Old Satellite Gives a View Inside #HurricaneFlorence

In April 2006, a Boeing Delta II rocket launched CloudSat, along with a second satellite, CALIPSO, into space on two- and three-year missions to study the world’s clouds and a mix of airborne particles called aerosols.

Twelve years later, both satellites are still chugging along, though it hasn’t always been easy going in recent years. In CloudSat’s case, it is only because of a series of orbital maneuvers and other technical fixes that the satellite is still returning useful science data in the twilight years of its mission.

One of CloudSat’s most recent acquisitions—a view of the inner structure of Hurricane Florence as the storm took aim for the Carolinas—underscores why the mission is worth the engineering effort. This natural-color image shows how Hurricane Florence appeared from above to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite on September 11, 2018. The second image, acquired by CloudSat on the same day, shows a cross-section—how the storm would look if it had been sliced near the middle and viewed from the side. The blue line is the north-to-south track that CloudSat flew over Florence. Note the MODIS image has been rotated.

The CloudSat pass offers a unique view of Florence’s asymmetrical structure, the intense convection and rainfall churning inside the storm, and the complex vertical cloud structure that is not visible from above. The storm’s clouds reached an altitude of about 15 kilometers (9 miles) at their highest point—fairly high for a tropical cyclone.

The darkest blues represent areas where clouds and raindrops reflected the strongest signal back to the satellite radar. These areas had the heaviest precipitation and the largest water droplets. The blue horizontal line across the data is the melting level; ice particles were present above it, raindrops below it. Note how the radar detects more signal immediately below this line. “It almost looks like two images were pasted together and not matched very well,” said Philip Partain, a researcher at Colorado State University who helped design CloudSat’s data processing system. “That’s because falling ice crystals become coated in water as they pass the melting level and become very reflective to the radar.”

With its 94 GHz radar, CloudSat does not measure patches of the heaviest rainfall well. “Very heavy rain weakens the signal, and we can’t get good measurements in those areas,” continued Partain. “You can see that happening in the image where the signal from the ocean’s surface, which is obviously highly reflective outside the storm, disappears in the center of the storm.”

However, CloudSat has some allies on its mission to study Earth’s clouds from above. NASA’s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) has a complementary radar tuned to a slightly different wavelength that excels at making measurements of the heavy rains found in the heart of tropical cyclones. See this visualization to see GPM’s view of intense rainfall within Florence on September 7, 2018.

CALIPSO, the satellite that launched alongside CloudSat, also collects complementary measurements, but of especially fine-grained particles and droplets that are difficult for both CALIPSO and GPM to detect. For several years, Cloudsat and Calipso flew near each other as part of NASA’s A-Train of satellites, a strategic type of formation-flying designed to maximize the scientific value of the data collected by the participating satellites.

In February 2018, Cloudsat mission engineers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, executed two thrusters burns that lowered Cloudsat’s orbit out of the A-Train following the loss of one of four reaction wheels, devices that help control the spacecraft’s orientation in orbit. The maneuvers lowered CloudSat’s orbit from 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the surface to 688 km.

“The spacecraft is flying now in what we call the graveyard orbit,” said Partain. While mission planners hope to see Cloudsat continue to collect data through 2022, small problems can become big problems with a satellite of such an advanced age. “We don’t have much room left for error at this point,” said Partrain. “At any point, we could lose the battery, the radar, or another one of the reaction wheels.”

At least Cloudsat won’t be flying alone during its golden years. The scientists and engineers who manage CALIPSO decided to ease that satellite out of the A-Train and into an orbit near CloudSat, making it possible for CloudSat and CALIPSO to continue making coincident measurements as they long have. By late September, CALIPSO will have resumed its familiar position about 4 kilometers ahead of CloudSat, just like the two satellites flew for years as part of the A-Train.

“Every satellite has its blind spots and no satellite will last forever,” said Natalie Tourville, a Colorado State University scientist who has been compiling a database of CloudSat overpasses of tropical cyclones in order to better understand the anatomy and behavior of the storms. “But my fingers are crossed that CloudSat will deliver many more storm overpasses as impressive as this one in the coming years.”

NASA Earth Observatory image by Joshua Stevens, using MODIS data from LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response and CloudSat data provided by the CloudSat team at Colorado State University. Story by Adam Voiiland.

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Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
September 13, 2018 4:58 pm

Traditional understanding of storm structure is clearly evident from these satellites.

Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy

September 13, 2018 5:30 pm

It looks like this unprecedented storm that wouldn’t have occurred if Trump wasn’t elected President will landfall as a Cat 1 or perhaps a weak Cat 2 storm.

Reply to  co2isnotevil
September 13, 2018 5:40 pm

Its Nature at its v ery impressive best.


Ron Long
Reply to  co2isnotevil
September 13, 2018 5:53 pm

They’ve probably already modelled the death toll from Florencia, at around 12,392 plus or minus 4, so President Trump was just getting warmed up in Puerto Rico. It’s the water that kills in big hurricanes, not the wind speed, unless Trump is President, then it is federal government misconduct that selects out and kills the most innocent, like Democrats. Where’s that hot water Nick was talking about?

Reply to  Ron Long
September 13, 2018 6:52 pm

I think, could be wrong, that the ocean is actually less hot this year than the last 2. This should mean more frequent less intense hurricane risk. Nick was talking hot air arising from the hot water?

Go Home
Reply to  Ron Long
September 13, 2018 8:04 pm

NO doubt all deaths will be folks of color, kids, and woman. The white males will be spared.


CNN Is fake news always playing the race card. Vote Republican in November. If you enjoyed the video please like and pass it on…

Johann Wundersamer
Reply to  Ron Long
September 15, 2018 11:41 pm

It’s the water that kills in big hurricanes, not the wind speed,

It’s the rip waves from storm surges that exhaust and kills in the end.

Reply to  co2isnotevil
September 13, 2018 6:48 pm

Thats good’.
“this storm is what climate change looks like. Climate change increases the risk of this kind of storm. Hurricane Florence is what global warming looks like.”
are the sort of comments that were being attributed when it was category 5.
Only by luck has it downgraded.
Hopefully it will continue to abate both in wind and water damage.
Will it be used as a poster girl for global warming if it loses it’s kick?
I fear not.

Reply to  angech
September 13, 2018 6:52 pm

“Mature Atlantic Hurricanes have never hit North or South Carolina before” – UN IPCC

John Dilks
Reply to  WXcycles
September 13, 2018 7:34 pm

IPCC is wrong. Look up Hugo in 1989

Alan the Brit
Reply to  John Dilks
September 14, 2018 12:31 am

I think you’ll find that WXcycles was being sarcastic! 😉

Go Home
Reply to  co2isnotevil
September 13, 2018 7:59 pm

FOX news now has Florence listed as CAT 1 with winds of 90 mph.

Disappointing to many liberals i am sure.

Jack Kendrick
Reply to  Go Home
September 14, 2018 1:25 pm

Trump got the blame so surely he deserves credit for weakening the storm from a Cat 4 to a Cat 1. His power is awesome!

September 13, 2018 5:49 pm

Glad to see tax payers getting a good return on investment! Keeping older systems running is an art form.

September 13, 2018 5:55 pm

Nice view of the hurricane where you can clearly see the high Cirrus cloud extending out to the leading edge of the storm.
lt was this high Cirrus “mares tails” that gave the sailors in the old days of the sailing ship a early warning of the approach of a storm. When back in those days the only other forecasting tool they would have had was the weather glass.

Bruce Sanson
September 13, 2018 5:58 pm

This looks like an ugly beast – my thoughts go out to all in its path.
Stay safe – bruce

steve case
September 13, 2018 6:32 pm

Off topic: For those of you who have noticed
is back up (they’ve been off line since August 15th) and still on 2018 rel_1

James Beaver
September 13, 2018 6:51 pm

It would be useful to build such satellites with the capability for in-orbit refueling. I know we can’t do it today, but there are commercial companies attempting to acquire and use resources found in space, rather than haul everything up from Earth’s surface. Planetary Resources is one, and the economics makes a lot of sense for in-orbit refueling, but only if the satellites have the capability for such a mission.

Pop Piasa
Reply to  James Beaver
September 13, 2018 9:17 pm

I agree with that and think that a maneuverable orbiting station could be built to capture, refit or repair, refuel and relaunch satellites. Too bad tractor beams are not yet reality. Think of the publicity SpaceX could get from giving new life to old satellites, and even bringing one back to display with Elon Musk’s other trophies.

Tom O
Reply to  Pop Piasa
September 14, 2018 12:08 pm

We used to have something like that. I think it was called the space shuttle.

J Mac
September 13, 2018 9:02 pm

Awesome science, from a ‘long in the tooth’ satellite!

September 13, 2018 9:18 pm

OMG category ONE already!
It’s worse than we thought – CNN promised us a CAT 5, boo hoo!
Time to fall back on all that rain.

Patrick MJD
September 13, 2018 9:47 pm
September 13, 2018 11:15 pm

Florence is moving very slowly towards WNW (9 km/h). Maximum Winds: 85 kt Gusts: 105 kt
comment image

Reply to  ren
September 13, 2018 11:18 pm

Low winds will reduce some damage, but a slower path dumps more rain in smaller locations = more flooding.

Be ironic if it hit the coast as a Trump Decision (er, Tropical Depression) and we began another 12 period of no hurricanes on the US coasts.

Reply to  RACookPE1978
September 14, 2018 12:08 am

The storm will cause floods even in the northwest US.

Reply to  ren
September 14, 2018 2:02 am

You forgot the /sarc

Reply to  ren
September 14, 2018 2:25 am

Sorry, I made a mistake, the Northeast US.

Reply to  RACookPE1978
September 14, 2018 12:15 am

However, this storm does not equal typhoons in the Pacific. Inhabitants of the islands have nowhere to run.
As of 00:00 UTC Sep 14, 2018:
Maximum Winds: 150 kt

Hurricane FLORENCE
As of 06:00 UTC Sep 14, 2018:
Location: 34.1°N 77.2°W
Maximum Winds: 80 kt Gusts: N/A

Steve Richards
September 14, 2018 12:04 am

Science and engineering working together – wonderful

September 14, 2018 2:02 am

So President Trump did a deal with God, and reduced the intensity of this storm.
That’s why we elected him, he has a direct line to God. And God always answers his calls!

September 14, 2018 3:37 am

Florence eye reaches Wilmington.
comment image

September 14, 2018 3:55 am

Evacuation was needed because the hurricane moved along the coast. Rain and flow can undermine the foundations of houses.

Johann Wundersamer
September 16, 2018 12:21 am

ever said -?

WUWT is a great PLATFORM that can endure even controversial views.

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