Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #224

The Week That Was: 2016-04-30 (April 30, 2016) Brought to You by SEPP (www.SEPP.org) The Science and Environmental Policy Project

THIS WEEK:By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

Types of Climate Science: The four-minute video by MIT Professor Emeritus of Meteorology Richard Lindzen so concisely highlights the ongoing conflicts regarding the human influence on global warming, (now called climate change), that it bears repeating. The major issue: Does 20th century warming come primarily from human emissions of greenhouse gases, chiefly from carbon dioxide (CO2), or largely natural causes with other human causes such as land use change included.

Lindzen divides the participants into three groups: 1) knowledgeable scientists who largely agree with the findings of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its five assessment reports (ARs); 2) knowledgeable scientists (such as those in the Non-governmental Panel for Climate Change (NIPCC)) who largely disagree with the findings of the IPCC that burning of fossil fuels may cause dangerous global warming; and 3) politicians, environmentalists, and the media. [It should be noted that a number of scientists in group 2 participated in earlier IPCC reports, including Mr. Lindzen, and departed from it. Some stated that the IPCC has become too politicized.]

Lindzen notes that the two groups of knowledgeable scientists who disagree on the effects of burning of fossil fuels largely agree on a surprising number of points.

· The climate is always changing.

· CO2 is a greenhouse gas, without which life on earth is not possible, but adding it to the atmosphere should lead to some warming.

· Atmospheric levels of CO2 have been increasing since the end of the Little Ice Age in the 19th century.

· Over the past two centuries, the global mean temperature has increased slightly and erratically by about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit, or one degree Celsius.

· Given the complexity of climate, no confident prediction about future global mean temperature or its impact can be made.

Some may find the last point surprising. But, the IPCC fourth assessment report (AR-4, 2007) stated that: “The long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible.” Here we see a major problem between what the groups 1 & 2 scientists have articulated and what members of group 3, the politicians, environmentalists, and the media, have claimed. Unfortunately, the clamor created by group 3 has virtually drowned out the clear agreements between groups 1 & 2, and the sharp distinctions between them. According to Lindzen, group 3 have their own reasons –money, power, and ideology – to promote a catastrophic scenario. The impact of group 3 is making pure scientific research into the actual influence of carbon dioxide on the climate very difficult.

Adding to the difficulty is the participation of scientists who are not knowledgeable on climate science issues and business interests hoping to benefit from the fear of global warming, mostly from subsidies or direct payments for “green” energy technologies, which governments continue to lavishly provide. Lindzen does not give this subset of group 3 a name, or label. He does state that they have joined the bandwagon of group 3 and are publishing papers blaming global warming for everything from acne to the Syrian civil war.

If we term the scientific debates as the climate wars, the latter group can be termed as climate war profiteers, or climate profiteers. These include scientists who contribute little or nothing to the scientific issues, frequently incorrectly stating the issues, and who hope to advance their careers by making a fuss out of little. Examples include those who attack climate skeptics for irrelevant reasons, such as being allegedly paid by tobacco interests, and those who manufacture a non-existing consensus, or use inferior polls to declare a consensus or an agreement where one does not exist. Of course, politicians and state attorneys general who are calling for investigation of private individuals and groups skeptical of “dangerous” human-caused global warming fall into this group of climate profiteers.

Lindzen’s short video greatly clarifies the myriad of motivations of those advocating political policies in the name of “climate science” and should make anyone reading an article that states “scientists say” very skeptical. See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy and Challenging the Orthodoxy – NIPCC.


Quote of the Week: “The real world is muddy and messy and full of things that we do not yet understand. It is much easier for a scientist to sit in an air-conditioned building and run computer models, than to put on winter clothes and measure what is really happening outside in the swamps and the clouds. That is why the climate model experts end up believing their own models.” — Freeman Dyson in Edge [H/t Al Fin]


Number of the Week: 70% of observed greening


Type 1 & 2 Scientific Issue – Surface Measurements: Anthony Watts presented a scientific paper by John R. Christy, Alabama Office of the State Climatologist, and Earth System Science Center, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama (UAH) and Richard T. McNider, Earth System Science Center, UAH, published in the “Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology” published by the American Meteorological Society (AMS). The paper addresses issues such as which surface measurements should be used, and how are they verified?

The issues are critical because many IPCC supporters, Group 1 scientists, ignore atmospheric data from satellites, even though that is where the greenhouse effect takes place – largely, in the lower troposphere below 50,000 feet (15,200 meters). Some of these scientists justify this selected ignorance by saying they use only surface data “because that’s where people live.”

One valid argument for ignoring atmospheric temperatures is that the comprehensive satellite temperature dataset (starting in December 1978) is too short, and the independent weather balloon dataset, starting in the 1950s, is not comprehensive. Using data going back to 1883 from three different datasets of inland Alabama, (Montgomery, Birmingham and Huntsville), the UAH team examined daytime, nighttime, and daily average datasets. They found that the daytime highs were least disturbed by human activity, such as urbanization, including buildings causing turbulence, disrupting nighttime airflow. [It should be noted irrigation can cause daytime cooling and nighttime warming: “Irrigation increases dry soil’s ability to hold heat and releases a powerful greenhouse gas (water vapor) into the lowest levels of the atmosphere over dry and desert areas.”]

“When the cool layer of air near the surface is disturbed, warmer air aloft is drawn down to the surface. All of those cause real changes in the local climate, raising local surface temperatures, especially at night, by amounts large enough to be noticed both by weather station thermometers and by people living in some of those areas.


“But none of those changes has anything to do with widespread climate change in the deep atmosphere over large areas of the globe, such as might be seen if caused by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


“’Over time this might look like warming or an accumulation of heat in the temperature record, but this temperature change is only caused by the redistribution of warmer air that has always been there, just not at the surface,’ said Richard McNider, a distinguished professor of science at UAH.


“So how can climatologists use existing long-term surface temperature records to accurately track the potential effects of enhanced CO2? Take the nighttime boundary layer (and all of the things we do to interfere with it) out of play, say Christy and McNider.”

Christy stated: “Because of the natural mixing of the atmosphere caused by daytime heating, daily maximum temperatures are the best surface data to use to look at temperatures in the deep atmosphere. At the surface, the daytime maximum temperature just represents more air than the nighttime low.”

“Summers in Alabama have been cooling, especially since 1954. Interior Alabama’s ten coolest summers were after 1960, with most of those after 1990. As might be expected given that cooling, climate models individually and in groups do a poor job of modeling the state’s long-term temperature and rainfall changes since 1883.


“The researchers conclude the models — the same models widely used to forecast climate change — show “no skill” in explaining long-term changes since 1883.”

In his comments, Anthony Watts added the surface temperatures of Las Vegas, Nevada, which has undergone a major building boom in recent decades. The annual average maximum temperatures show no increase since records started in 1937, but the average annual minimum temperatures show a steady increase.

Surface temperatures may be measuring a human influence that has little to do with greenhouse gases. If so, then programs to greatly restrict CO2 emissions will not have much bearing on global warming/climate change, and are purely wasteful and punitive. See links under Measurement Issues – Surface.


Type 3 Issues – Defining Experts: An example of Lindzen’s Group 3 can be found in a publication by a group comprising of Cook, Oreskes, et al. (including Maibach, Lewandowsky, and Nuccitelli) in Environmental Research Letters, an open access publication. The abstract reads:

The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90% – 100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. [Boldface added]

The dates covered are 1991 to 2011. The authors reply to a letter by Richard Tol who pointed out that the prior Cook 97% consensus “omits tests for systematic differences between raters. Many abstracts are unaccounted for. The paper does not discuss the procedures used to ensure independence between the raters, to ensure that raters did not use additional information, and to ensure that later ratings were not influenced by earlier results.” Also, Tol included additional authors, which the group does not consider to be experts.

Using the group’s criteria, the writings of climate change pioneer H.H. Lamb, and many others, including early researchers on the Ice Ages, are excluded, or the authors are considered non-experts. Interestingly, the group invokes the revolutionary concept of plate tectonics, which was greatly advanced by petroleum engineers. Maibach, one of the group, is a member of the RICO-20, advocating criminal investigation of those who disagree with their ideas on climate change for possible influence by oil companies. Such is the state of Group 3 Climate Science. See links under Defending the Orthodoxy and



Paris Agreement: The political show of the signing of the Paris Agreement took place on UN declared International Mother Earth Day, April 22, 2016. Questions regarding the enforceability of the Agreement remain, including will the US government claw back the $500,000,000 the US State Department, transferred to the UN Green Climate Fund, which was not authorized by Congress.

This brings up a number of interesting issues. As Martin Livermore points out in an essay: as unsubstantiated claims by the IPCC intensified, anti-fossil fuel advocates intensified their willingness to punish fossil-fuel users, regardless of the costs to the economy, and even as evidence of the need diminishes. De-carbonizing electricity, now becoming very difficult, will be easy compared with de-carbonizing transport and heating.

Further, in western Europe, and elsewhere, we are witnessing high costs and unreliability of alternatives to fossil fuels. The inflated claims that accompany alternative projects is turning out to be little else than marketing propaganda. What if there is no other solution for requiring fossil fuels to provide affordable, reliable energy for electricity, transport, heating/cooling, medical, and health needs? No doubt, many western leaders do not care today, but the results can be very damaging for many people. See links under After Paris? Questioning European Green and Non-Green Jobs


Solar Disruptive? Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and U. California, Berkeley, produced a study that may remove some of the exaggeration that too often accompanies promoters of industrial solar-power projects. This empirical and statistical study evaluates factors determining solar plant (industrial) performance.

Their study reveals useful suggestions for improving cost-efficiency of industrial solar-power plants. Just adding more solar modules may not be cost effective.

Their study finds that rooftop solar panels feeding the grid are disruptive, and appear to be more costly to the consumer than reliable power plants – such as fossil fuels and nuclear. Cloudy and northern situations with a low azimuth to the sun; are not desirable. Germany provides an extreme example of what not to do. What is needed is project-level energy storage – rare in the US for the utility-scale markets. The only type that appears to be effective is pumped hydraulic storage, which entails significant environmental and locational issues. Initial reports indicate that Germany is no longer looking at battery storage for back-up needs.

As an aside, it is amazing the number of political entities that push solar power even though their locations are unsuitable. Many useful maps have been published, including a global map that has some interesting locations for sunny days. See links under Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind and Questioning European Green


Another Pipeline Blocked: Pipelines are considered the safest way to transport liquid fuels and gases. For no clear reasons other than political, the Obama Administration blocked the building of the extension of the Keystone Pipeline from Canada into the US. The pipeline would have expanded crude deliveries from Canada to Texas, partially replacing imports of heavy crude from unstable Venezuela and elsewhere outside of North America.

For no clear reasons, other than political, the administration of Governor Cuomo of New York blocked a pipeline from Pennsylvania to New York and New England, which would bring inexpensive natural gas to these areas that have some of the highest electricity prices in the country. Natural gas is the low-cost alternative to coal-fired power plants for electricity and is also needed for heating. The pipeline may save up-state New York homeowners $1000 per year.

There was no solid justification given for this denial of permits except the pipeline failed to meet the state’s water quality standards, which were unspecified. Cuomo has used the same argument to ban hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the state.

Governor Cuomo considers himself to be a progressive-liberal, as does President Obama. Though not directly these actions, political columnist George Will writes about the attitudes of progressive-liberals when writing about the calls for RICO investigations:

“Four core tenets of progressivism are: First, history has a destination. Second, progressives uniquely discern it. (Barack Obama frequently declares things to be on or opposed to “the right side of history.”) Third, politics should be democratic but peripheral to governance, which is the responsibility of experts scientifically administering the regulatory state. Fourth, enlightened progressives should enforce limits on speech (witness IRS suppression of conservative advocacy groups) in order to prevent thinking unhelpful to history’s progressive unfolding.”

There is little reasoning with those who have such high beliefs in themselves. See article #2 and links under Suppressing Scientific Inquiry – The Witch Hunt – Push-Back and Energy Issues — US


Push-Back: The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) has responded to the legally questionable subpoena by the Attorney General for the Virgin Islands. CEI’s attorneys are Grossman and Rivkin, who appear to have a solid understanding of the situation. In addition to violation of First Amendment Rights, the reasons why the CEI attorneys consider the subpoena defective is 1) that it needed to be issued by a court of record, and there is no court of record, and 2) that such subpoenas of discovery apply to pending judicial actions, and there are no such actions. It will be interesting if the entire effort to investigate amounts to a violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1985. See links under Suppressing Scientific Inquiry – The Witch Hunt – Push-Back


Greening Earth: A paper in the magazine Nature Climate Change reinforces the studies produced by the Non-governmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) that humans adding carbon dioxide (CO2) is a net benefit to the environment and to humanity. Plants are flourishing and the overall environment is becoming more robust.

The new study was based on satellite photos taken by NASA that show higher rates of photosynthesis are occurring. CO2 is a main source of fuel for plants, thus for all life on Earth. The composite photos show all parts of the US are greening – benefiting from increased CO2. Yet, the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), of which NASA and NOAA are a part, continues to calculate a social cost of carbon dioxide (SCC), without regard to the benefits, — truly a dysfunctional enterprise. See Challenging the Orthodoxy – NIPCC, particularly Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts and links under Social Benefits of Carbon


More EPA Non-Science: EPA announced it is intensifying haze regulations under the clean air act. Amusingly, a cited example is the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge. Discussed in prior TWTWs, the Okefenokee is a natural bog, extending from southern Georgia into northern Florida. The waters are naturally highly acidic, with ph as low as 3.5 (7 is neutral). Yet, non-specialized wildlife and aquatic-life thrive there. As with many eastern parks, truly cleaning the air of “pollutants” causing haze would require clear-cutting the extensive woodlands which emit significant volatile organic compounds, causing haze. The EPA does not bother understanding the science behind its regulations. See link under EPA and other Regulators on the March


Climate Hustle: C-FACT has released a humorous movie, Climate Hustle, which will appear in many local US theaters on the evening of Monday, May 2, for a one-night special. For a list of theaters by state see: http://www.climatehustlemovie.com/. For a review by Anthony Watts see link under Questioning the Orthodoxy.




SEPP is conducting its annual vote for the recipient of the coveted trophy, The Jackson, a lump of coal. Readers are asked to nominate and vote for who they think is most deserving, following these criteria:

· The nominee has advanced, or proposes to advance, significant expansion of governmental power, regulation, or control over the public or significant sections of the general economy.

· The nominee does so by declaring such measures are necessary to protect public health, welfare, or the environment.

· The nominee declares that physical science supports such measures.

· The physical science supporting the measures is flimsy at best, and possibly non-existent.

The four past recipients, Lisa Jackson, Barrack Obama, John Kerry, and Ernest Moniz are not eligible. Generally, the committee that makes the selection prefers a candidate with a national or international presence. The voting will close on June 1. Please send your nominee and a brief reason why the person is qualified for the honor to Ken@SEPP.org. Thank you. The award will be presented at the annual meeting of the Doctors for Disaster Preparedness on July 9.


Number of the Week: 70% of observed greening. According to authors of the new study on the benefits of increased CO2 (cited above): “Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models, suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%).” See links under Social Benefits of Carbon.


ARTICLES: The Articles section is now at the bottom of TWTW.




Suppressing Scientific Inquiry – The Witch Hunt – Push-Back

CEI Strikes Back At Unlawful Subpoena

Objection filed in response to blatant attack on First Amendment rights

By Staff Writers, CEI, Apr 20, 2016


Link to objection to subpoena, Superior Court of District of Columbia

By Grossman and Rivkin, Attorneys


The environmental campaign that punishes free speech

By Sam Kazman and Kent Lassman, Washington Post, Apr 22, 2016 [H/t Cooler Heads]


Scientific silencers on the left are trying to shut down climate skepticism

By George F. Will, Washington Post, Apr 22, 2016


“The leader of the attorneys general, New York’s Eric Schneiderman, dismisses those who disagree with him as ‘morally vacant.’”

[SEPP Comment: A similar essay by Will was linked in last week’s TWTW.]

Victim of AGs’ Climate Change Inquisition Fights Back

By Hans von Spakovsky, Daily Signal, Apr 22, 2016



Letter: Are these politicians lying or just stupid?

By Charles G. Battig., Richmond Times-Dispatch, Via WUWT, Apr 24, 2016


Climate change lobby wants to kill free speech

By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Apr 25, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Comments on a letter in the London Times]

Matt Ridley: Climate Change Lobby Wants To Kill Free Speech

By Matt Ridley, The Times, Via GWPF, Apr 25, 2016


The liberal society and its publically funded enemies

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Apr 29, 2016


“Members of the House of Lords to the Times: ‘we are in favour of free speech but you shouldn’t publish people who disagree with us’”.

Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming

The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus

By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, NIPCC, Nov 23, 2015


Download with no charge


Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science

Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2013


Summary: http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/ccr2a/pdf/Summary-for-Policymakers.pdf

Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts

Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2014


Summary: https://www.heartland.org/media-library/pdfs/CCR-IIb/Summary-for-Policymakers.pdf

Challenging the Orthodoxy

Climate Change: What Do Scientists Say?

By Richard Lindzen, Prager University, Apr 18, 2016 [Facebook Video]


Updated climate sensitivity estimates

By Nic Lewis, Climate Etc. Apr 25, 2016


New Paper: Droughts Are Not Getting Worse And They Are Not Causing Wars

By Staff writers, Global Warming Policy Foundation, Apr 25, 2016


Link to paper: Parched Earth Policy: Drought, Heatwave and Conflict

By Andrew Montford, GWPF, 2016


The Fable of a Stable Climate

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Apr 26, 2016


Research in Prague quantifies dishonesty of literature on climate sensitivity

The power of meta-analyses in measuring the density of scammers in the climate alarmist industry

By Luboš Motl, The Reference Frame, Apr 26, 2016


Link to paper: Publication Bias in Measuring Anthropogenic Climate Change

By Dominika Reckova and Zuzana Irsova, Charles University, Prague, May 7, 2015


“Corrected for publication bias, the bulk of the literature is consistent with climate sensitivity lying between 1:4 and 2:3°C.”

The Major Problems with the Climate Alarmist Narrative

By Alan Carlin, Carlin Economics and Science, Apr 28, 2016


“So the ‘Problem’ is Highly Unlikely and the ‘Solution’ Will Mainly Waste Money at the Expense of Poor People.”

The State of Climate Science: No Justification for Extreme Policies

By David W. Kreutzer, Nicolas Loris, Katie Tubb and Kevin D. Dayaratna, Heritage Foundation, Apr 22, 2016


The science isn’t settled

By Benjamin Riley, The New Criterion, Apr 25, 2016 [H/t Cooler Heads]


Videos from the conference, including exclusive interviews with Mark Steyn, and Professors Richard Lindzen and Ross McKitrick.

Defending the Orthodoxy

Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming

Cook, Oreskes, et al. (including Maibach, Lewandowsky, Nuccitelli), IOP, Apr 13, 2016



New Politics for Clean Energy

By Jeffrey Sachs, Professor of Sustainable Development, Professor of Health Policy and Management, and Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, Project Syndicate, Apr 27, 2016


[SEPP Comment: More illusionary puffery ignoring the need for reliable, affordable energy for electricity, transport, and health.]

The Right Time for Climate Action

By Simon Upton, Environment Director at the OECD, Project Syndicate, Apr 25, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Unlike Sachs, called a scientific advisor to the Pope, [immediately above], at least Upton recognizes that the implementation of the Paris goals will be economically disruptive, at best. But, what if there is no solution for requiring fossil fuels to provide affordable, reliable energy for electricity, transport, heating/cooling and health?]

Questioning the Orthodoxy

My review: Skeptic Film ‘Climate Hustle’ to appear in theaters Nationwide one week from tonight [On May 2]

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Apr 25, 2016


List of Theaters: http://www.climatehustlemovie.com/

‘Facts are stubborn things’ for climate alarmists

By Michael Sununu, Manchester Union Leader (NH, USA) Apr 21, 2016 [H/t ICECAP]


Forecasting nonsense & Number of the month – 4,300

By John Brignell, Number Watch, Apr 20 & 26, 2016


You Ought to Have a Look: Our Energy Future, Science Regress, and a Greening Earth

By Patrick J. Michaels and Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger, Cato, Apr 29, 2016


[SEPP Comment: The views of energy expert Mark Mills, the way political influence has changed modern science by Walter Wilson, and a great cartoon.]

After Paris!

175 nations signed, Paris climate insanity hasn’t come to force yet

Era of consumption without worries is just getting started

By Luboš Motl, The Reference Frame, Apr 23, 2016


State Department Announces Plans to Circumvent US Law in Order to Advance Climate Agenda

By Brett Schaefer and Seven Groves, Daily Signal, Apr 26, 2016


Obama administration takes victory lap after signing climate deal

By Kyle Feldscher, Washington Examiner, Apr 25, 2016


WH soothes diplomats’ concerns about U.S. climate future

By Kyle Feldscher, Washington Examiner, Apr 25, 2016


On Climate, We’re Manipulated By Sleight Of Hand

By Marita Noon, Oil Pro, Apr 25, 2016 [H/t Cooler Heads]


U.S. Can Meet Paris Climate Goals (With or Without Supreme Court)

By Michael Bloomberg, Bloomberg, Apr 21, 2016 [H/t Timothy Wise]


The Administration’s Plan – Push-Back

Obama’s Global Warming Plan Cost Poor Americans $44 Billion, Raises Taxes By 166%

By Andrew Follett, Daily Caller, Apr 23, 2016 [H/t Timothy Wise]


Link to study: Issues 2016: Who Pays the Bill for the Obama Climate Agenda?

By Owen Cass, Manhattan Institute, Apr 21, 2016


Obama’s Green Agenda Should Be Kept Out of National Security

By Rep. John Fleming, The Daily Signal, Apr 27, 2016 [H/t Cooler Heads]


Social Benefits of Carbon

NASA: Higher CO2 levels reponsible for ‘greening’ Earth

By Brooks Hays, UPI, Apr 26, 2016


Link to paper: Greening of the Earth and its drivers

By Zhu, et al, Nature Climate Change, Apr 25, 2016


Rise in CO2 has greened planet Earth

By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Apr 26, 2016


A Greening (in a Good Way) Earth

By Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger and Patrick J. Michaels. Cato, Apr 27, 2016


Climate Models Fail Again, Didn’t Predict CO2 Would Green The Western US

By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller, Apr 25, 201


Projecting the Impacts of Rising CO2 on Future Crop Yields in Germany

By Craig Idso, Cato, Apr 29, 2016


Does more CO2 mean increased crop water productivity?

Increased CO2 could reduce crop growing seasons and crop water consumption.

By Shalini Saxena, Ars Technica, Apr 22, 2016


Link to paper: Regional disparities in the beneficial effects of rising CO2 concentrations on crop water productivity

By Derying, et al, Nature Climate Change, Apr 18, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Real experiments, not modelling studies, needed.]

Seeking a Common Ground

Expert judgement and uncertainty quantification for climate change

By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Apr 28, 2916


[SEPP Comment: The ‘expert judgment” used by the IPCC is often lacking expertise.]

The smartest ways to adapt to climate

By Bjorn Lomborg, Daily Star, Bangladesh, Apr 27, 2016


Climate science might become the most important casualty of the replication crisis

By Larry Kummer. From the Fabius Maximus website., WUWT, Apr 22, 2016


Review of Recent Scientific Articles by CO2 Science

The Unstoppable CO2-Induced Greening of the Earth Continues

Zhu, Z., Piao, S., Myneni, R.B., Huang, M., Zeng, Z., Canadell, J.G., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., Friedlingstein, P., Arneth, A., Cao, C., Cheng, L., Kato, E., Koven, C., Li, Y., Lian, X., Liu, Y., Liu, R., Mao, J., Pan, Y., Peng, S., Penuelas, J., Poulter, B., Pugh, T.A.M., Stocker, B.D., Viovy, N., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Xiao, Z., Yang, H., Zaehle, S. and Zeng, N. 2016. Greening of the Earth and its drivers. Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE3004. Apr 26, 2016


18th Century to 2013 Precipitation Trends Over Earth’s Land Mass

Van Wijngaarden, W.A. and Syed, A. 2015. Changes in annual precipitation over the Earth’s land mass excluding Antarctica from the 18th century to 2013. Journal of Hydrology 531: 1020-1027. Apr 26, 2016


The Future of Earth’s Coral Reefs in Remote Regions of the World

Perry, C.T., Murphy, G.N., Graham, N.A.J., Wilson, S.K., Januchowski-Hartley, F.A. and East, H.K. 2015. Remote coral reefs can sustain high growth potential and may match future sea-level trends. Scientific Reports 5:10.1038/srep18289. Apr 29, 2016


Measurement Issues — Surface

Tracking climate change? Use the daily highs

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Apr 29, 2016


Link to paper: Time Series Construction of Summer Surface Temperatures for Alabama, 1883–2014, and Comparisons with Tropospheric Temperature and Climate Model Simulations

By Christy and McNider, UAH, AMS Journal, Mar 23, 2016


From Abstract: “Seventy-seven CMIP5 climate model runs are examined for Alabama and indicate no skill at replicating long-term temperature and precipitation changes since 1895.”


The Arctic is melting – and scientists just lost a key tool to observe it

By Chelsea Harvey, Washington Post, Apr 25, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]


Changing Weather

Weather pattern changes over Greenland may account for melting, storms in Europe

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Apr 27, 2016


Kevin Trenberth’s Climate Attribution Studies versus Useful Science – Part 1 Hurricane Sandy

Guest essay by Jim Steele, WUWT, Apr 20, 2016


The Horror! Climate Change Is Making The Weather More Pleasant

By John Merline, IBD, Apr 22, 2016


Link to letter: Recent improvement and projected worsening of weather in the United States

By Egan and Mullin, Nature, Apr 20, 2016


Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

Another modeling claim where measurements are really needed: ‘Researchers discover “fate” of melting glacial ice in Greenland’

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Apr 25, 2016


Link to paper: Oceanic transport of surface meltwater from the southern Greenland ice sheet

By Luo, et al. Nature Geoscience, Apr 25, 2016


Changing Earth

A recipe for global cooling—put seafloor on dry land near the equator

Tectonic plate collisions could explain 40 million years of climatic history.

By Scott Johnson, Ars Technica, Apr 24, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]


Link to paper: Continental arc volcanism as the principal driver of icehouse-greenhouse variability

By McKenzie, et al, Science Apr 22, 2016,


Studies Suggest Volcanic Activity Had Profound Long-Term Impact On Past Climate …CO2 Is No Explanation

Volcanic activity explains long-term climate change better than CO2

By Guest author Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Apr 28, 2016


Agriculture Issues & Fear of Famine

Glyphosate, the MMR vaccine and pseudoscience

By Matt Ridley, Rational Optimist, Apr 23, 2016


“Pseudoscience is bad enough when it infects astrologers, 9/11 truthers and crop-circle makers. But when its symptoms show up in mainstream bodies, such as the World Health Organisation, it’s time to be worried.”

Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.

More Burning Water Fracking Hype: Aussie CSIRO says Methane Emissions are “Natural”.

By Eric Worrall, WUWT, Apr 26, 2016


Communicating Better to the Public – Do a Poll?

Americans’ Identification as “Environmentalists” Down to 42%

Americans Who Identify As Environmentalists: 78% in 1991; 42% in 2016

By Jeffrey Jones, Gallup, Apr 22, 2016


Communicating Better to the Public – Go Personal.

Reply to Open democracy

By Matt Ridley, Rational Optimist, Apr 24, 2016


Link to article: Nine questions for the Times about Matt Ridley

By Adam Ramsay, Open Democracy, UK, Apr 23, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Accusing Ridley of poor science, in part, based on claims from global warming promoters such as Dana Nuccitelli from 97% consensus fame and, in part, funding sources of the Global Warming Policy Foundation, and similar funding questions.]

The new climate spin: trying to reach conservatives by making fighting climate change ‘patriotic’

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Apr 26, 2016


“Researchers found that people who identified as conservative were more likely to support “pro-environmental” ideals when the issues were framed as matters of obeying authority, defending the purity of nature and demonstrating patriotism.”

Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda on Children

What’s Being Taught on Campus

By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Apr 29, 2016


[SEPP Comment: A finite limit to fossil fuels is not known. Recoverable fuels depend on political regulations, price/cost and technology, which is changing significantly. Why teach a false belief?]

Questioning European Green

Carbon budgets

By Martin Livermore, The Scientific Alliance, Apr 28, 2016


Denmark’s Liberal Government To Roll Back Renewable Energy Policy

By Jyllands-Posten, Via GWPF, Apr 23, 2016


“The cost of Denmark’s renewable energy policy has been too high, according to Denmark’s climate and energy minister Lars Christian Lilleholt.”

Up! Up! And Away! Leading Daily Die Welt Reports: “Electricity In Germany More Expensive Than Ever”

By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Apr 29, 2016


“This leads Die Welt’s Zschäpitz to conclude: ‘Thus power consumers are now more burdened with state taxes and fees than automobile drivers.’”

Report: Batteries Will Not Be the Future of Grid Balancing in Germany

Power-to-heat and demand-side management are the most cost-effective measures for the country’s grid up to 2030, concludes a government-funded study.

By Mike Stone, Green Tech Media (GTM), Apr 26, 2016


“Although the full conclusions won’t be published for a while, a study supported by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has found that grid-scale and behind-the-meter batteries are insufficient to meet Germany’s energy needs.”

EU drive for ‘green’ biodiesel has increased emissions, study finds

By Emily Gosden, Telegraph, UK, Apr 25, 2016


Link to paper: Globiom: the basis for biofuel policy post-2020

By Staff Writers, Transport & Environment, April 2016


Green Energy Fiasco: German Wind Farms Paid €500 Million A Year To Stand Idle

By Christian Schlesiger, Wirtschaftswoche, Translated by GWPF, Apr 29, 2016


Non-Green Jobs

It’s George Osborne who is killing British steel, claims Tata boss

Accusations come as Sajid Javid admits he was wrong not to go to crunch talks

By Steve Hawkes, The Sun, UK, Apr 28, 2016 [H/t GWPF]


The Political Games Continue

How Politics Obscures Environmental, Energy Gains

By Bill Murray, Real Clear Politics, Apr 22, 2016


[Presidential Candidate Ted] “Cruz has gone so far as to call climate change ‘the perfect pseudoscientific theory because it can never, ever, ever be disproven.’” [Boldface added.]

[SEPP Comment: A lengthy post on energy and environment issues in the political campaign, part of a series on security issues.]

Litigation Issues

EU court overturns carbon market free quotas in blow for big polluters

By Staff Writers, EurActiv, Apr 28, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Accompanied by photo of “Coal pollution from Polish chimneys” darkening the skies.]

EPA and other Regulators on the March

Attorney: EPA cloaks self in secrecy, ignores FOIA requirements

By Katelyn Kivel, Legal Newsline, Apr 29, 2016 [H/t Cooler Heads]


National parks facing stronger air pollution regs

By Tim Devaney, The Hill, Apr 26, 2016


“’The regional haze program helps to protect clear views in national parks, such as Grand Canyon National Park, and wilderness areas, such as the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge,’ the agency said. ”

Energy Issues – Non-US

Does the Committee on Climate Change [UK] want to blow us all up?

By Christopher Booker, Telegraph, UK, Apr 23, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Hydrogen replacing natural gas in homes?]

EU and BP Renewable Electricity Accounting Methodologies

By Euan Mearns, Energy Matters, Apr 25, 2016


[SEPP Comment: An important technical issue: BP’s method when comparing electricity from thermal power (fossil fuels with electricity from renewables considers the thermal losses when generating electricity from fossil fuels; the EU’s method does not. Which is proper?]

Energy Issues — US

Another fracking pipeline is rejected

By Matt Egan, CNN, Apr 25, 2016


Non-powered dams represent a significant source of additional hydroelectric capacity

By Staff Writers, Electricity Monthly Update, EIA, Apr 28, 2016


Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?

BP Energy Outlook 2016

By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Apr 26, 2016


Peak Not: Michael Lynch Defeats the Mainstream

By Robert Bradley Jr. Master Resource, Apr 28, 2016


Oil Production Trends

By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Apr 25, 2016


Shale Gas in India: Ready to Launch (but water, subsoil socialism are obstacles)

By TS Maini and M Vaid, Master Resource, Apr 27, 2016


Nuclear Energy and Fears

30 Years after Chernobyl: IAEA Continues to Support Global Efforts to Help Affected Regions

By Aabha Dixit, Office of Public Information and Communication, IAEA, Apr 26, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Link to statement on consequences did not work.]

The impact of the US electricity market

By J Bradley Fewell, Exelon Generation, WNN, Apr 20, 2016


“Unless the deregulated US electricity markets recognize the carbon-free attributes of nuclear plants, there will be a substantial number of nuclear plant closures in the country.”

Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind

The 3 factors that determine solar plant performance [Among those studied!]

A new LBNL report outlines 3 variables that it says explain 92% of output differences between solar projects

By Herman Trabish, Utility Drive, Apr 21, 2016


Link to report: Maximizing MWh: A statistical Analysis of the Performance of Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Projects in the United States

By Bolinger, Seel, and Wu, for US DOE, March 2016


Where you can find the sunniest locations in the world—in one beautiful map

By Christopher Groskopf, Quartz, Apr 24, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]


“Percent of days that are cloudy each year. The darkest red areas have almost no cloudy days. The darkest blue areas are cloudy nearly every day. (EarthEnv/Adam M. Wilson and Walter Jetz)”

[SEPP Comment: Cloudiest areas include the Tropics and northern Europe. If you wish to soak up the sun go to Antarctic?]

The Collapse of SunEdison

By Staff Writers, GWPF, Apr 24, 2016


Is India’s Solar Bubble Popping?

By Staff Writers, The American Interest, Apr 25, 2016 [H/t GWPF]


[SEPP Comment: They want reliable electricity, not sunshine electricity.]

Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Energy — Other

Corn Ethanol Is Not a Renewable Fuel

By Emily Cassidy, EGW (Environmental Working Group), Mar 17, 2016 [H/t Climate Etc.]


Carbon Schemes

Obama’s stealth war to make coal clean

By John Siciliano, Washington Examiner, Apr 25, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Apparently, the Administration recognizes its energy plan may fail in the courts if it cannot demonstrate a viable carbon capture and storage program (CCS), which it claimed, but which it does not exist.]

Oh Mann!

Mark Steyn Versus the Climatistas

By Steven Hayward, Power Line, Apr 25, 2016 [H/t Timothy Wise]


[SEPP Comment: Two short videos featuring Mark Steyn who was sued by Mr. Mann.]

Environmental Industry

The Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP): Warring Against Gas

By Mark Krebs, Master Resource, Apr 26, 2016


[SEPP Comment: One more threat to reliable, affordable electricity, or how “energy efficiency” became “energy denial.”]

Other Scientific News

Copper gives an answer to the rise of oxygen

By Staff Writers, Stockholm, Sweden (SPX), Apr 22, 2016


[SEPP Comment: Unprecedented change! During the Great Oxidation Event oxygen went from near zero to about 20% of the atmosphere in only 100,000,000 years! How much did CO2 decline?]

Bizarre Ice-Forming Bacteria’s Secrets Revealed

By Tia Ghose, Live Science, Apr 22, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]


Polarity Reversals in the Earth’s Magnetic Field

Studies of geomagnetic polarity reversals have generated some of the biggest and most interesting debates in the paleomagnetic and wider solid Earth geophysics communities over the last 25 years.

By Fabio Florindoon, Eos, Apr 29, 2016 [H/t Climate Etc.]


Other News that May Be of Interest

A lighter shade of Gray

By Phil Klotzbach and Brian McNoldy, Washington Post, Apr 22, 2016 [H/t WUWT]


[SEPP Comment: The humor of the late William Gray – even when nature proved his hurricane forecasts wrong.]

Venezuela’s Pathetic Decline Continues

By John Hinderaker, Power Line, Apr 22, 2016


[SEPP Comment: It had some of the most heavily subsidized gasoline in the world. Subsidies which some wind power promoters justified subsidies for wind power in the US.]



Costly Broken Wind Turbines Give College Whopping Negative 99.14% Return On Investment

By Andrew Follett, From Daily Caller, Apr 17, 2016


Lake Land plans to replace the two failed turbines with a solar power system paid for by a government grant. “[T]he photovoltaic panels are expected to save the college between $50,000 and $60,000 this year,” Director of Public Relations Allee said.

[SEPP Comment: Mattoon, Illinois, is hardly the sunny southwest.]

The Solar Plane – a Perfect Metaphor for What is Wrong With Renewables

Guest Essay By Eric Worrall, WUWT, Apr 25, 2016


Dark Age looms!

By Staff Writers, Climate Change Predictions.org, Apr 29, 2016


Imagine a future in which humanity’s accumulated wisdom about Earth — our vast experience with weather trends, fish spawning and migration patterns, plant pollination and much more — turns increasingly obsolete.

“As each decade passes, knowledge of Earth’s past becomes progressively less effective as a guide to the future. Civilization enters a dark age in its practical understanding of our planet.

“To comprehend how this could occur, picture yourself in our grandchildren’s time, a century hence. Significant global warming has occurred, as scientists predicted.

“Nature’s longstanding, repeatable patterns — relied on for millenniums by humanity to plan everything from infrastructure to agriculture — are no longer so reliable. Cycles that have been largely unwavering during modern human history are disrupted by substantial changes in temperature and precipitation”. William B Gail, in New York Times, 19 Apr 2016



Please note that articles not linked easily or summarized here are reproduced in the Articles Section of the full TWTW that can be found on the web site under the date of the TWTW.

1. The Green Unreality Show

Politicians from 175 countries agree to keep doing whatever they intended to do anyway.

By Holman Jenkins, Jr. WSJ, Apr 22, 2016


SUMMARY: Jenkins writes:

“The climate deal negotiated in Paris and signed in New York Friday is not a treaty. It is not enforceable against the U.S. or anybody else. It waves vaguely at the idea of a $100 billion adjustment fund for poorer countries, to be filled in later by somebody else, maybe.


“Like all such international agreements, it’s a giant PR exercise designed to put a global imprimatur on what domestic politicians want to do anyway. In China and India, that’s grow their energy output any way they can. In President Obama’s case, it’s continue to dish out green mandates and subsidies that please his entourage.


“Economist Bruce Yandle coined the term bootleggers and Baptists for political coalitions of true believers and their more self-interested fellow travelers. The climate movement is the ultimate example.


“Having ginned up a climate “crisis” in the first place, it’s almost as if the movement has ginned up a fake victory to keep the game going. This week’s signing was preceded by an outpouring of fishy studies in the press about how renewable energy is on the verge of solving the problem. The most paradoxical claim, regularly aired in the New York Times, is that the fate of the planet depends on how you vote in the U.S. presidential race because solar power is falling rapidly in cost and is now competitive with fossil fuels.


“Well, then it doesn’t matter how you vote. Cheaper solar energy will displace fossil energy for purely economic reasons.


“The fragment of truth here is that the cost of solar collectors has come down thanks to Chinese production, but this represents a small fraction of the actual cost of integrating solar into the power system.


“Solar is free; the sun does not send us a bill. But solar is only competitive to the extent that fossil-fuel plants remain on hand to provide backup power when the sun is not shining. Unfortunately, fossil-fuel plant economics deteriorate rapidly when plants must stop and start to make up for fluctuating wind and solar.


“This is why, for instance, Germany managed to increase its use of renewables and its output of carbon dioxide at the same time—because it resorted to cheap coal to keep the lights on at a price its people could afford.


“This is why states like Iowa and Texas, which brag about their wind production, have more stubborn emissions output than do states that simply followed market signals to switch to gas from coal.”

Jenkins then discusses some of the traps and the lack of storage familiar for readers of TWTW and adds:

“In truth, the cost of backup power not only caps solar and wind growth, renewables may already have overshot. The International Renewable Energy Agency, in a discordantly sober report, predicts that wind and solar will start shrinking their share in the fast-growing developing economies in coming years.


“Now you, dear reader, are properly backgrounded on a fight going on in many U.S. states. The fight concerns the exorbitant costs imposed on other ratepayers to subsidize backup power for solar adopters.”


2. Cuomo’s Energy Jobs Veto

He kills a natural gas pipeline that would reduce electricity costs.

By Editorial, WSJ, Apr 26, 2016


SUMMARY: The editorial states:

“Andrew Cuomo is gearing up to prevent any liberal challenge to his re-election campaign in 2018. Having banned hydraulic fracturing, New York’s Governor is now blocking a pipeline to deliver cheap natural gas to New York and New England.


“As world leaders celebrated the Paris climate change accord in New York on Friday, Mr. Cuomo made a toast by rejecting a water permit for the 124-mile Constitution natural gas pipeline between eastern Pennsylvania and Albany. He wants to prevent other states from realizing economic benefits that he’s denied New Yorkers.


“Shale fracking has driven down natural gas prices and boosted manufacturing in the Midwest and Southeast—domestic production has more than quadrupled since 2009—but limited pipeline capacity has constrained supplies in the Northeast. Consumers compete with power plants for heating fuel in the winter, raising gas and electricity prices.


“In 2014 the average retail price of electricity in New York was 16.3 cents per kilowatt hour—fourth highest after Hawaii, Alaska and Connecticut, and 60% more than the national average. Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont ranked fifth, sixth, seventh and ninth, respectively.

“The Constitution Pipeline promised to deliver enough natural gas from the Marcellus Shale to fuel three million homes in New York and New England. Converting to natural gas from heating oil would save the typical upstate New York homeowner $1,000 per year.


“Connecticut Attorney General George Jepsen, a Democrat, advocated the pipeline’s approval to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in 2014 because of “unprecedented electricity price increases in the coming years” due to natural gas infrastructure constraints. Amphenol Aerospace, a manufacturer, says it stayed in Sidney, New York, only because of assurances from “state officials that they would assist us in bringing natural gas to plant.”


“FERC approved the pipeline in 2014, declaring that careful engineering and $26 million in environmental mitigation would reduce any adverse impact to “less than significant levels.” After delaying the pipeline’s water-quality certification for 16 months, the New York Department of Environmental Conservation now says developers haven’t provided “comprehensive and site-specific analysis.”

“Meantime, Mr. Cuomo announced last week $150 million in new renewable-energy subsidies and $57 million more to “help low-income households reduce utility costs.” The Associated Press also reported last week that the Cuomo administration is crafting a plan to prop up struggling nuclear plants to provide back-up generation for unreliable renewables and prevent thousands of job losses upstate.


“Behold Mr. Cuomo’s economic growth strategy: Destroy private high-paying energy and manufacturing jobs. Then create government programs that soak state taxpayers to compensate the victims and subsidize his politically favored industries.”


3. Notable & Quotable: ‘Scientific Regress’

‘If science was unprepared for the influx of careerists, it was even less prepared for the blossoming of the Cult of Science.’

Editorial, WSJ, Apr 25, 2016


Link to paper: Scientific Regress

By William Wilson, First Things, May 2016


From “Scientific Regress” in the May issue of First Things, by William A. Wilson, a software engineer in San Francisco:

“The best scientists know that they must practice a sort of mortification of the ego and cultivate a dispassion that allows them to report their findings, even when those findings might mean the dashing of hopes, the drying up of financial resources, and the loss of professional prestige. It should be no surprise that even after outgrowing the monasteries, the practice of science has attracted souls driven to seek the truth regardless of personal cost and despite, for most of its history, a distinct lack of financial or status reward. Now, however, science and especially science bureaucracy is a career, and one amenable to social climbing. Careers attract careerists, in [Paul] Feyerabend’s words: ‘devoid of ideas, full of fear, intent on producing some paltry result so that they can add to the flood of inane papers that now constitutes ‘scientific progress’ in many areas.’


“If science was unprepared for the influx of careerists, it was even less prepared for the blossoming of the Cult of Science. The Cult is related to the phenomenon described as “scientism”; both have a tendency to treat the body of scientific knowledge as a holy book or an a-religious revelation that offers simple and decisive resolutions to deep questions. But it adds to this a pinch of glib frivolity and a dash of unembarrassed ignorance. Its rhetorical tics include a forced enthusiasm (a search on Twitter for the hashtag “#sciencedancing” speaks volumes) . . . Some of the Cult’s leaders like to play dress-up as scientists— Bill Nye and Neil deGrasse Tyson are two particularly prominent examples—but hardly any of them have contributed any research results of note. Rather, Cult leadership trends heavily in the direction of educators, popularizers, and journalists.”


0 0 votes
Article Rating
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
John F. Hultquist
May 1, 2016 8:46 pm

Hillary Clinton pledges half a billion solar panels for US if she wins office
Fools award

Reply to  John F. Hultquist
May 2, 2016 7:07 am

Maybe she can save these 2000 pallets of cadmium rich panels from the now bankrupt stimulus loan guarantee flop – Abound Solar.
I’m not sure where the panels ended up.
The EPA apparently demanded that they should be buried in concrete – as though they were some kind of nuclear waste.
We seem to be paying to create this stuff and paying again to destroy it. Another lose-lose for the taxpayer.

May 1, 2016 9:02 pm

Cloudy and northern situations with a low azimuth to the sun…
Should be ‘altitude’, not ‘azimuth’.

May 1, 2016 9:16 pm

Longest bibliography yet.
The actual atmospheric physics of CO2 is beyond the emotional bandwidth of group 1 and group 3 participants. For them science is irrelevant. They KNOW the truth already, in their bones.
You can’t argue with bones, even Mosher’s. They just don’t reply.

Eugene WR Gallun
May 1, 2016 10:35 pm

I have bought my ticket for CLIMATE HUSTLE and will be buying popcorn at the theater!
Eugene WR Gallun

Reply to  Eugene WR Gallun
May 2, 2016 7:09 am

I live in the U.K. What is my best strategy for getting to see it?
Will it be a straight to Youtube production? Or will it later be available as a download or DVD?

May 2, 2016 7:13 am

‘Power-to-heat and demand-side management are the most cost-effective measures for the country’s grid up to 2030, concludes a government-funded study.’
I worked in industrial power cost management for 25 years. Demand-side management does indeed have great potential. But the reality is, it’s not practical. The problem is, the people’s electricity you are cutting off are not part of your cabal trying to manage electricity. They’ll be pissed.

May 2, 2016 10:56 am

According to the researchers, from the University of Cambridge
This contravenes science as we know it
Astronomers have observed two black holes in nearby galaxies devouring their companion stars at an extremely high rate, and spitting out matter at a quarter the speed of light.

May 3, 2016 3:42 am

Another CO2 emitting transport device, but
Don’t do this at home

%d bloggers like this: