilistic projections discussed in this report recognize the inherent dependency (conditionality) of future GMSL rise on future greenhouse-gas emissions and associated ocean-atmosphere warming.” (The 2017 study incorporates the use of AR5 climate model RCPs into its analysis which was not done in the 2012 study)

The RCPs provide a set of possible future greenhouse gas concentrations through the year 2300 and were used by the IPCC AR5. Each RCP represents possible underlying (though implicit) socioeconomic conditions and technological considerations, including a low-end member (RCP2.6) requiring strong mitigation (net- negative emissions in the last decades of the 21st century), a moderate mitigation member (RCP4.5) stabilizing emissions through 2050 and declining thereafter, and a high-end, fossil-fuel-intensive, ‘business-as-usual’ emission scenario (RCP8.5).”

“Under the methodological assumptions of Kopp et al. (2014), in 2100 the Low scenario has a 94% to 100% chance of being exceeded under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively, whereas the Extreme scenario has a 0.05% to a 0.1% chance of being exceeded.”

Table 4 supposedly represents a proposed framework for “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” where the RCP uncertainties are now expressed as probabilities in terms of exceeding a specific but also uncertain sea level rise scenario

Table 4 probabilities do not represent the likelihood of any specific sea level rise outcomes actual occurrence which cannot be established because of inadequacies of the RCPs and global sea level rise scenarios. 

The climate alarmist news media conceal the “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” probability characterizations represented by Table 4 and erroneously emphasize the “Extreme (2.5 m)” GMSL rise scenario (as discussed further below) in their misleading articles that grossly misrepresent what the Table 4 study actually says.    

How these Table 4 “probability of exceeding” values was determined is addressed below. 

After the theatrics of the 1988 Senate hearing on global warming the UN IPCC had conducted several climate analysis reports and concluded that there are significant limitations to climate models being able to provide accurate future climate predictions that cannot be overcome.

The UN IPCC Third Assessment Report (AR3) was issued in year 2001 more than a decade after the 1988 hearing. That report finally acknowledged that it is not possible to develop climate models that can accurately model global climate and provide future climate predictions.

Specifically, the report in Section noted:

In sum, a strategy must recognize what is possible. In climate research and modeling, we should recognize that we are dealing with a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore that the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible. The most we can expect to achieve is the prediction of the probability distribution of the system’s future possible states by generation of ensembles model solutions.

UN IPCC Assessment Reports to date provide climate model scenarios (referred to as RCPs) that are used to suggest various possible climate states in the future. The RCPs that were included in the AR5 report issued in 2013 were identified as RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5 with assumed greenhouse gas emissions varied from low scenario (2.6) to high scenario (8.5) along with numerous other assumptions. 

However, the validity of these climate scenarios is significantly qualified in the AR5 climate report with the following limitations:

The scenarios should be considered plausible and illustrative, and do not have probabilities attached to them.” (12.3.1; Box1.1) 

The RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 used in the NOAA 2017 study have no probabilities associated with their emissions scenario outcomes nor are there associated defined probabilities for the resulting warming impacts that are estimated for ocean thermal expansion, mass loss from glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets or for varying non-climatic ground LSL (local sea level) uplift or subsidence. So how are these “probabilities” in Table 4 established?

Going to the 2017 studies methodological assumptions source for the probabilities Kopp et al. (2014) as shown in Table 4 above we find the following critical information regarding what lies behind these numbers and the process that defined them as highlighted in the significant items from this study discussed below.

“Here we present a global set of local sea-level (LSL) projections to inform decisions on timescales ranging from the coming decades through the 22nd century.” 

“We provide complete probability distributions, informed by a combination of expert community assessment, expert elicitation, and process modeling.”

The term “expert elicitation” means the following:

“In science, engineering, and research, expert elicitation is the synthesis of opinions of authorities of a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data or when such data is unattainable because of physical constraints or lack of resources.”

So, the stated “probabilities” are “opinion” driven because of uncertainty, insufficient and unattainable data and not the result of calculated outcomes from well-defined scientifically established emission scenarios, global mean sea level rise scenarios and process models.

Continuing with the Kopp (2014) study we find further discussion of the analysis methodology limitations, uncertainties and inadequacies addressed as follows:

“Between the years 2000 and 2100, we project a very likely (90% probability) GSL rise of 0.5–1.2 m under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5, 0.4–0.9 m under RCP 4.5, and 0.3–0.8 m under RCP 2.6.” (e.g., Table 4 is developed via “expert community assessment”, “expert elicitation”, “process modeling” and RCP models that are “plausible” and/or “illustrative”.) 

“Site-to-site differences in LSL projections are due to varying non-climatic background uplift or subsidence, oceanographic effects, and spatially variable responses of the geoid and the lithosphere to shrinking land ice.

The Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) constitutes a growing share of variance in GSL and LSL projections. In the global average and at many locations, it is the dominant source of variance in late 21st century projections, though at some sites oceanographic processes contribute the largest share throughout the century.”

The future rate of mean global sea-level (GSL) rise will be controlled primarily by the thermal expansion of ocean water and by mass loss from glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets [Church et al., 2013].

“Local sea-level (LSL) change can differ significantly from GSL rise [Milne et al., 2009; Stammer et al., 2013], so for adaptation planning and risk management, localized assessments are critical.” 

“Projections of changes in GSL due to thermal expansion and in LSL due to regional steric and dynamic effects are based upon the CMIP5 GCMs.” (GCMs have no associated probabilities but are only considered as “plausible” or “illustrative.”) 

Consistent with AR5’s judgment that the 5th–95th percentile of CMIP5 output represents a likely (67% probability) range for global mean thermal expansion” (More “expert elicitation”).

“As shown in the previous section, LSL rise is controlled by different factors—both climatic and non-climatic—at different locations and intervals over the next two centuries.” 

While all LSL projections are sensitive to assumptions about ice sheet behavior (process modeling), some are sensitive to assumptions about confidence in GCM output.” (GCMs have no assigned probabilities)

“There remains a need for improved ice sheet models to allow robust projections of the ice sheet component without heavy reliance upon expert elicitation.” (process modeling outcomes driven by “expert elicitation”)

“However, the development of such models is hindered by the limited consensus on the magnitude of positive and negative feedbacks on ice loss, such as those involving (a) temperature and snow albedo [Picard et al., 2012], (b) forest fires and snow albedo [Keegan et al., 2014], (c) snowfall and ice sheet discharge [Winkelmann et al., 2012], (d) grounding line retreat [Joughin et al., 2014; Rignot et al., 2014; Schoof, 2007], (e) static-equilibrium sea-level and grounding line retreat [Gomez et al., 201020122013], (f) meltwater, ocean temperature, sea ice, and snowfall [Bintanja et al., 2013], and (g) ice-cliff collapse [Bassis and Walker, 2012; Pollard and DeConto, 2013].(Process models are acknowledged as having numerous and significant inadequacies and uncertainties)  

The wide range of projections and underlying uncertainties in continental-scale model projections pose challenges for interpreting the likelihood of their results [Bindschadler et al., 2013].” (More process model uncertainty and inadequacies)

Furthermore, structural errors in models of other sea level components remain probable.” (process modeling inadequacies impact ice sheet, ice caps & glaciers mass loss, ocean warming, vertical land movement, etc.)

Under RCP 8.5, we project a very likely mean global sea-level rise of 0.5–1.2 m by 2100 and 1.0–3.7 m by 2200, which under the strong emissions mitigation of RCP 2.6 is lowered to 0.3–0.8 m by 2100 and 0.3–2.4 m by 2200. (See Table 4).” (More “expert elicitation”

“Local sea-level rise projections differ from the global mean due to differing background rates of non-climatic sea-level change, spatially variable responses to different land ice reservoirs due to static-equilibrium effects, and spatially variable ocean steric and dynamic changes.” 

Returning to the NOAA 2017 study we find these additional descriptions of how the study was done and what it intended to accomplish besides being used by the climate alarmist media to hype higher global mean sea level rise numbers.   

“Significant uncertainties exist about the exact trajectory (and impacts) of future climate change, limiting the value of prediction-based frameworks for long-term, climate-related decision-making (e.g., see Hallegatte et al. 2012, Weaver et al., 2013).”

The above statement is extremely revealing because it clearly establishes that the scenarios contained in the Global Mean Sea Level Rise RCP curves shown above are inappropriate for use in making “prediction-based” climate-related outcomes regarding global sea level rise. Thus, the need to construct a “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” framework. This outcome is further re-enforced in the additional items from the 2017 study presented below. 

“This approach is consistent with that recommended in Kopp et al. (2016b) and used by the Thames Estuary 2100 project (Ranger et al., 2013; Hinkel et al., 2015). Continuous monitoring of current sea level behaviors (trends and variability), along with improved scientific understanding of relevant climate-system processes and feedbacks, can then help identify the evolution of the system over time with respect to these mid-range and worst-case scenarios.”

“This technical report provides results and discussion related to two primary tasks: 1) developing an updated scenario range for possible 21st century GMSL rise and 2) producing a set of gridded RSL response along the United States coastline based on discrete scenarios drawn from this updated GMSL rise range. For the first task, we assessed recent observational and modeling literature on worst-case GMSL projections.”

“This deployment of scenarios and tools will help serve as a starting point for on-the-ground coastal preparedness planning and risk management processes needed to ensure that U.S. coastal communities (and their economies) remain vibrant and resilient to ongoing and future changes in sea level.”

The language used in the NOAA 2017 study is clearly intended to establish that the study is a work in progress in laying out an approach (decision-making under conditions of uncertainty”) for dealing with the still largely poorly defined and complex climate issues associated with global mean sea level rise and local sea level rise as demonstrated by the numerous and significant scientific shortcomings of the both the climate scenarios (RCPs large and ill-defined uncertainty) and process modeling capabilities (inability to accurately define ocean warming, glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets mass loss or gain, non-climatic sea-level change background uplift or subsidence) discussed in detail in the 2017 study as noted above but ignored and concealed by the climate alarmist media. 

The climate alarmist media grossly failed to address and instead concealed these critically important scientific evaluation contexts, limitations, qualifications and inadequacies and instead hyped climate alarmism driven outcomes with an example shown in the article below where specific sea level rise increases are exaggerated (e.g. 6.6 foot sea level rise becomes 8.2 foot sea level rise) without any attempt to define the study context (to develop a framework for “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty”) along with the studies extensive and significant inadequacies and uncertainty that underly how these global mean sea level rise study numbers were developed and what they really mean.

Specifically, the above article (as representative of virtually all media presentations) hyped the following:

A 2012 NOAA report on global sea-level rise included four possible climate scenarios, each involving different degrees of ocean warming and glacier melting around the world: one scenario with high sea-level rise, one with low sea-level rise and two intermediate scenarios. The report suggested that the most extreme scenario could result in 6.6 feet of global mean sea-level rise by the year 2100. At a minimum, it suggested 0.7 feet of sea-level rise by that time.

The new report includes six possible climate scenarios, and it updates both the highest and lowest sea-level-rise estimates. It suggests that in the most extreme scenario, global mean sea levels could rise 8.2 feet by the year 2100. And in the lowest scenario, sea levels may rise by about one foot by the end of the century.

The authors decided on these updates by consulting a number of recent published studies on the subject. The increase in the upper extreme estimate from 6.6 feet to 8.2 feet was partly based on an improved understanding of the physical processes affecting the world’s major ice sheets, Sweet noted. 

He pointed to several recent studies modeling the response of the Antarctic ice sheet to climate change. Such studies have helped shed new light on the increasing instability of the ice sheets in areas like West Antarctica and the conditions that could lead them to collapse in the future. The updated research is “suggestive that these higher [sea-level rise] outcomes are more probable than we once thought they were,” Sweet said.”

Ironically and as discussed in the analysis of the latest study (2022 GMSL report shown below) the Antarctic 8.2-foot sea level rise scenario so hyped by media relative to the 2017 study was abandoned in the year 2022 study because that scenario is now considered as being “implausible” (expert elicitation and process modeling) although this significant change was concealed by climate alarmist media stories addressing the GMSL rise 2022 study.

The 2017 article noted above along with many other climate alarmist articles that allegedly discussed the 2017 study were devoid of any discussion of the need for a work in progress starting point defined as “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” framework that is required because of the large inadequacies and uncertainties present in trying to define GMSL rise outcomes as addressed in detail above. 

Instead, these media articles treat and present the 2017 studies sea level rise claims as though they represent accurate “prediction based” climate related outcomes when that clearly is not the case as demonstrated by large uncertainty, inadequacies and limitations of the methodology as discussed above and further summarized below.  

The article (and others like it) is devoid of any discussion of  the lack of definable probabilities of either the CMIP5 climate models or global sea level rise scenarios, failed to address the significant inadequacies and limitations of the process models for defining thermal expansion of ocean water, mass loss from glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets and  inadequacies of regional and local uplift and/or subsidence data, failed to discuss the extensive use of  subjective “expert elicitation” and “expert community assessment” because of large analysis methodology “uncertainty” along with the caution that “structural errors” are “probable” in process models, etc., etc.

The media climate alarmist articles are universal in grossly misrepresenting the huge inadequacies and uncertainty contained in future global sea level rise assessments by their failure to address these overwhelming analytical inadequacies that dictated the need to abandon “predicted” based GMSL climate outcomes and instead create a future information oriented “decision making under conditions of uncertainty” evolving sea level rise assessment framework.        

The latest NOAA published report allegedly addressing global sea level rise titled 2022 Sea Level Rise Technical Report is shown below and available here.

This latest 2022 report continues with the prior 2017 reports development of a framework for decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” as discussed above in detail in this post and as addressed in the Conclusion of section of the 2022 report as follows (recognizing that as was the case for the 2017 Global Sea Level Rise report and as is the case for this most recent 2022 Global Sea Level Rise report neither the GMSL Rise Scenarios nor the IPCC AR6 updated RCPs have defined probabilities and are acknowledged as being in a state of uncertainly)

It is the goal of the Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flood Hazard Scenarios and Tools Interagency Task Force to continue to provide projections and future scenarios to assist decision-makers for both planning and risk-bounding purposes. 

This report builds upon the progress made in Sweet et al. (2017), updating the GMSL scenarios and the associated local and regional RSL projections to reflect recent advances in sea level science, as well as expanding the types of scenario information provided to better serve stakeholder needs for coastal risk management and adaptation planning.

“In addition, it is important to note that the projections do not include natural year-to-year sea level variability that occurs along U.S. coastlines in response to climatic modes such as the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. 

Nevertheless, if we assume that regional sea level will keep following its present trajectory (the term “trajectory” in the NOAA 2022 report is used instead of “projection” and represents an “extrapolation” of existing observed trends versus model outcomes which are identified as “projections” as discussed further below) for the coming three decades, most U.S. regions are mostly tracking between the Intermediate-Low and Intermediate-High scenarios. 

Although the near-term observation-based extrapolations will continue to evolve over time with new observations and analyses, this updated information should help inform both near-term decisions and projects that may require decades’ worth of planning prior to actual implementation.”

This statement again reflects the “work in progress” context of the 2022 study (as did the 2017 study) that it is intended to facilitate the ability to utilize future global mean sea level rise scientific assessments that can better define and establish significantly lower levels of uncertainty and inadequacies that presently exist which preclude the use of “prediction based” global mean sea level rise climate outcomes.  

“In order to do so, additional and improved observations and more sophisticated modeling approaches that incorporate the relevant physical processes (e.g., waves; see Box 3.1) will be needed at the regional scale, with local granularity to assess the impacts of these coastal hazards. Such information is expected to ultimately feed into the next generation of interagency reports and assessments to enable informed climate adaptation planning.”

The 2022 reports Introduction Section further emphasizes the framing of the “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” process that is intended for continued future updating and evaluation in addressing sea level rise as follows:

it is important to emphasize the distinction between describing scientific progress, in terms of current understanding and key uncertainties, and translating such advances in the scientific knowledge base into actionable science. The latter requires sustained engagement by groups such as NOAA’s Office of Coast Management and Sea Grant program with users, stakeholder groups, and associated boundary organizations regarding their specific planning and decision contexts.”

we thus aim to provide our screening-level (suitable for first-order-assessment) products appropriate for framing and bounding important problems in coastal risk assessment and management, along with contextualization of the underlying science and illustrative case studies.”

What this report does NOT provide is official guidance nor design specifications for a specific project.

The 2022 report addresses future global mean sea level assessments in Section 2 as follows: 

One of the main structural changes from the Sweet et al. (2017) report to this one is a specific emphasis on the near-term time period, 2020–2050. There is also a detailed discussion of GMSL scenario divergence and tracking that becomes particularly important in the transition from the near term to the long term.

In this report, an assessment based solely on extrapolation of the observed rates and acceleration out to 2050 is used for trajectory tracking and a comparison to the GMSL and regional scenarios. These trajectories serve as an additional line of evidence for near-term sea level rise and provide a mostly independent (observational VLM information is shared in both) comparison to the model-based scenario. 

To maintain a distinction between estimates arising from observations and those coming from model-derived GMSL scenarios, the observation-based assessments are referred to in this report as “extrapolations” or “trajectories” and not as “projections.” These terms are also preceded by “observation-based” whenever used.” 

Thus, we have at least two different arenas of “uncertainty” components in GMSL rise future scenarios. Shorter term GMSL rise uncertainty between 2020 and 2050 using “extrapolations” and/or “trajectories” based upon “observed rates” and “acceleration” out to 2050 and climate model-driven GMSL rise scenario “projections” beyond year 2050.   

“Sweet et al. (2017) filtered the ensemble of different future projections generated by Kopp et al. (2014) to identify those subsets consistent with 0.3 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m, and 2.5 m of 21st-century GMSL rise. These subsets constituted the six Sweet et al. (2017) GMSL scenarios.” 

This report retains the Sweet et al. (2017) scenarios (except the Extreme 2.5 m scenario, discussed below), with the principal difference being updated temporal trajectories and exceedance probabilities now based on global warming levels rather than emissions scenarios.”  

In addition to being updated based on the latest generation of GCMs and the IPCC AR6, this set of projections incorporates multiple methods of projecting future ice-sheet changes, which are the major sources of future sea level rise and pose the biggest source of uncertainty in projecting the timing and magnitude of future possible rise amounts.” 

“An important change from the Sweet et al. (2017) report is the exclusion of the Extreme (2.5 m) scenario in this report. 

Based on the most recent scientific understanding and as discussed in the IPCC AR6, the uncertain physical processes such as ice-sheet loss that could lead to much higher increases in sea level are now viewed as less plausible in the coming decades before potentially becoming a factor toward the end of the 21st century and beyond. A GMSL increase of 2.5 m by 2100 is thus viewed as less plausible, and the associated scenario has been removed from this report.”

The elimination of the year 2017 studies highest 2.5 m extreme sea level rise scenario in the 2022 study is completely concealed by the climate alarmist mainstream media. Additionally, the decision to eliminate the 2.5-meter scenario reflects the “work in progress” nature of the “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” framework that has been completely concealed by the climate alarmist media.

 “After 2050, the assessments and comparisons made using the observation-based extrapolations of future sea level rise become less informative and should be made with caution. 

This is because uncertainty in the current estimates of rates and accelerations leads to large projected ranges and because current estimates may not be reflective of shifts or process changes that may occur in the future with additional emissions and global warming, resulting in increasing divergence between the future GMSL scenarios after 2050.” 

The 2022 study “uncertainty” issues are summarized as follows:

“Two types of uncertainty are important to consider in this context: uncertainty in physical processes and uncertainty in future emissions and ensuing warming. 

Although there are possible alternative definitions and framings, as used in this report, process uncertainty (Box 2.1) is associated with how well we currently understand why sea level has changed in the past and how it will change in the future. Stated another way, how well do we understand and model the processes that will combine to impact sea level at a specific time and location in the future? 

This uncertainty is also reflected in the likely range of future sea level rise for a given GMSL scenario. 

The spread between the five GMSL rise scenarios is intended to reflect the range of potential future emissions pathways and associated warming levels that depends highly on global socioeconomic factors that have yet to unfold. 

This unknown future pathway leads to what is referred to here as emissions uncertainty (Box 2.1).”

“At some point in the future, the separation between GMSL rise scenarios will overtake the process uncertainty associated with individual GMSL rise scenarios. 

In other words, scenario dependence will emerge, and it will be possible to distinguish between the observation-based trajectories associated with two neighboring GMSL rise scenarios. In general, these time periods are important for connecting the near-term similarities between scenarios to the time period where scenarios diverge rapidly. 

An effort is made here to understand when divergence of the GMSL rise scenarios might occur and to link them to possible future warming and emissions pathways. This analysis then serves as the foundation for process-based monitoring that could be useful in determining the trajectory of ongoing sea level rise and, by extension, the possible future sea level rise out to 2150.”

Specifically identified under Process Uncertainty is the following “For example, the sensitivity of the Antarctic ice sheets is not yet fully understood, (even though this process is the “dominant source” of longer term global mean sea level rise as noted in both the 2017 and 2022 NOAA studies) leading to a substantial uncertainty in how sea level reacts to forcing changes. 

Additionally, the future conditions from processes, such as changes in ocean circulation and VLM, that impact RSL change more locally have uncertainty”.

Emissions Uncertainty is noted as “Various forcing scenarios describe possible GHG emission pathways, which range from quick emissions reductions to unmitigated future emissions.” 

The uncertainty in the future pathway is referred to as emissions uncertainty.

 Under Natural Variability it is noted that “Next to sea level changes caused by changes in GHG forcing, many physical processes cause natural variation (e.g., ENSO). The scenarios and uncertainty ranges for each scenario and for the observation-based trajectories in this report do not include variations due to natural variability.”         

The updated GMSL values in 2050, 2100, and 2150 relative to a 2000 baseline are shown for each of the five scenarios in Table 2.3.

“However, these projections include only physical processes in which there is at least medium confidence in the current scientific understanding. As described in the IPCC AR6 (Box 9.4 in Fox-Kemper et al., 2021), the largest potential contributions to long-term GMSL rise come from ice-sheet processes in which there is currently low confidence.” 

Because these outcomes are based on processes poorly represented in climate ice-sheet models, the IPCC assessment of these processes incorporates information from a structured “expert-judgement” study (Bamber et al., 2019) and a single Antarctic ice-sheet modeling study that explicitly incorporates ice-sheet hydrofracturing and ice-cliff collapse mechanisms (DeConto et al., 2021).”

In what has become the “normal” distortion and deception tactics of climate alarmist’s media the year 2022 studies extensive global sea level rise uncertainty, RCP inadequacies and uncertainties and ill-defined process modeling issues are concealed by the media. 

Instead climate alarmist media exaggerate global sea level rise speculative “extrapolations”, “trajectories” and “projections” (as was the case for the 2012 and 2017 global sea level rise reports as discussed above) with headlined alarmism statements, among many other such flawed assertions, that the U.S. “will experience as much sea level rise in the next 30 years as it did in the last 100 years”, “seas lapping against America’s coastlines are rising ever faster and will be 10 to 12 inches higher by the year 2050, “sea levels along the coastal United States will rise by about a foot or more on average by 2050”, “parts of Louisiana and Texas projected to see waters a foot and a half (0.45 meters) higher”, “by 2050, sea lapping against the U.S. shore will be 10 to 12 inches (0.25 to 0.3 meters) higher”, “at least two feet of sea-level rise is expected by the end of the century”, etc., etc.

The 2020 global sea level rise study made none of these media “prediction” asserted claims as demonstrated by the detailed sea level rise uncertainty and process modeling inadequacy information from the study as presented above.

As was the case for prior global sea level rise alarmist media reports the huge uncertainties and inadequacies of the climate model sea level rise scenarios and process models are unaddressed, the “decision making under conditions of uncertainty” framework driven by the inability to establish credible “prediction” based outcomes is concealed, the continued use of subjective “expert elicitation”, “expert community assessment” and inadequate “process modeling” is concealed, the fact that the 2022 report continues the “work in progress” context as did the 2017 report is concealed, etc., etc.

The ability to define credible future global mean sea level rise estimates awaits further extensive development of new scientific data and analysis that can be evaluated under the “decision-making under conditions of uncertainty” framework in an undefined future timeframe.      

In the Introduction Section of the 2022 GMSL rise study it is claimed that tide gauge data for both global and contiguous U.S. locations shows coastal sea level rise acceleration has been underway since abut 1970 as noted below:

“Increases in GMSL provide an important indicator of the changing climate, but it is the sea level rise on local and regional scales—measured by the global network of tide gauges and satellites—that is most relevant for coastal communities around the world. Regional and local sea level rise has not been and will not be uniform in time or space. Rather, sea levels change locally for a variety of reasons, such as vertical land motion (VLM), which can exacerbate the effects of the rising ocean. 

For context, whereas GMSL has risen by about 17 cm over the last 100 years (1920–2020), with noted acceleration since about 1970, relative sea level (RSL) averaged along the contiguous United States (CONUS) has risen about 28 cm over the same period with similar onset of acceleration (Figure 1.2b).”

 1.2b) GMSL change (blue line) as shown in a) with the annual average relative sea level change measured by tide gauges around the contiguous United States (black line; with a linear regression estimate of 28 cm of sea level rise from 1920 to 2020). (Adaptation of Frederikse et al., 2020).

The “acceleration” claim is derived from a study which utilized both data and models to allegedly arrive at the “acceleration” finding  using a “team of scientists to develop a state-of-the-art framework that pulls together the advances in each area of study – from sea level models to satellite observations – to improve our understanding of the factors affecting sea level rise for the past 120 years.” 

This sea level rise acceleration claim is addressed at a WUWT article here with the article noting the following:

“Thomas Frederikse and colleagues published a study of sea level data, considering both tide gauges and satellite data in 2020 (Frederikse, et al., 2020).”

“They found that there are many causes of global and regional sea level change that need to be considered. Land over much of the Northern Hemisphere is still rebounding from the melting of the massive glaciers they supported during the Last Glacial Maximum. This causes many northern tide gauges to record sea level falling as the land rises. Further, dam construction during the twentieth century caused water to be withheld from the oceans and stored in reservoirs on land, especially between 1960 and 1980. They also tell us that previous assessments of sea level were unable to reconcile observations with the calculated contributions of ice-mass loss, dam construction, and thermal expansion of water.”  

“The observations of sea level, ocean temperature, ice-mass loss, water held in man-made reservoirs, and total river discharge to the oceans all have considerable uncertainty, which is why studies have not been able to close the gap between observations. Frederikse and colleagues make another attempt to close the gap. They note that over the past few years much more accurate estimates of all the critical observations have been made available and they collected these in a new estimate.”

The results of his study (Frederikse at al) increase the previous estimates of GMSL (global mean sea level) rise in the 1960s and 1970s, after excluding the effect of dam construction. His model also increases the uncertainty prior to 1940. 

The match is quite poor in the 1920s and 1930s, and the steep rise in sea level from 1930 to 1950, nearly as rapid as in the 21st century, is also not matched well.

it is clear that the data shown in Figures 1 and 2 are not accurate enough to conclude that the overall rate of sea level rise is accelerating, in fact it is possible that we will see a deceleration of sea level rise in the near future.”

In this part we show that the error in estimating sea level rise and its components is so large that showing acceleration definitively is probably not possible. In the next post we will discuss the problems with that approach and provide a more statistically sound projection of the rate of sea level rise.

The sea level rise “acceleration” since 1970 claim is also addressed at another WUWT article here with the article noting the following

More on Sea Levels: In his discussion on the Scientific Method, Richard Feynman insisted that a scrupulous scientist must present all the data, including the data that is not favorable to his pet idea, his hypothesis. 

A favorite trick of some is to put together two different datasets taken by two different sets of instruments or methods, showing different trends over different time intervals, but to eliminate the data that shows the datasets are not similar and have different trends.

The “eliminated data” referred to above is the extensive Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level Rise (PSMSL) data base which is described by NOAA as follows:

“Various tide gauge networks have contributed to GLOSS, each with a different focus and each changing over time as research priorities evolve. The main component is the GLOSS Core Network (GCN), a global set of ~300 tide gauges that serves as the backbone of the global in situ sea level network. GCN gauges were allocated to each island or group of islands at intervals not closer than 500 km, and along continental coasts at intervals generally not less than 1000 km. Preference was given to islands in order to maximize exposure to the open ocean.”

Established in 1933, the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) is responsible for the collection, publication, analysis and interpretation of sea level data from the global network of tide gauges, including the GLOSS Core Network. It is based in Liverpool at the National Oceanography Centre (NOC). PSMSL generally relies on Member Nations to provide the final version of the monthly time series with all quality control assessments applied and documented. 

Where possible, in order to construct time series of sea level measurements at each station, the monthly and annual means are reduced to a common datum. This reduction is performed by the PSMSL making use of the tide gauge datum history provided by the supplying authority. The PSMSL archive comprises of ‘delayed-mode’ monthly mean sea level values most suitable for studies of long-term sea-level change; most studies of 20th century global sea level rise are based on the PSMSL data set.

Returning to the prior WUWT article above the use of PSMSL data is addressed as follows:

We are seeing this again with NASA claims of sea level rise since 1900. Using data from the UK PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level), Paul Homeward addresses the claims using data for two geologically stable locations. There are short term trends of increasing sea level rise and decreasing sea level rise. For example, in the 1970s sea levels fell at Newlyn, UK, in the 1960s sea levels fell and then rose in the 1970s at North Shields, UK. Homewood writes:”

This pattern of a slowdown or fall in sea levels in the 1960s and 70s is seen at many other sites around the world, as are rates of rise as high as now in the decades prior to that.

Both phenomena are, of course, consistent with warming in the Arctic in the 1920s and 30s, followed by the much colder interlude there, which ended in the 1990s. Global temperatures followed the same pattern too.

“Although the overall rate of rise is around 2mm a year, because of periods when there was no rise at all there have been other periods when sea levels have been rising faster.”

“Annual sea level rise of around 3mm a year was typical prior to the cooldown and is similar to what is being reported now by satellites.”

Whether we enter another period of AMO [Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation] related cooling in coming decades remains to be seen. But what the data conclusively shows is that, as far as the UK is concerned, the recent rate of sea level rise is not unprecedented, nor is there any evidence of it accelerating.

Those who become excited over short-term sea-level trends need to review Richard Feynman on the scientific method. See links under Changing Seas.” 

The Changing Seas heading for the WUWT article addresses a study using UK tide gauge PSMSL data to evaluate accelerated sea level rise since 1970 as noted below at locations which exhibit geological stability and do not show acceleration since the 1970s.

The article breaks down the PSMSL data on a decadal basis to obtain a more insightful understanding of the sea level rise behavior over time as shown below.

“At Newlyn, there was a sharp rise in sea levels during the 1980s, but this presumably must be seen in context with the fall in the 1970s.

Similarly at North Shields, the fall in the 1960s and rise in the 1970s.

At both sites, sea level rise has actually slowed in the last decade. (The data available at North Shields, though not complete, shows a continued drop in sea level in 2018 and 2019).

And in both cases, the latest decadal rise is less than seen in some decades in the 20thC.

It is fair to add that the rise post 2000 is connected to the pause in sea level rise in the 1990s. The latter was of course the direct consequence of the Pinatubo explosion, which led to several years of global cooling.”

This pattern of a slowdown or fall in sea levels in the 1960s and 70s is seen at many other sites around the world, as are rates of rise as high as now in the decades prior to that“.

The article concludes:

Whether we enter another period of AMO related cooling in coming decades remains to be seen. But what the data conclusively shows is that, as far as the UK is concerned, the recent rate of sea level rise is not unprecedented, nor is there any evidence of it accelerating.

NOAA U.S. long-term sea-level trend tide gauge stations (based on a minimum of 30 years of data) are identified relative to whether they are experiencing significant vertical land motion noted as follows:   

“The map of relative sea level trends provides an overview of variations in the rates of local sea level change at long-term tide stations (based on a minimum of 30 years of data in order to account for long-term sea level variations and reduce errors in computing sea level trends based on monthly mean sea level). 

The variations in sea level trends seen here primarily reflect differences in rates and sources of vertical land motion. Areas experiencing little-to-no change in relative sea level are illustrated in green, including stations consistent with average global sea level rise rate of 1.7-1.8 mm/yr. These are stations not experiencing significant vertical land motion. Stations illustrated with positive sea level trends (yellow-to-red) are experiencing both global sea level rise, and lowering or sinking of the local land, causing an apparently exaggerated rate of relative sea level rise. Stations illustrated with negative trends (blue-to-purple) are experiencing global sea level rise and a greater vertical rise in the local land, causing an apparent decrease in relative sea level. These rates of relative sea level rise reflect actual observations and must be accounted for in any coastal planning or engineering applications.

NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 053 evaluated sea level variations of the U.S. from 1854-2006 in a 2009 analysis as shown below.

The Executive Summary of the report notes:

“Monthly mean sea level (MSL) data for 128 long-term National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) stations of the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) are analyzed in this report. All available data up to the end of 2006 are used to determine linear trends, average seasonal cycles, and interannual variability including estimated errors. The stations are located on the U.S. Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the Gulf of Mexico, Hawaii, Alaska, and on islands in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

The linear trends obtained are relative MSL trends which are a combination of the absolute global rate of sea level rise (1.7 +/- 0.5 mm/yr in the 20th century) and the rate of any local vertical land motion. The variation in vertical land motion, ranging from rapid subsidence in Louisiana and eastern Texas to rapid uplift in Alaska, is primarily responsible for the regional differences in MSL trends and for the differing rates within regions. Separate pre- and post- seismic trends were calculated for some stations in Alaska and Guam with apparent seismic offsets in 1957, 1964, or 1993.”

Each calculated linear trend has an associated 95% confidence interval that is primarily dependent on the year range of data for each station. A derived inverse power relationship indicates that 50-60 years of data are required to obtain a trend with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.5 mm/yr. This dependence on record length is caused by the interannual variability in the observations. A series of 50-year segments were used to obtain linear MSL trends for the stations with over 80 years of data. 

None of the stations showed consistently increasing or decreasing 50-year MSL trends, although there was statistically significant multidecadal variability on the U.S. east coast with higher rates in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s and lower rates in the 1960s and 1970s.”  

The report’s Conclusion notes:

“This report is a re-analysis of mean sea level variations in the United States using monthly MSL data from long-term NWLON stations with a data range of at least 30 years. The report follows the format of Zervas (2001) with seven additional years of data and presents results for 12 additional stations. A total of 128 stations were analyzed for linear trends, autoregressive coefficients, average seasonal cycles, and interannual variability along with their 95% confidence intervals. The stations are located on the U.S. east and west coasts, the Gulf of Mexico, Alaska, Hawaii, Bermuda, the Caribbean, and on islands in the Pacific Ocean (Figures 1-7, Appendix I). 

The two oldest stations, The Battery and San Francisco, have records beginning in the 1850s. The maintenance of these long-term time series depends on the continued monitoring of tidal bench marks. The reference elevations of the station datums have been preserved despite the occasionally-required relocations of some of the stations.” 

Eight NWLON stations now have data spanning periods of over 100 years. These stations are The Battery, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Fernandina Beach, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. Figure 35 graphically summarizes these CO-OPS data sets and demonstrates the value of continuous, long-term sea level measurements. Together, these series represent the effect of globally-rising sea levels on most of the U.S. coastline. Although there is a small amount of subsidence at The Battery, Philadelphia, and Baltimore (about 1 mm/yr), the other five stations have negligible vertical land motion and therefore have been recording the absolute global 20th century sea level rise of 1.7 mm/yr (Douglas, 1991). 

As shown in Figure 35, the importance of the demonstrated global sea level rise derived from the long-term sea level observations is analogous to the importance of the atmospheric CO2 observations to the global climate system.

“Figure 35. Comparison of the atmospheric carbon dioxide record at Mauna Loa, Hawaii since 1958 (from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/co2_data_mlo.html) and monthly mean sea levels at eight NWLON stations with record lengths of over 100 years.”

NOAA has updated its U.S. sea level rise data and trends to year 2021. 

Provided below are the eight NWLON tide gauge station trends shown above that span more than 100 years of measured data with the additional 15 years of new data since the 1854-2006 NOAA study updated through year 2021 showing continued absence of “acceleration” since 1970. These trends do not reflect that they are being driven by global atmospheric CO2 levels as measured at Mauna Loa Observatory since 1958 as shown above.

The tide gauge measured data outcomes addressed in this NOAA 1854 to 2006 study and other WUWT posts noted above clearly indicate that the 2022 Global Mean Sea Level Rise study claims of tide gauge data measurements showing sea level rise acceleration occurring since 1970 are exaggerated and unsupported at numerous global locations with these acceleration claims more likely being an artifact of the studies analysis methodology (use of models) and not representative of real world tide gauge measurement trends.

The 2022 Global Sea Level Rise study “extrapolations” and “trajectories” used for assessing sea level rise during the 30-year period between 2020 and 2050 rely upon speculative and methodologically inadequate and uncertain claims of accelerating tide gauge measurements that are not supported by other well established global tide gauge data analysisThese inadequacies result in flawed claims of higher rates of global sea level rise during this 2020 to 2050 period asserted in the latest year 2022 GMSL study.

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March 29, 2022 2:16 pm

Have not finished reading yet but thought this one should be corrected as it is a distraction:

(2.75 inches over 40 years or 6.87 inches per century) not the 20cm 

Tom Halla
March 29, 2022 2:45 pm

On why our previous claims were not borne out, but we continue to make the same claims?
Preachers claiming The End Times are imminent lose their audience earlier than the Green Blob.

Ron Long
March 29, 2022 2:59 pm

Larry presents a tremendous amount of actual data regarding sea level rise. The CAGW crowd asserts that increasing anthropogenic CO2 will cause warming, glacial ice to melt, and sea level rise to accelerate. As Larry shows there is no acceleration in sea level rise, although atmospheric CO2 is steadily increasing (what part is anthropogenic and what part ocean out-gassing is debatable), therefore the null hypothesis appears, saying that the theory has failed, that atmospheric CO2 is not interacting with sea level changes. Good report, but the CAGW/IPCC crowd will not read it.

4 Eyes
Reply to  Ron Long
March 29, 2022 6:45 pm

CAGW/IPCC crowd will not read it”. Of course they won’t – it would be too hard for them to understand and it contains facts that offend and disturb them.

H. D. Hoese
March 29, 2022 3:14 pm

“(GCMs have no associated probabilities but are only considered as “plausible” or “illustrative.”) ” Once my critique of a fisheries analysis was justified by “… but it makes a good point.” I have more than scanned a lot of sea level information, including Zervas, 2009, collectively which suggest that these numbers need to be statistically analyzed blind.

Many sea level stations, somewhat like temperature, don’t look adequately selected for the analyses now produced. Many are too short, interrupted maybe during critical periods, and perhaps too influenced by ‘civilization.’

March 29, 2022 3:17 pm

The absolute biggest issue with the alarmist crowd is they can’t really adjust the tide gauge data like the climate data. It’s too widely distributed and so far places like NYC, the UK, Europe, Japan, etc are responsible for their own data and the Michael Mann’s of the world can’t get their little hands on it.

Reply to  rbabcock
March 29, 2022 3:49 pm

They don’t have to get their hands on it, they just re-evaluate it.
It is well known that before 2020 people were so ignorant that they could not read thermometers accurately, always over-estimating the actual reading. Well, tide gauges are very similar, so these neanderthal morons obviously were incapable of reading them either. They would have made the same sort of over estimations, so all we have to do is take our temperature correction factors and apply them to sea level readings.

Steve Case
March 29, 2022 3:25 pm

“Global mean temperature will likely rise at about 0.6 degrees F per decade and sea level at about 2.5 inches per decade.” 

What a crock, there is a lot more like that in the 10,000 words that follow.

Rud Istvan
March 29, 2022 3:29 pm

To paraphrase Solzenytsn in The Gulag Archipelago:

We know they lie.
They know we know they lie.
We know they know we know they lie.
And yet they still lie.

No amount of rational fact based discourse, as in this extensive post, will change the warmunists lies.
Ridicule might eventually embarrass them into silence, maybe.
Massive failure of GND, Net Zero, and the like will eventually turn the body politic against their unneeded solutions to a non-problem.
Likely take something like a UK winter ruinables induced blackout where thousands actually die to get BoJo’s attention.

Hoyt Clagwell
Reply to  Rud Istvan
March 29, 2022 3:42 pm

Catastrophic sea level rise is all just an elaborate ruse to serve as an alternative explanation for why the alarmists’ pants are wet.

March 29, 2022 3:34 pm

Ken Stringer checked many SL studies of the Aussie coastline and compared it to a number of SL studies during the earlier Holocene.
And the earlier Holocene studies found SLs were much higher than they are today. And even their ABC agrees if you check out some of their programs, yet they also still exploit the SLR scary stories to suit their agenda.


Reply to  Neville
March 29, 2022 3:36 pm

Sorry the above link is to Ken Stewart site , not Stringer.

spangled drongo
Reply to  Neville
March 30, 2022 2:41 am

Neville, interesting that the BoM link on Fort Denison MSL [arguably the best gauge of Pacific Ocean MSL] in that Ken Stewart site shows the latest MSL [Feb 2022] as being 99mm LOWER than the first one [May 1914].
This is supported by Pacific atolls increasing in area.
When the MSL of the world’s biggest ocean hasn’t increased in 108 years, how can there be global warming?

spangled drongo
Reply to  spangled drongo
March 30, 2022 2:43 am
Reply to  spangled drongo
March 30, 2022 9:04 am

” … the latest MSL [Feb 2022] as being 99mm LOWER than the first one [May 1914]. ”

1) The world is full of people telling us that UAH did not change between 2022 and 2002, just because the temperature anomalies have the same level; but the trend between the two points is 0.18 °C per decade, a lot more than the 0.13 °C since 1979.

Eye-balling by drawing a line between to points: no good idea.

Of course: no such difference is to be expected for your SYDNEY gauge 🙂

2) Many Alarmistas and Antialarmistas don’t care about vertical land movement; while the latter insist on tide gauges with positive trend, the former do the inverse.

Recently, I had a look at Australias’s PSMSL tide gauges, looked for those having SONEL GPS data nearby, and here is a comparison of the same subset – with resp. without VLM correction:

comment image

The red plot is way below the blue one: thus, subsidence clearly dominates.

But not everywhere, as… Sydney shows. Both gauges (Fort Denison and Port Jackson) have with VLM correction a slightly higher trend with than without it – 2.7 resp. 2.8 vs. 1.1 resp. 1.9 mm/year.


” This is supported by Pacific atolls increasing in area. ”

3) There too one has to look at the VLM…

Last edited 11 months ago by Bindidon
spangled drongo
Reply to  Bindidon
March 30, 2022 7:12 pm

So Bindi, allowing for VLM, current sea levels are falling even further?
So the world is actually cooling?
I have been involved in building sea front infrastructure on Australia’s east coast since 1946, almost all of which still exist, and there is not one of these constructions, all built to the same king tide datum, that show any sea level rise using highest astronomical tide levels corrected for barometric pressure.
They all show some degree of sea level fall.

Reply to  spangled drongo
March 31, 2022 10:53 am

Why should the world be actually cooling just because of VLM corrections applied in Australia? No se.

Here is a small list of PSMSL gauges (37 units). The list’s length is determined by the presence of GPS around the stations.


With velocity from a GPS station in the near, trends without resp. with VLM correction.

Though Australia is only a little bit of the Globe, it is nevertheless a big country, with over 25,000 km coast.

The gauges in Australia therefore are not representative for the country. They are a little piece added to the global average.

Thus, the probability that the data in the list doesn’t match your experience is rather high, because vertical land movement can abruptly change from one corner to the next.

This is best visible within the Bothnian Gulf, located in Europe between Finland and Sweden and which flows into the Baltic Sea.

There the glacial isostatic rebound diminishes quite sharply from the end of the gulf down to the sea.

spangled drongo
Reply to  Bindidon
March 31, 2022 1:40 pm

When “science” uses VLM in the opposite direction to advance their AGW stories, why not.
But my point is, that in my lifetime, all my detailed benchmarks do not show any SLR, as does that Fort Denison MSL for the last century.
Have you made any constant personal observations over long time periods and corrected them for BP to tell you what the real world is doing?

Reply to  spangled drongo
March 31, 2022 2:01 pm

” When “science” uses VLM in the opposite direction to advance their AGW stories, why not. ”

Jesus. Why do I communicate with you? You are such an arrogant person.

spangled drongo
Reply to  Bindidon
March 31, 2022 4:13 pm

And they call sceptics deniers.

Reply to  spangled drongo
April 2, 2022 12:54 am

Who writes ” uses VLM in the opposite direction ” isn’t only a Skeptic.

I know a lot of Skeptics. None of them would turn a fact into its contrary.

March 29, 2022 3:35 pm

Whew, it took nearly 10 minutes to just scroll down here. I seem to be noticing more Antarctica melt stories lately….the warmists move from target to target….they say it is alarming…a recent heat wave in one part was only about -12 degrees F …a picture of some scientists outside with their shirts off was a chuckle. The warmists want Antarctica to melt and they are going to keep at it until they melt it….because they are alarmed….and want everyone to be alarmed.

another ian
Reply to  Anti-griff
March 30, 2022 3:27 am

Many years ago I heard an Oz ABC interview with a multiple returnee to Antarctica.

One question was “How do you handle getting “caught short” out on the ice?”

The answer “Very quickly”

As, I guess, for T shirts at -12C?

Walter Horsting
March 29, 2022 4:25 pm

Few know sea levels were 2-meters higher just 6,000-years ago.

Reply to  Walter Horsting
March 29, 2022 5:05 pm

Even fewer think of the fact that 6,000 years ago, there were about 5 Mio humans on Earth, without residential buildings let alone any technical infrastructure along the world’s coasts.

Pat from kerbob
Reply to  Bindidon
March 29, 2022 6:15 pm

He’s pointing out the utter ridiculousness of those claiming we are living in the hottest times in human history, sea level just being one more indicator of that, the big lie.

Reply to  Pat from kerbob
March 30, 2022 1:00 am

Manyfestly, you didn’t understand what I pointed out.

Reply to  Bindidon
March 30, 2022 4:30 am

Neither did I. Could you please enlighten us?

Reply to  Disputin
March 30, 2022 9:36 am

I just wanted to point out what I understood in a discussion with a French person who worked years ago at an insurance company.

She happened to have been in a group responsible for estimating and calculating increases in insurance premiums for coastal real estate over the next two decades.

Looks a bit alarmistic, but for these people, it’s a growing challenge.

Soulac-sur-Mer, France

comment image

It’s not the only corner looking like that at the French Atlantic coast, and predictions show an increase of such places.

Maybe you get it now?

Reply to  Bindidon
March 30, 2022 6:45 am

There are buildings found underwater in the Med. There is evidence for people living along shores of Great Lakes that is now underwater. The infrastructure that did exist was as technical as they could make it for their time.

I don’t think your post is very accurate.

Reply to  mkelly
March 30, 2022 8:01 am


Ian MacCulloch
Reply to  Walter Horsting
March 29, 2022 11:30 pm

Correct Walter – I have mapped perched heavy mineral deposits at Bremer Bay., WA, and on the opposite side of the Australian continent Tuncurry, NSW, and found them sitting at 2.00 metres above the current wave reach. The graph is accurate and it is a more detailed follow up to that of Bainbridge, 1962 who charted the Quaternary sea levels in some detail and did it before satellites. That’s geologists for you.

Mike Edwards
Reply to  Walter Horsting
March 30, 2022 4:51 am


Reply to  Mike Edwards
March 30, 2022 6:23 am

see bottom of graphic.

Reply to  Walter Horsting
March 30, 2022 6:38 am

There is visible evidence sea level was higher thousands of years ago. The picture shows an island off Zanzibar of how high it was 130,000 yrs ago roughly.

Geoff Sherrington
March 29, 2022 4:42 pm

Larry Hamlin,
Thank you for this comprehensive overview.
One dominant impression is the strong urge to convert mostly linear trends with past time, into future curves that start to rise and rise to various heights.
What is of interest (and not mentioned in most analyses) is the date when the straight line starts to become a climbing curve.
As Old Father Time keeps plodding along, the date the curves start to rise is mostly just after the study was published – but Old Father Time does not know about publishing dates. So, here is one of the figures from this essay with a change to the date when the curves start to rise.

Clearly, a change of the date of the rise has a significant effect on estimates of levels at future times. Yet, I cannot recall any uncertainty analysis of this start date. It merely seems automatic to assume that it happens as soon as the author publishes the guesswork, which is really infantile science.
How does one calculate the date when the imagined scenario of the collapse of the WAIS happens? (Note – if you cannot, you say so, prominently).
What is more, many statistical methods are affected when both the X-axis and Y-axis have significant uncertainty.(See Deming regression stats, for example).
While it is easy to find major scientific problems within a lot of climate research, this business of sea level guesswork has a high % of authors who offend against classical science. How to make them understand is a problem yet to be solved.
Thank you again, Larry. Geoff S

March 29, 2022 4:55 pm

Larry Hamlin

Completely independent persons and groups have recently processed the data of numerous tide gauges worldwide, monitored by the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), continuing what started with e.g. Church and White, Jevrejeva, and others.

Not only did Thomas Frederikse et al. did the job in 2020; also, Sönke Dangendorf and colleagues made a similar study in 2016, revised in 2019:


The title might sound very alarmistic (I don’t care), but the contents reveal accurate knowledge (except for those I name the Pseudoskeptics, who doubt about everything, but never technically or scientifically contradict).

In 2019, Grant Foster processed the PSMSL data as well, and came to results similar to those of Dangendorf.

At the same time, I processed that PSMSL data as well, though my job was of course performed in a very layman-like fashion: I’m neither specialist in sea level nor in statistics.

All four evaluations were using SONEL data for best possible consideration of vertical land movement (VLM) around gauges.

I personally chose to set the SONEL velocity of the GPS station nearest to the selected gauges as a constant over time: better to have VLM data than none:

comment image

Here is a graph I generated, comparing all four evaluations, (NOAA’s sea level processing was added for the sake of completeness), together with NOAA’s sat altimetry data:

comment image

The match of Foster’s evaluation with Dangendorf’s, made like mine exclusively out of gauge data, without ocean current analysis, is amazing.

A final hint: I personally have nothing to do with CO2 vs. warming and the like. I’m here only interested in sea levels.

What about you doing the same job?

No problem to add one more time links to all used data sources.

Last edited 11 months ago by Bindidon
Paul Rossiter
Reply to  Bindidon
March 29, 2022 7:32 pm

Curve fitting to a limited set of data can never provide an indication of future behavior, particularly when the curve fitting statistics are invalid:


One crucial test is how well the fitted curve corresponds to measured data over previous periods not included in the fitting process.

Reply to  Paul Rossiter
March 30, 2022 12:58 am

” Curve fitting to a limited set of data… ”

Typical, superficial and hence superfluous reaction. You yourself don’t even know how ‘limited’ the set of data is, because you probably didn’t even read the papers, let alone would you have tried to replicate a tiny part of their work.

I’m terribly impressed, Paul Rossiter.


” … particularly when the curve fitting statistics are invalid… ”

I have seen that head post.

Unfortunately, I’m no statistician, I can’t comment it; otherwise I’d have gone deeply into the R code containing the ARIMA stuff shown.

There is no consistent review of all that by anybody independent of what Andy May (or the R code’s real author, he he) thinks to have done right.

In that very same post, you read succulent stuff like

” Modern statistical tools allow us to forecast time series, like GMSL (global mean sea level) change, in a more valid and sophisticated way than simply comparing cherry-picked least squares fits as the IPCC does in AR6. ”

That is really the best joke evah.

How is it possible to publish such an ignorant blah blah? With all due respect: it’s not far from dishonest.

IPCC merely compiles publications and presents a sometimes very reduced summary of their results.

The persons or groups who were responsible for data evaluation and publication of their results of course don’t rely on ordinary least squares as do mostly we lay(wo)men, e.g. when we use Paul Clark’s Wood for Trees.

They not only use the ARIMA stuff, because removing autocorrelation is one of many problems they have to solve.

They use also much more complex procedures like empirical orthogonal functions, primary component analysis, etc etc, as did for example not only Michael Mann & alii for their so disputed hockey stick, but… Valentina Zharkova & alii as well for their solar irradiance and GSM forecasts.

The linear estimates are just a comprehensive hint on what they reached, and not the tool they use to reach it. But they appear in the simple resumees produced by IPCC in its assessment reports.

Thus: sorry, but your reply is simply pointless.

Reply to  Bindidon
March 30, 2022 8:41 am

Sea level observations at site A are very important at site A
Sea level observations at site B are very important at site B

Average of observations of A and B are irrelevant to site A or site B

If I live in a subsidence zone I have bigger worries than world average 1.7mm SLR/year
If I live in a glacial isostacy zone, I have little to worry about world average 1.7mm SLR/year

No need to process and average multiple locations to produce a number with no physical meaning.

Reply to  DaveinCalgary
March 30, 2022 9:54 am

” Sea level observations at site A are very important at site A
Sea level observations at site B are very important at site B
Average of observations of A and B are irrelevant to site A or site B ”

What a trivial paragraph.

” No need to process and average multiple locations to produce a number with no physical meaning. ”

What an arrogant sentence.

Tell that the groups who worked around Jevrejeva, Church and White, Frederikse, Dangendorf and many many others – but not me.

Btw, Dave in Calgary: generating a set of local trends automatically implies a lot of data processing work, behind which the generation of a global time series is only a final step you would of course have undertaken as well if you would have done the same job.

One of the reasons to do the final step was the interest in comparing altimetry and gauge data.

Thus, what you think there is ‘no need to’ is completely irrelevant.



No reason for me to fear. Now that I’m over 70, I won’t be able to experience what might happen anyway.

Reply to  Bindidon
March 31, 2022 9:00 am

The only sea level that maters is local not average. I don’t see why stating that is trivial.
If averages are necessary as you say to compare altimetry with gauges then fine but it seems to be an exercise in academics since the only measurements that mater have already been observed quite accurately at the local tide gauge. Seems like reinventing the wheel.

PS. My background is in land surveying so I have a working familiarity of the issues involved here as well!

Reply to  DaveinCalgary
April 2, 2022 12:58 am

Thanks to the land surveyor who behaves like an all-time-better-knowing elementary school teacher…

Reply to  Bindidon
March 30, 2022 3:47 pm

Bin ==> I don’t get your first graph — it seems to show MORE SLR when VLM is taken into account. Since Tide Gauges Measure Relative SLR and most are seeing downward VLM, taking VLM into account should show LESS SRL. Yes?

Frederikse et al. and Dangendorf did not take VLM into account — that is, they do not use real VLM measured at the Tide Gauge site but only vague “nearby” GPS/GIA data — as result,, like all alledged Global Tide Gauge-based GSML rise studies, they end up with sea level combined with unknown amounts of negative VLM for each tide gauge. That result is totally invalid.

Only tide gauges corrected for VLM with a GPS@TG(ss) — Continuously Operating GPS Reference Station at the tide gauge attached to the same structure — will give a measure that can be used to determine regional or global estimates of Absolute SLR.

You can email me at my first name at i4.net.

Last edited 11 months ago by Kip Hansen
Reply to  Kip Hansen
March 31, 2022 11:14 am

” Since Tide Gauges Measure Relative SLR and most are seeing downward VLM, taking VLM into account should show LESS SRL. Yes? ”


On a global average, there is less subsidence than rebound.

This is seemingly not valid for e.g. an average of all PSMSL gauges along CONUS’ East coast:

comment image

” Only tide gauges corrected for VLM with a GPS@TG(ss) — Continuously Operating GPS Reference Station at the tide gauge attached to the same structure — will give a measure that can be used to determine regional or global estimates of Absolute SLR. ”

Sorry: This extreme demand, based on ideology rather than on reality, does not correspond to my opinion, because it reduces the amount of usable gauges to a ridiculous quantity.

This is the same kind of ideology as that leading to restrict the gauges to those having 100+ years of activity:

comment image

My interest is to collect as much worldwide information as possible.

I’m a layman, and not a specialist. It is their job to find an ideal balance between exact data and lack of data.

When I look at the green plot in the chart above, I can’t say I would be unsatisfied.

And a display of the 5-year distant consecutive trends for the five plots in the chart looks for me quite good as well, apart from NOAA’s crude outlier job:

comment image

Last edited 11 months ago by Bindidon
Reply to  Bindidon
March 31, 2022 12:46 pm

Bin ==> I’ll have to take some time to look at all that — but NOAA CORS project totally disagrees with the idea that more locations are rebounding up than subsiding down.

Tide gauges uncorrected for the vertical movement of the tide gauge itself are not fit for purpose of informing us about global mean sea level or its rise or fall.

Have you a fuller explanation of your work written up somewhere.?

Reply to  Kip Hansen
April 1, 2022 12:38 pm

1) ” … but NOAA CORS project totally disagrees with the idea that more locations are rebounding up than subsiding down.

I had a look at this NOAA CORS corner which, as pretty good suggested by the CORS Map, nearly exclusively deals (1) with land, (2) with the US contry, and not primarily with global coastal data as shown by e.g. SONEL. This was confirmed by files in the data section.

The ITRF files with global data contain nearly only US data: 1499 active US stations vs. 58 (!!!) outside of it, partly on land, partly at the coast. For HTDP, it’s even worse (193 stations in total).

In other words: your assertion above looks, at a superficial glance, correct; the average up velocities in the ITRF files are -0.9 mm/yr over the entire US, and -4.4 mm/yr outside of it.

But… this is of no interest for the coastal regions worldwide.

I have currently 1753 worldwide distributed SONEL velocities, extracted out of their data files, with 325 US based units, and 1428 (!!!) out of it.
The global averages are: +0.21 mm/yr for the Globe, -0.77 mm/yr for CONUS, and +0.43 mm/yr outside of CONUS.

Thus, unless I accidentally overlooked a data file exclusively dealing with coastal data, I can only ask what was your point with CORS.

2) ” Tide gauges uncorrected for the vertical movement of the tide gauge itself are not fit for purpose of informing us about global mean sea level or its rise or fall.

I have already explained that at least for me layman, this is a blind-alley.

Your maximalist request leads, due to the extremely low amount of sources, to a way higher bias in the global evaluation process than that generated by allowing non-near GPS velocities for the gauges’ data corrections, thus allowing more gauge data.

Anyway, you might have overlooked a paragraph in my first reply to Larry Hamlin:

” I personally chose to set the SONEL velocity of the GPS station nearest to the selected gauges as a constant over time: better to have VLM data than none… “.

Here, there is a basic flaw in admitting this constant velocity; but rejecting the choice would make the blind-alley perfect: no historical data correction at all.

Reply to  Bindidon
April 1, 2022 1:31 pm

Bin ==> Feel free to send me your data (my first name at i4.net) GLOBALLY averaged VLM is nonsensical, of course. Globally averaged RSL is equally nonsensical as it includes unknown/unknowable amounts of a known confounder, VLM.

The idea that lots of data that is known to be bad (polluted with unquantified confounders) can produce a scientific results with any meaning is also nonsensical.

Tide Gauges are attached to structures like piers, sea walls and docks all of which are demonstratably known to be subsiding, irrespective of the land mass surrounding them. Not taking into account the accurately measured VLM of the structure itself defeats your purpose.

Last edited 11 months ago by Kip Hansen
Reply to  Kip Hansen
April 1, 2022 2:31 pm

Thanks, that is all known to me.

Typical skeptic argumentation with as only goal to discredit the work of others.

Keep doubting, Sir, and… bye.

Last edited 11 months ago by Bindidon
Chris Hanley
March 29, 2022 5:14 pm

It is intriguing how the SL ‘takeoff’ point (using an aircraft metaphor) creeps along the time axis in successive scenarios over time.
The IPCC’s latest projections show the ‘takeoff’ point around about now, although the ‘observed’ line falsely shows slight acceleration already.

March 29, 2022 5:29 pm

Lived near the beach my entire life, the sea level has not risen 1mm in reality. NASA and NOAA are full of SChitt!

Reply to  Truthbknown
March 29, 2022 7:27 pm

Well see Truthbknown – you have to live at an AVERAGE beach –

Not too sandy, not too flat, not too rocky, not too steep, not too rough, not too hot, not too cold, not too windy . . .

I believe there could be 4 or maybe 5 of these beaches around the globe, but their exact locations can’t be disclosed because – SCIENCE!

Reply to  Truthbknown
March 30, 2022 4:56 am

I can understand what you mean!


1) Here is, within a list of 376 tide gauges, the sublist of those with sea level trend between -1 and +1 mm / year:


I doubt that anyone living there would say

” Lived near the beach my entire life, the sea level has not risen 1mm in reality. ”

Don’t tell me you would be able to detect 1 cm / decade.

2) Moreover, the data reported by the 76 gauges above has been corrected for vertical land movement.

Imagine you would be at a place with a subsidence factor of -5 mm / year. With a sea level change of +5 mm / year, you see nothing during your whole life.

In Furuögrund (Sweden), the GPS station near the gauge reports a glacial isostatic rebound of +10 mm / year, and a sea level change of -8 mm/year.

The gauge at Eugene Island in Louisiana has a sea level rise of nearly 10 mm/year, but the subsidence reported there is -8 mm/year.

Last edited 11 months ago by Bindidon
Reply to  Bindidon
March 30, 2022 6:30 am

And still the beach gains or loses a foot of sand during a big storm, making 1.7mm irrelevant.

Reply to  DMacKenzie
March 30, 2022 7:59 am

” … making 1.7mm ”

Which 1.7 mm do you mean where?

You should try to escape out of your corner, and look at some places which are different, and will be more different in the future.

I’m over 70, don’t live at the coast and hence don’t need to care about whichever sea level future.

Jeff Alberts
March 29, 2022 6:53 pm

Synopsis: There is no climate crisis.

March 29, 2022 9:00 pm

There was so much information in this post it was hard to get a handle on it. I did I get all the way through it. This is important information for everyone to know. The problem is it is so long and uses vocabulary that damn few regular people would take the time to slog through. I like to send WUWT posts to my friends but when they are as long and technical as this one I don’t send them. Which is a shame because they are the very people that need to see things like this. We have to find a way to spread information like this far and wide and in a form everyone can digest.

March 29, 2022 9:13 pm

Looking at the first graph it is obvious that the number of COP conferences is causing rising levels of CO2.

Hey it’s Climate Science you only need a correlation and it’s true 🙂

Ian MacCulloch
March 29, 2022 11:51 pm

An excellent article on its topic. However, the situation away from these tidal gauge locations (including Fort Dension in Sydney Harbour and in Port Arthur, Tasmania) is far more complex. Recent mapping from satellite data (limited to the last 32 years for obvious reasons) by Geoscience Australia shows extraordinary variation in sea advances and retreats over such a short time.
Measuring tidal gauges is a bit like taking the temperature from a vast array of locations – you get a lot of data but a lot of it is of little use away from the main influences as the work from Geoscience Australia highlights (see link below).


Reply to  Ian MacCulloch
March 30, 2022 1:08 am

That is exactly the reason why groups like Frederikse et alii or Dangendorf et alii do by no means restrict their analysis to about 500 of over 1500 gauges worldwide, as opposed to what statistician Grant Foster and me little layman did.

I didn’t even process gauge data in separate basins, like did all real specialists.


March 30, 2022 2:10 pm

Typical alarmist twaddle, intended to frighten. If, could. If, could. If, could.

March 30, 2022 4:22 pm

I am most sympathetic to the point regarding exaggeration but also prefer facts to predictions. There is a period this holocene when ocean levels were a couple of metres or so higher than now, certainly recorded in the Arabian gulf and I believe elsewhere, I recall the Roman docks on the coast had to be moved because they were inundated?

This is hardly surprising as it was 1-2 degrees warmer than now at that time, per the proxy records.

So, on the record, it is wrong to say sea levels have risen since the last interglacial warming, or when god created heaven and Earth if you are an evangelist.

Seems to me, IMO technical opinion, that sea levels have gone up and down throughout the natural 1Ka compound global climate cycles we observe in the record. It’s just nobody much noticed before “scientists” guessed what would have happened in the future, . They just adapted where necessary and got on with it. Wait till the oceans fall 130m to their preferred long term position. Cities will just move, it only takes a few centuries to n build a new city somewhere else, and we will have millenia,

The English channel will become real estate and only useful for Rhine and Thames Traffic to the Atlantic., Makassar Straits will become useful way route between Indian Ocean and Pacific/Souith CHina sea, etc. Change happens.

W. H. Smith
March 31, 2022 4:44 pm

The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2014 wrote:
“Impoverished Bangladesh will lose 17 per cent of its land by 2050 because of rising sea levels due to global warming. ” The IPCC says 20 million Bangladeshis will become environmental refugees by 2050 and the country will lose 30 per cent of its food production.
NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Professor James Hansen, painted an even grimmer picture (as above) predicting the entire country could be under water by the end of the century.”
Repeated discussion of the same data, as above, simply clouds the real issue and lends credence to the “You are about to die from ___________ (fill in the blank)” crowd.

IS LAND BEING LOST TO SEA LEVEL RISE? That is the relevant question. The answer is clear.

Satellite imagery over the past 40 years has shown, at high precision and accuracy, that the planet is gaining land area at its coast lines faster than it is losing land area. Erosion builds land faster than the coastal erosion plus sea level rise destroys it.
Bangladesh, supposed to have lost farmland, with drowned population, etc. according to the IPCC and Prof. Hansen, has actually gained over 1000 km2 of land since 1973, and expects to gain another 1000 km2 by 2070 AD.
Pacific and Indian Ocean islands are easily staying above the sea.
Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 41, Issue 3, pgs 820-827 2004 DOI: 10,1002/2013GL059000
EIGHTY percent of Pacific and Indian Ocean islands are growing, those that are shrinking are being strangled by human groins, sea walls, and jetties.

PLEASE get out of the weeds and stop feeding the beast. Just say NO.

The land is not being inundated, and we have it on the best authority (not to mention the data).
The elites are carving out the coast lines for THEIR pleasure.

W. H. Smith

Reply to  W. H. Smith
April 1, 2022 2:39 pm

That I can clearly confirm:


(dated 11 October, 2021)

But I’m not sure that this and some more mistakes in appreciating the really existing coastal situations will change much for other places in the world.

Anyway: I’m both spatially and temporally far away from what might happen in the future 🙂

March 31, 2022 6:43 pm

This way, way, WAY overly long screed appears to be chock full of nonsense. A couple of examples just in the first few paragraphs:

1 – Right off the bat, the very first sentence is completely wrong:

“For decades climate alarmists in the UK, EU and U.S. have been making flawed and failed exaggerated claims regarding accelerating global level sea level rise”

False. Totally false. Sea level rise projections over the past few decade have been, on the whole, quite accurate. Pretending otherwise is just outright lying. Moreover, observed sea level rise has been nearer the higher end of the projections.

For example:

IPCC Second Assessment (SAR) 1995
Working Group 1 Figure 7.7 p.384
Global Sea Level Rise Projection: 1990 – 2018: 67 mm +/- 40 mm.
Observed Global Sea Level Rise 1990 – 2018: 87 mm.

2- Another fairy tale here is pretending that there is “no acceleration” of the Brest France tidal gauge data, the oldest and longest running tidal gauge in the world. That dataset has a pretty darn clear upward curving shape (see attached image). But if you look only at a graph of that data which portrays it in a way where you can barely even see any slope to begin with, you’re never going to see the obviously upward curved shape.

Typical disingenuous methodology, and unfortunately, par for the course for far too many so-called climate “skeptics”.

Brest France SLR.JPG
Reply to  MGC
April 1, 2022 2:15 pm

You are of course ‘plain right’.

I had seen that strange claim about Brest, but forgot to post a comment.

Consecutive linear estimates from 1810-2020 till 1990-2020:

1810-2020: 1.19 ± 0.03 mm/yr
1820-2020: 1.30
1830-2020: 1.38
1840-2020: 1.41
1850-2020: 1.46
1860-2020: 1.53
1870-2020: 1.62
1880-2020: 1.71
1890-2020: 1.82
1900-2020: 1.77
1910-2020: 1.60
1920-2020: 1.81
1930-2020: 1.82
1940-2020: 1.90
1950-2020: 2.03
1960-2020: 2.13
1970-2020: 2.93
1980-2020: 2.80
1990-2020: 3.17 ± 0.37

(I spare us the SEs in between)

Last edited 11 months ago by Bindidon
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