Scotch Tape emits X-Rays: film at 11

Now here’s a science story you don’t hear every day. Simple scotch tape pulled off it’s reel in a vacuum makes x-rays powerful enough to image this finger.

NEW YORK -AP- Just two weeks after a Nobel Prize highlighted theoretical work on subatomic particles, physicists are announcing a startling discovery about a much more familiar form of matter: Scotch tape.

It turns out that if you peel the popular adhesive tape off its roll in a vacuum chamber, it emits X-rays. The researchers even made an X-ray image of one of their fingers.

Who knew? Actually, more than 50 years ago, some Russian scientists reported evidence of X-rays from peeling sticky tape off glass. But the new work demonstrates that you can get a lot of X-rays, a study co-author says.

“We were very surprised,” said Juan Escobar. “The power you could get from just peeling tape was enormous.”

Escobar, a graduate student at the University of California, Los Angeles, reports the work with UCLA colleagues in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature.

He suggests that with some refinements, the process might be harnessed for making inexpensive X-ray machines for paramedics or for places where electricity is expensive or hard to get. After all, you could peel tape or do something similar in such machines with just human power, like cranking.

more here on MSNBC

Here is how it works:

The core theory is something called “triboluminescence,” which occurs when two contacting surfaces move relative to each other. It’s the same effect that causes “sparks” to fly when you chew wintergreen-flavored Lifesavers in the dark.

As the tape peels, the sticky acrylic adhesive, on the back of the tape, becomes positively charged, while the polyethylene roll becomes negatively charged. It’s not unlike a Van de Graff generator or a thunderstorm that shoots sprites out the top, It’s basically a small linear accelerator.

At a reduced atmospheric pressure, the mechanical act of pulling apart the two surfaces causes electric fields to build up that then trigger discharges of energy.

This accelerates electrons on the adhesive to very high speeds and when they whack into the positively-charged tape roll, X-rays result. The pulses last for a billionth of a second, with an intensity of about 100 milliwatts.

But ya know, with all that dangerous radiation, I expect we’ll see this TV news tease soon:  “Shocking news from the world of science tonight… an everyday household item produces radiation that could cause cancer. We’ll tell you what it is at 11.

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51 thoughts on “Scotch Tape emits X-Rays: film at 11

  1. I wonder what the presence of air does to eliminate the emission of X-rays. According to the latter part of the complete article at the link above, the X-rays are only emitted when the tape is peeled from its roll in a vacuum.

  2. I’d imagine, the presence of air would reduce the triboelectric effect and reduce the energy present to generate the x-rays. You need a certain level of electron excitement to drive x-rays out of the substrate. Plus the electrons and the x-rays both travel better in a vacuum.

    It’s the same reason an electron tube really only works well when there’s a good vacuum in it’s envelope.

  3. Will we have a rash (pun intended) of postal workers/stores people/etc claiming damages for being over-exposed to X-rays from taping parcels/packages?? What about all those large rolls of cling film for palletised goods – do they emit x (or other) -rays as well?

  4. Completely off topic, but as the election approaches, the left is becoming more open about their agenda to use global warming to control our every action and take our money and freedom away.

    Family planning: ‘Not having a UK birth is better than not having an Ethiopian birth’…. British couples should have fewer children in order to combat climate change, a family planning expert argues.

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/audio/2008/jul/25/john.guillebaud.fewer.children

    Wealth gap creating a social time bomb • Race behind division in US cities, says UN report • Beijing is most egalitarian place in the world

    http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/oct/23/population-egalitarian-cities-urban-growth

  5. I really hate to sound negative, but, there are so, so, so, many things in everyday life that are or used to be reported as fascinating discoveries by “scientists”, that never ever mount to anything! There is always a possibility of some ground-breaking discovery, but 99% are just discoveries, that’s all! Of course, that’s not to say that something will be achieved in the future as a result.

    I recal some guy called Ernst Rutherford who split the atom in the 1920′, even he didn’t think much would come of his achievement, he’s famous for stating so! If only he’d invested in it!

    Anyway, let’s hope something positive will be achieved by this someday, perhaps it will help reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere & cool the Earth by some mysterious way? After all, in the 1950’s-60’s-70’s, “radiation” was responsible for all sorts of weird & wonderful mutations for superhuman achievement, well, on the tv/movies anyhow! Who knows?

  6. C’mon folks, it is just interesting. The guy actually took an X-ray of his finger using this. Also it clearly states that you can only generate blue light in air. The electrons slow down too much as they travel through air to produce X-ray.
    In other words there is no dangerous radiation at normal air pressure.

    However, it still “sparked” the idea that with simple things we can release tremendous amounts of power, x-ray is after all deadly. What comes to mind is the old Cold fusion experiments. I simply think we are just waiting for someone to stumble over the right way. After all if we can produce x-ray with tape, why not “cold fusion”. No more CO2 poison.

    Oh that would not good, that would anger Algoricle, as he can’t get us to buy anymore carbon credits, so perhaps that won’t work….

  7. Be cautious. Has the group published a paper on this effect in a peer reviewed journal?
    It seems not to be the case. Why do they go public before they publish their paper (and thus have convinced some experts)?
    Remember cold fusion.

  8. Anthony,

    This report caught my attention this morning.

    Study probes clouds’ climate role

    The clouds’ impact on the climate is relatively unknown to modellers

    An international team of scientists is hoping to shed light on how clouds over the Pacific Ocean are affecting global climate and weather systems.

    The clouds, some of which are bigger than the US, reflect sunlight back into space and cool the ocean below.

    The team hopes to learn more about the clouds’ properties and if pollution from activities such as mining affect the formation of these systems.

    The month-long study will involve more than 200 experts from 10 countries.

    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7682836.stm

    Apologies for posting here, but I believe you would want to see this.

    Regards,

    Perry

  9. I imagine that at only 100 mW, there are enough other molecules to bump into or create charges to disrupt the X-Rays. Thus the vacuum. Interesting though. Obama campaign to put this up as a viable contributor to wind, solar and geothermal in 3..2..1.

  10. This is the kind of story that the writers of the old TV series MacGyver would have had a ball with!

    This is really interesting from an energy release perspective. Not all science is, as noted, immediately apparent in it’s possible application. Simply add it to the list of things that scotch tape is good for.

    Now lets explain that noise that tape makes as it comes off the roll at an angle and the static it creates….

  11. The hockey stick has a lot in common with this as it also only works in a vacuum.

    In all seriousness, people have blown themselves up wrapping dynamite charges together with tape. The tape unwinding created a strong enough static charge to set off the dynamite.

  12. You can find surprising things in the most mundane items. Next time you cut your finger open the Band-Aid in the dark. As you peel the wraper open the place where the two halves come apart will glow a light blue color.

    It’s not really chemoluminescence because it’s caused by a physical action, however it is intersting.

    Rich

  13. Perry Debell (00:24:41) :

    Study probes clouds’ climate role

    The clouds’ impact on the climate is relatively unknown to modellers

    An international team of scientists is hoping to shed light on how clouds over the Pacific Ocean are affecting global climate and weather systems.

    The clouds, some of which are bigger than the US, reflect sunlight back into space and cool the ocean below.

    Why doesn’t this team of scientists talk to Dr. Spencer? He’s been referring to this effect for years. It is part of the natural, negative feedback to GHG going on since there has been an atmosphere containing water vapor.

    For Dr. Spencer’s discussion see http://www.weatherquestions.com/Roy-Spencer-on-global-warming.htm

  14. Annette,

    The way I type anything is possible, should have spotted that especially as I once worked at the lab named after him! Come to think of it, I think he split that pesky atom before 1910, not in the 1920s. I am sure someone will confirm one way or the other.

    Thanks for pointing it out anyway :-)

    Alan

  15. Harvard President apologies for cold weather at Al Gore’s global warming speech.

    http://motls.blogspot.com/2008/10/gore-effect-arrives-to-harvard.html

    Dear Members of the Harvard Community,

    Although today’s weather will hardly remind us of the serious problem that is global warming, today’s event – the Harvard Sustainability Celebration, with a keynote address by former Vice President Al Gore – will go on, as scheduled, in Tercentenary Theatre with a program beginning at 4 p.m. We very much hope that you will attend and enjoy the festivities.

    Starting at 3 p.m., we will be serving hot cider and soup to keep everyone warm; please dress for our changeable New England weather. Henry Longfellow, onetime Harvard professor and longtime Cantabrigian, once remarked, “The best thing one can do when it’s raining is to let it rain.” We sincerely hope that, this afternoon, it won’t rain. But even if it does, Harvard celebrates Sustainability with spirits undampened.

    Sincerely,

    The Sustainability Celebration Committee

    Office of the President

  16. I’ve known for a long time that removing a piece of sticky tape in the dark can generate visible light. Just try opening a band-aid in a dark bathroom. And the light is certainly bright enough to expose x-ray film, I’ve done it with autoradiographs (laboratory imaging of Southern and Western blots). I guess I always assumed that this phenomenon was well known. I guess the twist here is that if you do it in a vacuum you shift the wavelength. I’m not sure it’s going to be terribly practical…maybe you can generate xrays without electricity by having a technician/hamster turn a crank, but you still have to focus and aim them, and can you generate a passible vacuum with a hand powered pump?

    At least it shows that there are still mysteries in the most mundane everyday things.

  17. “Harvard President apologies for cold weather at Al Gore’s global warming speech.”

    ‘Instapundit’ Glenn Reynolds call this phenomenon ‘the Gore Effect’. It seem that quite often when Al Gore makes an appearance to incite hysteria about AGW, the weather is unusually cold. :)

  18. The report is the cover story for the current issue of Nature:

    Volume 455 Number 7216 pp1007-1148

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v455/n7216/

    About the cover

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v455/n7216/covers/

    Sticky tape generates X-rays

    http://www.nature.com/news/2008/081022/full/news.2008.1185.html

    Sticky Tape X-Rays (The Movie)

    http://www.nature.com/nature/videoarchive/x-rays/

    Correlation between nanosecond X-ray flashes and stick–slip friction in peeling tape p1089

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v455/n7216/abs/nature07378.html

    I was unable to find the patent filing documents.

    Mike

  19. Anyone who’s ever worked in a darkroom knows about tribuluminescence when peeling off tape. I never hypotesized X-rays generation though. Mea Culpa. Why do we have such a strong tendency to think within the box?

    Wintergreen Lifesavers tribo-property was known for long to (and subject to a Scientific American article, maybe in French, a few decades ago if I remember correctly)

    Who could have tought you could get a dental X-ray just by biting on a Lifesavers, uh?
    ok, just kidding… :-)

  20. Sorry for another off topic post!
    several people were interested in the stationsurvey that you have done in the USA. I asked the British Met Office about their stations. This is the reply they have sent:

    Dear Mr Hopkins

    Thank you for your e-mail of 3rd October concerning site and exposure of observing stations, and also quality control. I am sorry for the delay in replying to you.

    I have consulted colleagues in our Observations Supply team and can offer the following.

    On site and exposure the Met Office standard practice is detailed in the document attached document.
    <>
    Information on data quality control procedures is available on the Met Office web site at: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/nwp/observations/ob_qc.html

    Thank you for your interest and for taking the time to contact the Met Office.

    Yours sincerely

    Martin Kidds Customer Feedback Manager
    Met Office FitzRoy Road Exeter Devon EX1 3PB United Kingdom
    Tel: 0870 900 0100 Fax: +44 (0)1392 88 5681
    E-mail: enquiries@metoffice.gov.uk http://www.metoffice.gov.uk

    There was an attached file as well that I have printed below.

    Site and exposure

    Readings of temperature and rainfall depend, to some extent, on the exposure of the instruments and, if observations made at different stations are to be comparable, it is necessary to ensure that instruments are set up under as uniform conditions as possible. The site of the instruments installed outside, known generally as the instrument enclosure, should ideally be on level ground covered with short grass or, where grass does not grow, the natural surface of the area.

    The enclosure, which may be surrounded by open fencing or palings to exclude animals, or unauthorised persons, should measure about 10 m by 7 m, but 7 m by 6 m for a basic climatological station, and should be away from the immediate influence of trees, buildings, hedges, fences and other obstacles. No obstruction should be nearer to the rain gauge than a distance equal to twice the height of the obstruction above the rim of the gauge. The screen and any thermometers on or in the ground should not be unduly shaded by trees or buildings. Conversely, the site particularly that of the rain gauge should not be unduly exposed to the sweep of the wind although unavoidably exposed sites, such as on moorland or near the coast, can often be made acceptable by the construction of a turf wall around the rain gauge.
    In general, a site should be representative of the surrounding area; when in a town, a site near the centre (if an acceptable exposure can be found) is preferred. A station should not be on, or close to, steep slopes, ridges, cliffs or hollows, although it is realised that such conditions will be difficult to avoid altogether in mountainous and hilly areas.

    The instrument enclosure should include a patch of un-grassed, weed-free soil (the ‘bare patch’) at least 1 m square. This patch is used to determine the state of ground, and the soil should not be disturbed at any time. It should be kept free of vegetation by hand weeding or judicial use of a suitable weed-killing system. The bare plot should not be dug over, hoed or raked, etc. to keep it vegetation-free, as this will disturb the surface layer.

    Right angled thermometers (for 10cm depth) are normally exposed over loose bare soil, but soil thermometer tubes (for 30 and 100cm depths) are set in ground covered with short grass.

    Site and exposure

    Readings of temperature and rainfall depend, to some extent, on the exposure of the instruments and, if observations made at different stations are to be comparable, it is necessary to ensure that instruments are set up under as uniform conditions as possible. The site of the instruments installed outside, known generally as the instrument enclosure, should ideally be on level ground covered with short grass or, where grass does not grow, the natural surface of the area.

    The enclosure, which may be surrounded by open fencing or palings to exclude animals, or unauthorised persons, should measure about 10 m by 7 m, but 7 m by 6 m for a basic climatological station, and should be away from the immediate influence of trees, buildings, hedges, fences and other obstacles. No obstruction should be nearer to the rain gauge than a distance equal to twice the height of the obstruction above the rim of the gauge. The screen and any thermometers on or in the ground should not be unduly shaded by trees or buildings. Conversely, the site particularly that of the rain gauge should not be unduly exposed to the sweep of the wind although unavoidably exposed sites, such as on moorland or near the coast, can often be made acceptable by the construction of a turf wall around the rain gauge.
    In general, a site should be representative of the surrounding area; when in a town, a site near the centre (if an acceptable exposure can be found) is preferred. A station should not be on, or close to, steep slopes, ridges, cliffs or hollows, although it is realised that such conditions will be difficult to avoid altogether in mountainous and hilly areas.

    The instrument enclosure should include a patch of un-grassed, weed-free soil (the ‘bare patch’) at least 1 m square. This patch is used to determine the state of ground, and the soil should not be disturbed at any time. It should be kept free of vegetation by hand weeding or judicial use of a suitable weed-killing system. The bare plot should not be dug over, hoed or raked, etc. to keep it vegetation-free, as this will disturb the surface layer.

    Right angled thermometers (for 10cm depth) are normally exposed over loose bare soil, but soil thermometer tubes (for 30 and 100cm depths) are set in ground covered with short grass.

    Site and exposure

    Readings of temperature and rainfall depend, to some extent, on the exposure of the instruments and, if observations made at different stations are to be comparable, it is necessary to ensure that instruments are set up under as uniform conditions as possible. The site of the instruments installed outside, known generally as the instrument enclosure, should ideally be on level ground covered with short grass or, where grass does not grow, the natural surface of the area.

    The enclosure, which may be surrounded by open fencing or palings to exclude animals, or unauthorised persons, should measure about 10 m by 7 m, but 7 m by 6 m for a basic climatological station, and should be away from the immediate influence of trees, buildings, hedges, fences and other obstacles. No obstruction should be nearer to the rain gauge than a distance equal to twice the height of the obstruction above the rim of the gauge. The screen and any thermometers on or in the ground should not be unduly shaded by trees or buildings. Conversely, the site particularly that of the rain gauge should not be unduly exposed to the sweep of the wind although unavoidably exposed sites, such as on moorland or near the coast, can often be made acceptable by the construction of a turf wall around the rain gauge.
    In general, a site should be representative of the surrounding area; when in a town, a site near the centre (if an acceptable exposure can be found) is preferred. A station should not be on, or close to, steep slopes, ridges, cliffs or hollows, although it is realised that such conditions will be difficult to avoid altogether in mountainous and hilly areas.

    The instrument enclosure should include a patch of un-grassed, weed-free soil (the ‘bare patch’) at least 1 m square. This patch is used to determine the state of ground, and the soil should not be disturbed at any time. It should be kept free of vegetation by hand weeding or judicial use of a suitable weed-killing system. The bare plot should not be dug over, hoed or raked, etc. to keep it vegetation-free, as this will disturb the surface layer.

    Right angled thermometers (for 10cm depth) are normally exposed over loose bare soil, but soil thermometer tubes (for 30 and 100cm depths) are set in ground covered with short grass.

    There was a diagram of a suitable arreangement with measurements for distances for thermometers etc but I cant upload onto a word blog.

    Is this useful? It shows the aims that they aspire to, but no info on where their sites are in the Uk nor whether they meet these standards. I expect the US organisation has similar ideal sites prescribed.

  21. Sorry for another off topic post. Feel free not to load it up. However, the information may be interesting to you.
    Some time ago I asked the Met Office in the UK about their sites and mentioned the surfacestation project.

    They have now replied:

    Dear Mr Hopkins

    Thank you for your e-mail of 3rd October concerning site and exposure of observing stations, and also quality control. I am sorry for the delay in replying to you.

    I have consulted colleagues in our Observations Supply team and can offer the following.

    On site and exposure the Met Office standard practice is detailed in the document attached document.
    <>
    Information on data quality control procedures is available on the Met Office web site at: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/nwp/observations/ob_qc.html

    Thank you for your interest and for taking the time to contact the Met Office.

    Yours sincerely

    Martin Kidds Customer Feedback Manager
    Met Office FitzRoy Road Exeter Devon EX1 3PB United Kingdom
    Tel: 0870 900 0100 Fax: +44 (0)1392 88 5681
    E-mail: enquiries@metoffice.gov.uk http://www.metoffice.gov.uk

    There was the attachment that gave their standards.

    Site and exposure

    Readings of temperature and rainfall depend, to some extent, on the exposure of the instruments and, if observations made at different stations are to be comparable, it is necessary to ensure that instruments are set up under as uniform conditions as possible. The site of the instruments installed outside, known generally as the instrument enclosure, should ideally be on level ground covered with short grass or, where grass does not grow, the natural surface of the area.

    The enclosure, which may be surrounded by open fencing or palings to exclude animals, or unauthorised persons, should measure about 10 m by 7 m, but 7 m by 6 m for a basic climatological station, and should be away from the immediate influence of trees, buildings, hedges, fences and other obstacles. No obstruction should be nearer to the rain gauge than a distance equal to twice the height of the obstruction above the rim of the gauge. The screen and any thermometers on or in the ground should not be unduly shaded by trees or buildings. Conversely, the site particularly that of the rain gauge should not be unduly exposed to the sweep of the wind although unavoidably exposed sites, such as on moorland or near the coast, can often be made acceptable by the construction of a turf wall around the rain gauge.
    In general, a site should be representative of the surrounding area; when in a town, a site near the centre (if an acceptable exposure can be found) is preferred. A station should not be on, or close to, steep slopes, ridges, cliffs or hollows, although it is realised that such conditions will be difficult to avoid altogether in mountainous and hilly areas.

    The instrument enclosure should include a patch of un-grassed, weed-free soil (the ‘bare patch’) at least 1 m square. This patch is used to determine the state of ground, and the soil should not be disturbed at any time. It should be kept free of vegetation by hand weeding or judicial use of a suitable weed-killing system. The bare plot should not be dug over, hoed or raked, etc. to keep it vegetation-free, as this will disturb the surface layer.

    Right angled thermometers (for 10cm depth) are normally exposed over loose bare soil, but soil thermometer tubes (for 30 and 100cm depths) are set in ground covered with short grass.

    There was also a diagram of an ideal setting for the stations.

    I was surprised that they replied, and am impressed that they did so. However, there is no indication of where their sites are situated.

    Once more sorry if this is too off this topic.

  22. I’m not sure what’s new about this. Perhaps it is the first attempt at a controlled experiment. Triboluminescence is the catch-all description of photons (DC to gamma rays) being given off in response to mechanical force being applied to an object. It seems to me that the act of peeling tape adhesive results in charge separation at the delamination interface. The charge separation results in very high electric fields, with the largest fields being created at the smallest distances. The high electric field can release and accelerate charged species across the air gap. When they impact a solid surface, they will lose their acquired kinetic energy and create a cascade of photons and phonons (heat). The efficiency of the process depends on how easily the charges can accelerate across the gap. A vacuum reduces collision losses as the charges move across the gap. Xray tubes all have a hard vacuum inside, not to impede the x-rays, but to minimize electron energy loss as they stream across the accelerating gap in the tube.

  23. He suggests that with some refinements, the process might be harnessed for making inexpensive X-ray machines for paramedics or for places where electricity is expensive or hard to get. After all, you could peel tape or do something similar in such machines with just human power, like cranking.

    Never happen. Someone will want to become filthy rich from it, thereby making it 10 times more expensive than it actually is.

  24. Global warming committee may melt away at year’s end

    By Mike Soraghan
    Posted: 10/21/08 06:51 PM [ET]
    The House’s special committee on global warming is winding down, just as the federal government is gearing up to legislate ways to limit humans’ effect on the climate.

    The committee’s authority to hold hearings and issue reports expires at the end of October, and its funding runs out at the end of the year.

    House Speaker Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) could seek to renew the committee for next year, but insiders say no decision will be made until after the election.

    And she would likely face opposition from Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman John Dingell (D-Mich.), who fought the creation of the committee and has criticized its work. She could also be opposed by House Oversight and Government Reform panel Chairman Henry Waxman (D-Calif.), who helped broker the deal that created the committee.

    The letter that outlined the terms of the deal between Dingell, Waxman and Pelosi said “its authority will expire on Oct. 30.” Waxman now says it’s time to honor that commitment and end the global warming committee’s work.

    http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/global-warming-committee-may-melt-away-at-years-end-2008-10-21.html

  25. Jeff,

    You’re absolutely correct. Slapping a green cross on something and indicating that it is intended for medical use is a way to charge 5x the going price for the same thing.

    You can increase the price premium by saying it’s certified by some obscure group, whether the certification is legitimate or not, and whether it’s appropriate or not.

  26. ….. I just went into the bathroom with a roll of tape… Unrolled meters of th’ stuff…. No blue light.

    … But I have managed to stick the towels to the shower curtain…..

  27. Wow, this is astonishing.

    Prepare for studies that remotely link brain cancer to cell phones repaired with Scotch tape.

  28. Proof from another direction that CO2 AGW is rubbish. By the way you must try this technique its brill. Read up on it first though please. From http://www.buteyko.co.uk/buteyko-theory.htm

    “The problem faced by the evolving human organism has been the depletion of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere from the tens of percent of ancient eras to the current level (1982) of 0.03%. Human evolution has dealt with this dilemma by creating an autonomous internal air environment within the alveolar spaces of the lungs. These alveoli ideally contain around 6.5% of carbon dioxide, quite a contrast to the surrounding air. The gaseous mix in the womb is also an interesting indicator of the ideal human environment – here there exists between 7/8% carbon dioxide.In 1871 Doctor Da Costa discovered the “Hyperventilation Syndrome” whereby deep breathing in a relaxed state caused dizziness and sometimes fainting. This is often incorrectly attributed to oxygen saturation. According to the Verigo-Bohr effect, it is the ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen which permits the release or retention of oxygen from the blood.

    At the end of the last century Russian physiologist Verigo and Dutch scientist Bohr independently discovered that without carbon dioxide, oxygen is bound to the haemoglobin of the blood and simply does not work. This leads to oxygen deficiency in the tissues of the brain, heart, kidneys and other organs and a raising of blood pressure.

    Strange as it may seem, oxygen deficiency is not caused by lack of oxygen but by the lack of carbon dioxide! If we breathe too much we get less oxygen. When we over breathe or hyperventilate, we lose valuable carbon dioxide. According to Professor Buteyko, “hidden hyperventilation” often goes undiagnosed. When a person is acutely hyperventilating, it’s obvious and the implications to the organism are disastrous. Chronic Hidden hyperventilation often goes unnoticed. Asthmatics overbreathe three or more times the recommended volume of air. Long term “hidden hyperventilation” is the hinge upon which Buteyko’s discovery and method are based.

    SO HOW SHOULD WE BREATHE?

    Physiological norms apply to pulse, blood pressure, sugar levels, temperature and breathing as well. Ideally at rest an adult should breathe lightly, superficially, and only through the nose. A healthy person can perform light exercise and still breathe lightly, whilst a sick person requires deep breaths almost all of the time.

    Cheers, Ed.

  29. I’ve been able to see the same effect using black electrical tape. It may take good eyes, a darkroom, and around 2 feet/second unrolling speed to be visible.

    Once you’ve seen it, it’s quite distinctive.

  30. Its obvious, That global warming has caused this effect in sellotape.
    The vastly increased temperatures, due to AGW, have over excited electrons causing them to smash through sub atomic particles resulting in Xrays being generated in the process.
    We urgently, for the sake of our children, need to ban all sticking tape and set up a goverment enquiry into why for so long such a dangerous object was not detetected allowing billions of people to become irradiated with danegrous xrays. I myself are convinced my erectile dysnfuction is a direct result of the high levels of raidation I experienced wrapping chritsmas presents. I intend to sue

  31. The same effect (blue light) can be seen when opening self-sealing envelopes in a darkened room. Even if you open the gummed edges quite slowly you can see the crackling blue light at the junction of the flap and the body of the envelope.

  32. My PhD thesis adviser is referenced 2 or 3 times in that paper. I never worked in that side of the lab but I did know were to go if I ran out of tape.

  33. I don’t need sellotape, I just touch the fire after I’ve been at the computer for a while and pow! it shocks! And my daughter could never wear a watch because they always stopped on her wrist – and when she was in a bad mood the computer played up (mine does too). I swear, the most amazing science discoveries yet to come lie right under our noses, so common that nobody thought of checking them out….
    h’mmmm….
    like CO2 not being responsible for global warming….
    Back to topic after that unavoidable rant, it’s only recently that Newton’s basic laws of motion have been proved from the Zero Point Field department of Quantum Mechanics. Thought they were proven did you? well you were mistaken!

    I smell a clue in this Sellotape stuff… it feels like Zero Point Field stuff peeping out again. And I think that ZPF research holds a lot of potential for the future, energy-wise. You just need to peel away the scales of “impossible” from your thinking.

  34. I noticed the emission of light in the late 50s while peeling off tape in a darkroom, to be used to attach the end of a length of 35mm film to the spool of a film cartridge. Just think, if I’d checked for X-rays I’d be the famous one!

    IM

  35. I wonder if I corrolate x-rayproducing soctchtype with lobal warming and get a government grant. It should be easy with the right math, enough assumptions and a computer model.

  36. Adrian S (13:12:09) :

    “That global warming has caused this effect in sellotape.
    my erectile dysnfuction is a direct result of the high levels of raidation I experienced wrapping chritsmas presents. I intend to sue”

    Your ED is more likely to be from an overdose of logical ‘phallacies’!

  37. Just don’t pet your cat in a vacuum, with all that static electricity the X-rays could kill both of you from radiation poisoning.

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