Which Nation is Most Vulnerable to Climate Change?

  • Tuvalu… No.
  • The Seychelles… No.
  • Bangladesh… No.
  • Kiribati… No.
  • Vanuatu… No.
  • The Solomon Islands… No.

Guest post by David Middleton

The Country Most Vulnerable to Climate Change

Of the 186 countries assessed in a recent survey of climate vulnerability, Chad was rated most in peril. A combination of high poverty, frequent conflicts, and the risk of both droughts and floods means the central African nation is bottom of the list, just below Bangladesh and some way behind Norway, the country least vulnerable to climate change.

So why Chad? For a start, it is one of the poorest countries in the world. Around 87% of Chadians are classified as poor, according to the Multidimentional Poverty Index, which factors in health, education and living standards.


This is exacerbated by the fact that the country has been in civil war or conflict for 35 out of the 57 years since it gained independence from France.

Any poor or conflict-prone country will always be vulnerable, but Chad’s geography means climate change is a particular risk. Chad is bigger than many Westerners may realise. At 1.28m km² it’s larger than Nigeria and twice the size of Texas. Around 90% of its 10m people live in the southern half of the country, as most of the northern half extends well into the Sahara desert.


Since the mid-20th century, temperatures in Chad have been increasing while rainfall is decreasing. Ninety percent of the country’s largest lake, Lake Chad, has disappeared over the past 50 years due to a combination of droughts and increasing withdrawals for irrigation. Climate studies project things will get increasingly hot and arid throughout the 21st century, which means lower crop yields, worse pasture, and a harder life for anyone dependent on Lake Chad.


The Conversation


  1. Chad is one of the poorest nations on Earth.  
  2. Chad has been at war for 61% of the last 57 years. 
  3. 90% of the population lives in the part of Chad not in the Sahara Desert.  
  4. Chadians have drained 90% of their largest lake over the past 50 years. 
  5. Climate models predict that it will get worse. AEUHHH????

Only one of the above is truly related to “climate change.”  Any guesses as to which?  Vanishing Lake Chad?  No.  This is due to droughts of the 1970’s and 1980’s (when global cooling was the crisis du jour), the lake’s unique bathymetry and agricultural withdrawals (Gao et al., 2011).   According to hydrological models, by the year 2000, Lake Chad would have recovered to 82% 1963 area and 59% of its volume, if not for the agricultural withdrawals and unique bathymetery.

In warm desert, warm semi-arid and tropical savanna climates, droughts *are* climate, not climate change.  So, the answer is #5: “Climate models predict that it will get worse.”

Climate models are apparently so good that they can predict that the worst place on Earth, with a nearly uninhabitable climate, will get worse due to climate change?

Information Box

Can anyone identify this logical fallacy?  How can you cite the hydrological model of Lake Chad, while ridiculing climate models?  If you criticize one type of model, you must criticize all models!

Can Chad’s climate realistically get worse?  For starters, Chad appears to be invulnerable to CAGW’s chief bogeyman: Sea Level Rise…

The landlocked country stretches from the Sahara to Cameroon. TUBS / wiki, CC BY-SA. https://theconversation.com/chad-is-the-country-most-vulnerable-to-climate-change-heres-why-78423

So… They got that going for them… Unfortunately, that’s where the good news ends.

Eyeballing a Köppen climate classification map of Chad, it appears that about 65% of the country is warm desert (BWh), 20% is warm semi-arid (Bsh) and about 15% is tropical savanna (Aw).

Description English: Chad map of Köppen climate classification. Date 20 February 2016. Source: Derived from World Koppen Classification.svg. Author: Enhanced, modified, and vectorized by Ali Zifan. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chad_map_of_K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification.svg. My attribution of this image to its author in no way implies that the author agrees with me in a way whatsoever.

With most of Chad being unsuitable to agriculture largely due to a lack of water… could climate change really make things any worse?  It’s hot.  It’s dry.  It’s been hot and dry longer than there are modern weather records.  Could it really get worse?

The capital city of Ndjamena was already very hot before the 97% consensus decided that humans were responsible for at least half of whatever happened since 1950:

Ndjamena: Average annual temperature (°C). In 1950, at the start of the 97% consensus that humans caused everything since 1950, the average annual temperature was already 27.4 °C (81.3 °F). It’s now up around 29.3 °C (84.5 °F). Assuming the 97% consensus is correct and not fictitious, Ndjamena’s average annual temperature might only be 83.8 °F… Much more habitable than 84.5 °F… (Yes, I am being sarcastic). https://data.giss.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/gistemp/show_station.cgi?id=110647000000&dt=1&ds=12


That’s the annual average, including nighttime and winter.  The climate has literally gone from uninhabitable to uninhabitable and the climate models say it will likely get worse!!!

We can see how severely (or not) the Chadian climate changed over the 20th Century on these historical Köppen climate classification maps from Rubel & Kottek (2010):

Chad’s 20th century climate change. Yellow = Warm Desert (BWh), Gold = Warm Semi-Arid (BSh) and Pink = Tropical Savanna (Aw). (Source Rubel & Kottek, 2010).

History says Chad’s climate has been bad since at least 1900.  The models say Chad’s climate will get worse.  The models have a very good track record of being wrong.

Whatever happens to Chad’s climate, Sam Kinnison offered a solution to this sort of  climate problem back in the 1980’s… (Warning, Sam Kinnison cussed a lot)…

As usual, any and all sarcasm was very intentional.


[1] Gao H, Bohn T J, Podest E, McDonald K C and Lettenmaier D P 2011 On the causes of the shrinking of Lake Chad Environ. Res. Lett. 6 034021.  IOPscience

[2] (Featured Image Only) Petersen, A. Hals, H., Rot, B., Bell, J., Miller, I., Parks, J., and M. Stults (2014). Climate Change and the Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe: A Customized Approach to Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning. Michigan Journal of Sustainability 2, 9-32. Available at URL http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/mjs.12333712.0002.003

[3] Rubel, F., and M. Kottek, 2010: Observed and projected climate shifts 1901-2100 depicted by world maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Meteorol. Z., 19, 135-141. DOI: 10.1127/0941-2948/2010/0430.

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Tom Halla
June 12, 2017 9:21 am

Didn’t the French keep records in the 1920’s and 1930’s, or have they been lost?

Reply to  David Middleton
June 12, 2017 10:13 am

Here is Chad (world) by month for both temp and rainfall for 100+ years in easy to use excel.

Reply to  David Middleton
June 12, 2017 4:35 pm

My, my, my! The Yola Nigeria chart also shows the 1930’s as being hotter than subsequent years. Looks just like the U.S. 1999 Hansen surface temperature chart profile. Putting the lie to the bogus, bastardized Hockey Stick chart profile.
The alarmists want to claim the U.S. surface temperature chart profile is different from the global temperature chart profile, but all you have to do is look at the individual unaltered charts of other nations for that time period and you will see that unaltered charts look exactly like the Hansen 1999 U.S. temperature chart profile.
It’s obvious the alamists pushing this view are lying to us. Not all of them of course, most of them are just dupes, but there are some deliberate liars amongst them. Certainly the creators of these manipulated charts. They knew exactly what they were doing.
Thanks for that chart, David. I’ll add it to my collection of similar charts.
Here is a comparison of the 1999 Hansen U.S. surface temperature chart versus the Global surface temperature chart (the bogus Hockey Stick chart).comment image
As you can see, on the left is the 1999 Hansen U.S. chart and on the right is the bogus, bastardized Global surface temperature Hockey Stick chart.
The 1999 Hansen chart shows the 1930’s as being hotter than any subsequent year, being hotter than 1998 by about 0.5C (which means it was also hotter than 2016 by about 0.4C).
Now, which one of these two charts most closely resembles the chart from Yola Nigeria? Obviously, Yola Nigeria’s chart most closely resembles the 1999 Hansen U.S. surface temperature chart profile with the 1930’s being hotter than subsequent years, and has no resemblance at all to the bastardized Global surface Hockey Stick temperature chart. This is true for unaltered charts from all over the world.
Does anyone really believe that U.S. temperatures and Global temperatures would be so different as to generate two completely different temperature profiles?
The bogus, bastardized Hockey Stick chart was produced for only one reason: to provide the only “proof” the alaramists have that human CO2 is causing the climate to heat up. Without this dishonest chart the alarmists would have nothing to point to that shows “global warming”. It they used an honest chart, all they could show was that we have been in a temperature downtrend since the 1930’s. Not good if you want to promote Global Warming. So they changed the official records to make things look that way.
The Hockey Stick Chart is a lie, and the Red Team needs to show this lie to the public. A proper temperature profile shows the Earth is NOT overheating.

Reply to  Tom Halla
June 12, 2017 12:43 pm

They can’t possibly be lost. The University of East Anglia didn’t have computers then.

Reply to  HotScot
June 13, 2017 7:47 pm

Perhaps the hard copies were lost in an office move. (Points to anyone who can name the referenced scientist and his field.)
+1000 to HotScot for wit and truth in one.

Reply to  Tom Halla
June 12, 2017 2:41 pm

Is that lost?
Or “lost”?
Not everybody in this power-grab is completely, 100%, ethically pure and honest.
I may not be, myself – even if I aspire to sainthood.
Don’t know why.
Saints seem usually to be defunct.
I try to be about 100% – but I am human, and probably kid myself, too.
Anticipating aggressive antagonism . . .

June 12, 2017 9:40 am

I worked briefly in Chad in the late 70’s. In the hot season it routinely got over 40 Centigrade in the day

June 12, 2017 9:46 am

The real threat to Chad is their warring rulers, military coups, tribal warfare, rebels and civil war. I can only hope the Green Fund philanthropy money does not go into buying AK-47’s and foreign real-estate. Diarrhea causes 23.6% of all premature deaths in that country, climate change ???. They need clean water, mosquito nets and condoms, not solar panels.

old construction worker
Reply to  Duncan
June 12, 2017 10:03 am

Of course Chad is on board with UN’s give-a-away other nation’s tax payers money. Just what we need: A dictator on world government welfare system.

Reply to  old construction worker
June 12, 2017 9:13 pm

Presumably Chad already receives “x” dollars in foreign aid and isn’t spending the majority of that on “tackling” Climate Change™ . . even though it’s the greatest threat to their existence.
I wonder why.
Same with all the other developing countries lining up to for a hand-out from the Green Climate Fund.
What proportion of foreign aid are they currently spending to change the weather?

June 12, 2017 9:56 am

Chad’s population went from 4.5 million in 1980 to 14 million in 2015. That is why they are most endangered, and why Lake Chad has not recovered. Won’t end well.

Richard M
Reply to  ristvan
June 12, 2017 10:12 am

With growth like that I would guess much of the warming in the largest city is UHI. Probably a lot of trees have been removed to make way for shacks.

Curious George
Reply to  ristvan
June 12, 2017 2:43 pm

Global warming causes a population explosion.

June 12, 2017 10:05 am

Many probably do not remember that under the Carter Administration there was a drought in the Subsaharan region of Africa. We were told people were starving. Jimmy sent food. That would have been much of a problem but someone in our government decided to also sent feed for livestock. Normally during a drought people in the area would have culled their herds to a minimum but with the extra feed they didn’t. Problem is that cows, goats, camels, etc all still graze. Somewhere I have/ had a paper discussing the expansion of the desert due to overgrazing. Expanding deserts by themselves can cause changes in especially local weather patterns. Under Mao the Chinese expanded intense farming into arid areas and pushed them over the edge into deserts. None of those was cause by greenhouse gases, unless you count the fossil fuels used to transport the food and animal feed.

Crispin in Waterloo
Reply to  Ed
June 12, 2017 2:02 pm

Ed, the drought in the Sahel was not caused by overgrazing. It is a cyclical thing. From 1983 to date the Sahel is moving north taking over the grassless desert. About 500 km so far. Is the expansion of the Sahel caused by overgrazing? I didn’t think so.
Whatever happens in Africa, they blame overgrazing. And witchcraft. There is always a cure available. Everyone takes the medicine. Sometimes it works, sometimes it doesn’t. (H/T to Little Big Man).

Reply to  Crispin in Waterloo
June 12, 2017 5:30 pm

Well I am not going to search for the journal article; it is somewhere in my many boxes. Sorry I didn’t mean to infer that the drought was caused by overgrazing but the expansion of desert. You are right drought in the Sahel is a cyclic thing. However, what the paper said was that normally during “the dry” residents would cull their herds until the next wet period and had done so for thousands of years. The USA had helped out those in the region before when the dry lasted longer than usual. During the Carter era they went a step further and sent more than just food for people but for animals. Those living there saw much less reason to cull their herds. In a society were the number of animals is one’s wealth I am sure it was only logical to them. The reason I was interested in the paper at all was because it used remote sensing to show the expansion of the desert. I was using remote sensing and considering its capabilities relative to work I was doing at the time.

Reply to  Crispin in Waterloo
June 12, 2017 6:06 pm

But I thought that the Sahel has been greening for the last 30 years. What’s up?

Crispin in Waterloo
Reply to  Crispin in Waterloo
June 12, 2017 10:18 pm

Very interesting details there re feeding the animals. Foreign aid can screw up just about anything.
A lot can be done to secure the recovered desert. Neem trees are planted in the most miserable places in the Sahel and fenced to keep the goats away. A decent planting campaign like the one that put in hundreds of millions of trees in the US during the depression would do wonders for the Sahel. It is wet enough to support Neem and acacia forests.
Peach trees are also very good for holding back the desert.

June 12, 2017 10:08 am

I read the title initially as most “Valuable”. And figured it had to be France and its whopping $1.5 million for government leeches.
Then I skimmed the article and read Chad, and figured it had to be a reference to the Hanging Chads of 2k. I finally read the whole article, and found my first 2 impressions were probably more accurate than the claim by the paper.

June 12, 2017 10:09 am

Looking at rainfall and temperature for chad 1900-2015, there is no trend.

John Harmsworth
Reply to  ferdberple
June 12, 2017 12:33 pm

Climate not changing due to CO2- even worse!

Reply to  John Harmsworth
June 12, 2017 3:03 pm

Stop the presses.

ron long
June 12, 2017 10:17 am

I hope no Precious Little Snowflakes watch the Sam Kinison video. Oh sure it is right to the point, kind of like 80% of Canadians live within 100 miles of the USA border and if it warms up they might be able to spread out a little, but the idea of perpetual heat might traumatize the PLSF’s and they coundn’t find their way to a Safe Zone.

CC Reader
June 12, 2017 10:20 am

I suggest reading “The Fate of Africa, The History of the Continent Since Independance”, Meridith, Martin. European overloads did not pay attention to African tribal identity, just the resources of the land. The chapters in the book cover individual “nations” in Africa and explain what was occurring in a particular country from ~1960 to 2000. After reading it I can say that I wish all the current African rulers had the humanity of a Mandela.

Reply to  CC Reader
June 12, 2017 12:50 pm

Mandella was a terrorist who refused to denounce his past murderous activities

Reply to  CC Reader
June 12, 2017 1:26 pm

I read Dr. Stanley’s book on searching for Dr. Livingston. Hell of a book by a smart Victorian guy with no particular ax to grind. read it if you can find it. It’s engrossing. Some of those explorers make the SAS look like wimps.
Seems Africa was totally f***ed back then and it had nothing to do with colonialism, climate change or anything other than Africans being Africans. Seems nothings changed.

June 12, 2017 10:22 am

is drilling for water not on the schedule?

Samuel C Cogar
June 12, 2017 10:27 am

Lake Chad, has disappeared over the past 50 years due to a combination of droughts and increasing withdrawals for irrigation.
4. Chadians have drained 90% of their largest lake over the past 50 years

Looks to me like, given the included maps of Chad, …… that Lake Chad is located on the southwest corner of the portion of the country that is denoted as a ….. “hot n’ dry” Warm Desert Climate (BWh).
So, just how “hot n’ dry” is that Warm Desert Climate where Lake Chad is located, ……. and what is the yearly average rainfall in that locale where Lake Chad is located, …… and does Lake Chad have another source of water other than the assumed “non-existent” rainfall?
Thus, if there is no inflow of water into Lake Chad, ….. and there is no outflow or seepage of water out of Lake Chad, …….. and there never was any evaporation of water from the surface of Lake Chad, …… then I guess one can blame the Chadians for draining 90% of the water out of their lake over the past 50 years.

Reply to  Samuel C Cogar
June 12, 2017 1:19 pm

Nearly all water in Lake Chad comes from the Chari river. More than half the water is now diverted for irrigation. Lake Chad won’t recover unless there is an extremely large increase in precipitation.

Ed Zuiderwijk
Reply to  tty
June 12, 2017 2:42 pm

Same story as for the Aral Sea in Khazakstan.

Samuel C Cogar
Reply to  tty
June 13, 2017 4:57 am

From the looks of this map it appears to me that Lake Chad has a tremendous “watershed” area that consists of dozens n‘ dozens of rivers and streams. To wit:
comment image
With that great of a watershed me thinks there is probably more of a rainfall problem rather than an “irrigation diversion” problem. But whatta I know.

Reply to  Samuel C Cogar
June 13, 2017 5:32 am

Perhaps you should add all the catchment damns along those rivers? The pump intake points along those rivers? You gots mad intrawebs skillz, show us. I bet googlearth would be a good place to start! Do something useful for your fellow man, for once. I am headed out to bale hay today, so I’ll be all atremble with anticipation at what you have for us this evening!

Samuel C Cogar
Reply to  tty
June 13, 2017 1:35 pm

@ 2hotel9 June 13, 2017 at 5:32 am

I am headed out to bale hay today, …

Like they say, 2hotel9, …….. don’t give up your day job of driving a farm tractor , round n’ round in circles, ……… making you think that you are “a BIG wheel”, …. cause you might have trouble finding another job ifffen it requires more thinking.
But in the meantime, …… try really hard at thinking about the following, to wit:
population of Chad – 14.962 million (2017)
area of chad in square miles – 495,800 mi²
annual rainfall in Chad:
* The Sahara zone, northern third, Warm Desert Climate, under 50 mm (2.0 in) per year.
* The Sahelian zone, center, Warm Semi-arid Climate, from 300 to 600 mm (11.8 to 23.6 in) per year.
* The Sudanese zone, southern, Tropical Savannah Climate, over 900 mm (35.4 in) per year.

Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the remains of an immense lake that occupied 330,000 square kilometres (130,000 sq mi) of the Chad Basin 7,000 years ago.
Although in the 21st century it covers only 17,806 square kilometres (6,875 sq mi), and its surface area is subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations, the lake is Africa’s second largest wetland

Read more @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chad

HA, ….. during the Holocene Climate Optimum at 7,000 years BP, Lake Chad had a surface area of 130,000 square miles, which was ¼ of the total surface area of present day Chad, …….. but then the climate of North Africa (Sahara) went to hell in a sandstorm and Lake Chad began drying up and Lake Chad’s surface area has decreased to its present 6,875 square miles, …… which is a loss of 123,125 square miles of lake surface area (water).
Unless the Monsoon like rains return to North Africa and Sahara, then Lake Chad is doomed to becoming “a seasonal mudhole” and there is nothing the Warminists can do to change that fact.

Crispin in Waterloo
Reply to  tty
June 13, 2017 3:46 pm

Samuel C Cougar
You are trying to tell a farmer about the effects of irrigation? And your qualification above his is exactly what?
Did you know that even in the USA farmers have heard of irrigation?
Documentary makers who decry the shrinkage of Lake Chad and blame it on global warming are liars. It is caused by irrigation upstream of its main water source.

Samuel C Cogar
Reply to  tty
June 14, 2017 5:12 am

You are trying to tell a farmer about the effects of irrigation?

Crispin in Waterloo
You have assumed that a person who claimed he/she was “headed out to bale hay” was in fact a vegetable/produce farmer whose fields needed to be irrigated to be productive, ……. but for all you know the aforesaid person might be nothing more than a “green card” carrying laborer being paid to drive a tractor.

And your qualification above his is exactly what?

Crispin, I am 2 months short of completing my 77th trip around the Sun ….. and being a life-long “student of the natural world”, along with my learned Degrees in/of the Teaching of the Sciences and thus my acquired “qualifications” on different subject matter as a result of my learned knowledge and experiences ….. would utterly amaze you, ……. I’m sure.

Did you know that even in the USA farmers have heard of irrigation?

Crispin, …… GETTA CLUE, ….. dairy, beef, horse, goat or sheep farmers who grow and harvest hay, by cutting and bailing said for storage, ……. really don’t give a damn or engage in the irrigation of their hay fields or pastures.

Documentary makers who decry the shrinkage of Lake Chad and blame it on global warming are liars. It is caused by irrigation upstream of its main water source.

Shur it tis, ….. Crispin, …… shur it tis, ….. and the following is absolute fact of that happening, … to wit:

Since 2003 the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.
Unsustainable high birth rates and a lack of agriculture let the country persist in poverty. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d’état.
Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers.
Over 80% of Chad’s population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood.[35] The crops grown and the locations of herds are determined by the local climate. In the southernmost 10% of the territory lies the nation’s most fertile cropland, with rich yields of sorghum and millet. In the Sahel only the hardier varieties of millet grow, and these with much lower yields than in the south. On the other hand, the Sahel is ideal pastureland for large herds of commercial cattle and for goats, sheep, donkeys and horses. The Sahara’s scattered oases support only some dates and legumes.[8] Chad’s cities face serious difficulties of municipal infrastructure; only 48% of urban residents have access to potable water and only 2% to basic sanitation.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chad

Crispin in Waterloo, …….. please tell me “Oh Wise One”, …… why would a country that is highly deficient in/of agriculture, ……. and has pretty much been experiencing constant Civil War during the past 50 years, ….. and wherein most inhabitants are living in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers, …… have the equipment, electrical power, workers, management, etc., to operate and maintain a vast network of individual irrigation systems?

Reply to  tty
June 14, 2017 8:26 am

I suspect the truth is somewhere in the middle. I would argue that as irrigation has been an agricultural technique for millennia, even subsistence farmers have figured out how to divert water from the rivers and streams in the watershed using relatively simple techniques. There are probably at least some larger scale projects, taking up water for irrigation as well as human and animal use (drinking, etc.). It seems plausible that irrigation along with human and animal intake could cause a deficit in recharge, particularly when combined with little precipitation.

Jarryd Beck
June 12, 2017 10:40 am

1.28km squared? Decimal point typo?

June 12, 2017 10:42 am

I wish the global warming would hurry the heck up and do it. With most of the Earths water in the atmosphere going to the poles where it’s stored as Ice…it’s not raining as much in the equatorial regions as it should be. This interglacial period should be getting warmer, but instead it’s getting cooler at the poles and stagnant elsewhere. I know people living in the coastal regions hate the idea of being under water and that’s literally physically speaking and financially speaking…but this stagnation is keeping arid areas arid that in the last interglacial were greener because of the more tropical global climate. It’s the scare tactics of global warming flooding of coastal areas that this is even an issue. People ignorantly build below the high water and storm damage markers of the last interglacial and get all butt hurt when that is in jeopardy of happening again.

Pat Frank
June 12, 2017 10:46 am

It’s very clear that the nation most vulnerable to climate change is the United States.
Huge removal of wealth? (check)
Destruction of farms? (check)
Ruination of cities? (check)
Increasingly violent social turmoil? (check)
Primary focus of climate-related hostility? (check)
Politicians especially addled by climate change heat? (check and check again)
One could go on.

Jim G1
Reply to  Pat Frank
June 12, 2017 11:35 am

I would say it’s a toss up between Canada and and Russia since when it gets colder, and that’s the next REAL climate change coming, neither will be able to grow food.

Barbara Skolaut
Reply to  Pat Frank
June 12, 2017 11:48 am


June 12, 2017 11:53 am

The polar bears are secure compared to the crocs and lungfish in Lake Chad. –AGF

andrew dickens
June 12, 2017 11:57 am

Chad;s problem reflects Africa’s problem: runaway population growth.

I Came I Saw I Left
June 12, 2017 12:03 pm

I wonder what happens when the c̶r̶y̶s̶t̶a̶l̶ ̶b̶a̶l̶l̶s̶ models don’t give them the results they want?
Scientist 1: The model is predicting peace and love.
Scientist 2: It’s broken Fix it.

Scientist 1: The model is now predicting death and destruction
Scientist 2: That’s better….

June 12, 2017 12:10 pm

Climate change consciousness has increased, and this increased CONSCIOUSNESS is leading people to conflate “change” with “human-caused change”.
Of course, we can figure out which countries are vulnerable to climate change, BUT is it climate change in general, or climate change that humans specifically are alleged to cause?
If the article is about climate change ATTRIBUTED to humans, then this needs to be stated up front and not just (apparently) assumed. It seems that the human attribution is just ASSUMED in any discussion of climate change, and this is grossly wrong, misleading, and tunnel visioned.

Reply to  David Middleton
June 13, 2017 9:05 pm

If I lived in Chad, I suspect that the last thing I would be worrying about is AGW. Only an idiot would think that AGW was a “big” imminent problem compared to everything else happening there. The author has everything bassackwards. Instead of thinking about why Chad might be more vulnerable to AGW, we ought to be thinking about how to solve its actual problems. Limited resources are already strained by the native population, and there are hundreds of thousands of refugees from Darfur (where is George Clooney?) and the Central African Republic adding to the burden. Boko Haram is causing problems in the region near Nigeria, displacing thousands of people. These two issues are mentioned in that article, so the author is aware of them. Yet he is harping on about AGW???
Lowering emissions isn’t going to do jack for these people. To be fair, the steps listed at the end of the article are practical and have the potential to improve people’s lives. However, they are not actually related to climate change, and are more about benefiting people in the present. These land management techniques will improve agricultural outputs and land, with the side benefit of (possibly) reducing the water volume needed over the course of a season. While this will likely also have a positive effect on the environment in general, such techniques are not being utilized because of fears of AGW.
No matter what environmentally friendly things are done in Chad, the country is going to be hell for the vast majority of people until the socioeconomic problems are addressed. Perhaps all the brainiacs screaming about AGW could take a little time to figure out some solutions that do not involve enriching Chad’s corrupt governing elite.

June 12, 2017 1:06 pm

So, Chad was in line to get the lion’s share of the billions of dollars stolen from American Tax Payers? And here I thought Merkel had claimed that spot.

Gunga Din
June 12, 2017 1:10 pm

Al Gore must be involved or get involved somehow.
He likes to focus on hanging Chads to try to get his way.

Crispin in Waterloo
June 12, 2017 1:10 pm

For every 1% rise I CO2 the soil moisture of the drylands (that patch of colour in the centre) increases 0.68% because plants are more water efficient.
The climate models tell lies. If it keeps getting generally hotter, the Hadley cells will push north and it will start raining further inland. At some point the system will tip back to the way it was before 6600 BC and start thunderstorming across the whole Sahara. Yes there really are tipping points in the climate when it comes to the thunderstorm cycles. Even Mauritania will bloom.
The problems in Chad centre on its governance. It might be much better off split into several viable countries. Pointless perpetual war is a useless domestic policy, as useless as the international version.

Reply to  Crispin in Waterloo
June 12, 2017 2:08 pm

Chad, just like the majority of other “countries” in Africa, is being dragged down by tribalism. Trying to set arbitrary boundaries will only work if each “tribe” accepts those boundaries, or each “tribe” is powerful enough to keep other tribes out of their specific boundaries. People laying the blame for Africa’s troubles on “the white man” are either blindly naive or pushing the leftist political agenda.
While tribes were separated by large, open expanses of terrain there was relative peace. Still warfare between tribes, nothing like the 20th century saw or the 21st is seeing. Hell, just look at what Mugabe has done to what was a prosperous and fairly well educated population, that same crap has and is happening, repeatedly, throughout Africa. And this is very much like the “opioid” crisis in America, people have to choose not to kill themselves with pharmaceuticals and narcotics, same in Africa, people have to choose not to murder each other over tribalism, or socialism, or egalitarianism, whatever name they put on it. THEY have to CHOOSE. So far they have chosen to kill each other over rancid stupidity no matter the nomenclature used to describe it.

Samuel C Cogar
Reply to  2hotel9
June 14, 2017 10:56 am

@ Crispin in Waterloo … and …… 2hotel9, …… here is a super duper, really great ….. African success story …… that defines how the citizens of an African country should conduct themselves iffen they want to escape the stigma of being forever noted as being a waring nation of un-educateable misfits and murders.
To wit:

The Republic of Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society (ACS), who believed blacks would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the United States.[7] The country declared its independence on July 26, 1847. The U.S. did not recognize Liberia’s independence until during the American Civil War on February 5, 1862.
Between January 7, 1822 and the American Civil War, more than 15,000 freed and free-born blacks, who faced legislated limits in the U.S., and 3,198 Afro-Caribbeans, relocated to the settlement.[8] The black settlers carried their culture with them to Liberia.?

Read more @ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia

J Mac
June 12, 2017 3:20 pm

Hmmm – Another dangling Chad problem…..

Reply to  J Mac
June 13, 2017 7:37 am

Thanks for sparing me to make the reference…

tony mcleod
June 12, 2017 3:34 pm

Load of bollocks topped off with: “when global cooling was the crisis du jour”.
And the piece de resistance: “More proof that the IPCC and UNFCC are *all* about socialist redistribution of wealth”.
Memo to self – ignore this twit’s rubbish. Racing to the bottom with Eric Worral.

Reply to  tony mcleod
June 12, 2017 4:01 pm

Global cooling was indeed the crisis of the decade for the 1970s.
Leaders of the bogus “climate change” cause admit that their goal is socialism.
So I guess that makes you the twit spewing rubbish and racing to the bottom.

Reply to  Chimp
June 12, 2017 6:46 pm

Hard to race to a place he has been all along.

June 12, 2017 4:24 pm

Yes. It was The Chad…

June 12, 2017 4:37 pm

And for more France bashing….
Chad “…has been in civil war or conflict for 35 out of the 57 years since it gained independence from France.”
It seems that France has a pretty crappy track record with the condition of their imperialist leftovers. If the president of France really wants to be able to claim they are at the top of the heap wrt human rights then France should be busy cleaning up the poverty and wars that they have created throughout the world.

tony mcleod
June 12, 2017 4:43 pm

That’s a “crisis”? A time of intense difficulty or danger? (Oxford dictionary)
Because it was on the cover of some magazines?
The only “crisis” is a shortage of kool-aid, beacuse you guys have drunk it all.

Reply to  tony mcleod
June 12, 2017 4:47 pm

On your home planet, it isn’t a crisis if the biggest cities are in imminent danger of being crushed under mile-high ice sheets?
What then does count as a crisis there? And what color are your skies?

tony mcleod
Reply to  Gabro
June 12, 2017 4:52 pm

Yes I know Gabro, a dissenting voice in an echo-chamber can sound a bit alien.

Reply to  Gabro
June 12, 2017 4:58 pm

Dissent requires facts. You have none. Just assertions from your unquestioning bubble world.
You can’t handle the truth, but at least please try to learn it. Here, educate yourself:

Reply to  Gabro
June 12, 2017 5:00 pm

My reply is again lost in cyberspace.
Dissent requires facts. You have none. Maybe this will work:
1970 – Colder Winters Held Dawn of New Ice Age – Scientists See Ice Age In the Future (The Washington Post, January 11, 1970)
1970 – Is Mankind Manufacturing a New Ice Age for Itself? (L.A. Times, January 15, 1970)
1970 – New Ice Age May Descend On Man (Sumter Daily Item, January 26, 1970)
1970 – Pollution Prospect A Chilling One (The Argus-Press, January 26, 1970)
1970 – Pollution’s 2-way ‘Freeze’ On Society (Middlesboro Daily News, January 28, 1970)
1970 – Cold Facts About Pollution (The Southeast Missourian, January 29, 1970)
1970 – Pollution Could Cause Ice Age, Agency Reports (St. Petersburg Times, March 4, 1970)
1970 – Scientist predicts a new ice age by 21st century (The Boston Globe, April 16, 1970)
1970 – Pollution Called Ice Age Threat (St. Petersburg Times, June 26, 1970)
1970 – U.S. and Soviet Press Studies of a Colder Arctic (The New York Times, July 18, 1970)
1970 – Dirt Will Bring New Ice Age (The Sydney Morning Herald, October 19, 1970)
1971 – Ice Age Refugee Dies Underground (Montreal Gazette, Febuary 17, 1971)
1971 – Pollution Might Lead To Another Ice Age (The Schenectady Gazette, March 22, 1971)
1971 – Pollution May Bring Ice Age – Scientist Rites Risk (The Windsor Star, March 23, 1971)
1971 – U.S. Scientist Sees New Ice Age Coming (The Washington Post, July 9, 1971)
1971 – Ice Age Around the Corner (Chicago Tribune, July 10, 1971)
1971 – Danger: Ice age may lurk in dusty skies (The Christian Science Monitor, July 12, 1971)
1971 – New Ice Age Coming – It’s Already Getting Colder (L.A. Times, October 24, 1971)
1971 – Another Ice Age? Pollution Blocking Sunlight (The Day, November 1, 1971)
1971 – Air Pollution Could Bring An Ice Age (Harlan Daily Enterprise, November 4, 1971)
1972 – Air pollution may cause ice age (Free-Lance Star, February 3, 1972)
1972 – Scientist Says New ice Age Coming (The Ledger, February 13, 1972)
1972 – Ice Age Cometh For Dicey Times (The Sun, May 29, 1972)
1972 – Ice Age Coming (Deseret News, September 8, 1972)
1972 – There’s a new Ice Age coming! (The Windsor Star, September 9, 1972)
1972 – Scientist predicts new ice age (Free-Lance Star, September 11, 1972)
1972 – British Expert on Climate Change Says New Ice Age Creeping Over Northern Hemisphere (Lewiston Evening Journal, September 11, 1972)
1972 – Climate Seen Cooling For Return Of Ice Age (The Portsmouth Times, ‎September 11, 1972‎)
1972 – New Ice Age Slipping Over North (The Press-Courier, September 11, 1972)
1972 – Beginning of new ice age (The Canberra Times, September 12, 1972)
1972 – Ice Age Begins A New Assault In North (The Age, September 12, 1972)
1972 – Weather To Get Colder (Montreal Gazette, ‎September 12, 1972‎)
1972 – British climate expert predicts new Ice Age (The Christian Science Monitor, September 23, 1972)
1972 – Scientist Sees Chilling Signs of New Ice Age (L.A. Times, September 24, 1972)
1972 – Science: Another Ice Age? (Time Magazine, November 13, 1972)
1972 – Geologist at Case Traces Long Winters – Sees Ice Age in 20 Years (Youngstown Vindicator, December 13, 1972)
1972 – Ice Age On Its Way, Scientist Says (Toledo Blade, December 13, 1972)
1972 – Ice Age Predicted In About 200 Years (The Portsmouth Times, December 14, 1972)
1973 – New Ice Age coming? (Popular Science, January 1973)
1973 – The Ice Age Cometh (The Saturday Review, March 24, 1973)
1973 – Believe new ice age is coming (The Bryan Times, March 31, 1973)
1973 – ‘Man-made Ice Age’ Worries Scientists (The Free Lance-Star, June 22, 1973)
1973 – Fear Of Man-made Ice Age (The Spartanburg Herald, June 28, 1973)
1973 – Possibility Of Ice Age Worries The Scientists (The Argus-Press, November 12, 1973)
1973 – Weather-watchers think another ice age may be on the way (The Christian Science Monitor, December 11, 1973)
1974 – Ominous Changes in the World’s Weather (PDF) (Fortune Magazine, February 1974)
1974 – Atmospheric Dirt: Ice Age Coming?‎ (Pittsburgh Press, February 28, 1974)
1974 – Support for theory of a cooling world (The Canberra Times, May 16, 1974)
1974 – New evidence indicates ice age here (Eugene Register-Guard, May 29, 1974)
1974 – Another Ice Age? (Time Magazine, June 24, 1974)
1974 – 2 Scientists Think ‘Little’ Ice Age Near (Hartford Courant, August 11, 1974)
1974 – Climate: A Key to the World’s Food Supply (NOAA, October, 1974)
1974 – Ice Age, worse food crisis seen (Chicago Tribune, October 30, 1974)
1974 – Imminent Arrival of the Ice (Radio Times, November 14, 1974)
1974 – Making a BBC Science Special [The Weather Machine] (New Scientist, November 14, 1974)
1974 – The Weather Machine (BBC, November 20, 1974)
1974 – New ice age ‘could be in our lifetime’ (The Canberra Times, November 22, 1974)
1974 – Believes Pollution Could Bring On Ice Age (Ludington Daily News, December 4, 1974)
1974 – Pollution Could Spur Ice Age, Nasa Says (Beaver Country Times, ‎December 4, 1974‎)
1974 – Air Pollution May Trigger Ice Age, Scientists Feel (The Telegraph, ‎December 5, 1974‎)
1974 – More Air Pollution Could Trigger Ice Age Disaster (Daily Sentinel, ‎December 5, 1974‎)
1974 – Scientists Fear Smog Could Cause Ice Age (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, December 5, 1974)
1975 – Climate Changes Called Ominous (The New York Times, January 19, 1975)
1975 – Climate Change: Chilling Possibilities (Science News, March 1, 1975)
1975 – B-r-r-r-r: New Ice Age on way soon? (Chicago Tribune, March 2, 1975)
1975 – Cooling Trends Arouse Fear That New Ice Age Coming (Eugene Register-Guard, ‎March 2, 1975‎)
1975 – Is Another Ice Age Due? Arctic Ice Expands In Last Decade (Youngstown Vindicator, ‎March 2, 1975‎)
1975 – Is Earth Headed For Another Ice Age? (Reading Eagle, March 2, 1975)
1975 – New Ice Age Dawning? Significant Shift In Climate Seen (Times Daily, ‎March 2, 1975‎)
1975 – There’s Troublesome Weather Ahead (Tri City Herald, ‎March 2, 1975‎)
1975 – Is Earth Doomed To Live Through Another Ice Age? (The Robesonian, ‎March 3, 1975‎)
1975 – The Ice Age cometh: the system that controls our climate (Chicago Tribune, April 13, 1975)
1975 – The Cooling World (Newsweek, April 28, 1975)
1975 – Cooling trend may signal coming of another Ice Age (The Sun, May 16, 1975)
1975 – Scientists Ask Why World Climate Is Changing; Major Cooling May Be Ahead (PDF) (The New York Times, May 21, 1975)
1975 – The Armadillos Are Heading South; Ice Age Coming? Chilling Thought for Humanity. (Chicago Tribune, June 2, 1975)
1975 – Summer of A New Ice Age (The Age, June 5, 1975)
1975 – In the Grip of a New Ice Age? (International Wildlife, July-August, 1975)
1975 – Experts ponder another ice age (The Spokesman-Review, September 8, 1975)
1975 – Oil Spill Could Cause New Ice Age (Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, December 11, 1975)
1976 – Deadly Harvest [Film] (Starring: Kim Cattrall, Clint Walker, 1976)
1976 – The Cooling: Has the Next Ice Age Already Begun? [Book] (Lowell Ponte, 1976)
1976 – Ice Age Predicted (Reading Eagle, January 22, 1976)
1976 – Ice Age Predicted In Century (Bangor Daily News, January 22, 1976)
1976 – It’s Going To Get Chilly About 125 Years From Now (Sarasota Herald-Tribune, January 23, 1976)
1976 – Worrisome CIA Report; Even U.S. Farms May be Hit by Cooling Trend (U.S. News & World Report, May 31, 1976)
1977 – Blizzard – What Happens if it Doesn’t Stop? [Book] (George Stone, 1977)
1977 – The Weather Conspiracy: The Coming of the New Ice Age [Book] (The Impact Team, 1977)
1977 – The Ice Age Cometh… (New York Magazine, January 31, 1977)
1977 – The Big Freeze (Time Magazine, January 31, 1977)
1977 – Has The Ice Age Cometh Again? (Calgary Herald, February 1, 1977)
1977 – Space Mirrors Proposed To Prevent Crop Freezes (Bangor Daily News, February 7, 1977)
1977 – Sunspot lull may bring on new ice age (The Christian Science Monitor, March 30, 1977)
1977 – We Will Freeze in the Dark (Capital Cities Communications Documentary, Host: Nancy Dickerson, April 12, 1977)
1978 – Ice! [Book] (Arnold Federbush, 1978)
1978 – The New Ice Age [Book] (Henry Gilfond, 1978)
1978 – Winter May Be Colder Than In Last Ice Age (Deseret News, January 2, 1978)
1978 – Current Winters Seen Colder Than In Ice Age‎ (The Telegraph, January 3, 1978)
1978 – Winter Temperatures Colder Than Last Ice Age (Eugene Register-Guard, Eugene Register-Guard, January 3, 1978)
1978 – International Team of Specialists Finds No End in Sight to 30-Year Cooling Trend in Northern Hemisphere (The New York Times, January 5, 1978)
1978 – Little Ice Age: Severe winters and cool summers ahead (Calgary Herald, January 10, 1978)
1978 – Winters Will Get Colder, ‘we’re Entering Little Ice Age’ (Daily Record, January 10, 1978)
1978 – Geologist Says Winters Getting Colder (Middlesboro Daily News, January 16, 1978)
1978 – It’s Going To Get Colder (Boca Raton News, ‎January 17, 1978‎)
1978 – Another Ice Age? (Kentucky New Era, February 12, 1978)
1978 – Another Ice Age? (Reading Eagle, ‎February 13, 1978‎)
1978 – The Coming Ice Age (In Search Of TV Show, Season 2, Episode 23, Host: Leonard Nimoy, May 1978)
1978 – An Ice Age Is Coming Weather Expert Fears (Milwaukee Sentinel, November 17, 1978)
1979 – A Choice of Catastrophes – The Disasters That Threaten Our World [Book] (Isaac Asimov, 1979)
1979 – The Sixth Winter [Book] (John R. Gribbin, 1979)
1979 – The New Ice Age Cometh (The Age, January 16, 1979)
1979 – Ice Age Building Up (Daily Record, June 5, 1979)
1979 – Large Glacial Buildup Could Mean Ice Age (Daily Chronicle, June 5, 1979)
1979 – Ice Age On Its Way (Lewiston Morning Tribune, June 7, 1979)
1979 – Get Ready to Freeze (Daily Chronicle, October 12, 1979)
1979 – New ice age almost upon us? (The Christian Science Monitor, November 14, 1979)
* Notes: A few of the news stories are duplicates in different papers with slightly different titles, this is intentional to show that these types of stories were not isolated to a certain regional paper. This list is not comprehensive since not all media publications from the time period are available in digital form.
BBC, Calgary Herald, Chicago Tribune, Fortune Magazine, Hartford Courant, International Wildlife (Magazine), Isaac Asimov, Los Angeles Times, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Montreal Gazette, Newsweek (Magazine), New Scientist (Magazine) – New York (Magazine), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Popular Science (Magazine), Radio Times (Magazine), Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Science News (Magazine), St. Petersburg Times, Time Magazine, The Age, The Blade, The Boston Globe, The Christian Science Monitor, The New York Times, The Saturday Review (Magazine), The Sydney Morning Herald, The Washington Post, U.S. News & World Report
Bangor Daily News (Maine), Beaver Country Times (Beaver, Pennsylvania), Boca Raton News (Boca Raton, Florida), Daily Chronicle (Spokane, Washington), Daily Record (Ellensburg, Washington), Deseret News (Utah), Eugene Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon), Harlan Daily Enterprise (Kentucky), Kentucky New Era (Hopkinsville, Kentucky), Lewiston Evening Journal (Lewiston, Maine), Lewiston Morning Tribune (Idaho), Ludington Daily News (Ludington, Michigan), Middlesboro Daily News (Kentucky), Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburg, Pennsylvania), Reading Eagle (Reading, Pennsylvania), Sumter Daily Item (Sumter, South Carolina), The Argus-Press (Owosso, Michigan), The Canberra Times (Canberra, Australia), The Bryan Times (Bryan, Ohio), The Daily Sentinel (Ohio), The Day (New London, Connecticut), The Free-Lance Star (Fredericksburg, Virginia), The Ledger (Florida), The Portsmouth Times (Ohio), The Press-Courier (Oxnard, California), The Robesonian (Lumberton, North Carolina), The Schenectady Gazette (Schenectady, New York), The Southeast Missourian (Missouri), The Spartanburg Herald (Spartanburg, South Carolina), The Sun (Vancouver, Canada), The Telegraph (Nashua, New Hampshire), The Windsor Star (Windsor, Canada), Times Daily (Florence, Alabama), Tri City Herald (Kennewick, Washington), Youngstown Vindicator (Youngstown, Ohio)
[Quite an effort! Thank you. .mod]

tony mcleod
Reply to  Gabro
June 12, 2017 5:39 pm

Imminent: about to happen, fast approaching. (Earth definition)
What does imminent mean on your planet?

Reply to  Gabro
June 12, 2017 6:14 pm

You’re welcome, but I can take no credit. It’s from the link which apparently is not permitted here, having twice been lost in cyberspace.

Reply to  Gabro
June 12, 2017 6:16 pm

If you took the time actually to read the global cooling alarmist literature from the 1970s, instead of just spewing lies about it for which you so gullibly have fallen, you’d learn that return of the ice was considered imminent.

Reply to  tony mcleod
June 12, 2017 4:50 pm

Please educate yourself. Those of us who were adults then well recall what today’s alarmists want to send down the Memory Hole.

Richard M
Reply to  Gabro
June 13, 2017 11:51 am
Reply to  tony mcleod
June 13, 2017 9:33 pm

I am delighted to see that you have learned the definition of “imminent”, tony. Your posts imply that you have contempt for claims that are not imminent. I therefore look forward to your next post, as it will undoubtably condemn the alarmism over a potential problem (that is, it may not be a problem, as admitted by Schellnhuber) that may occur in a few decades if real observed temperatures suddenly start to fall in the 95% CI of projections that have thus far been inaccurate*.
*A charitable term.

Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
June 12, 2017 5:14 pm

I am a co-author of a booklet entitled “A Handbook on the Rainfall Climatology of West Africa: Data for Selected Locations” by S.M.Virmani, S.J.Reddy and M.N.S.Bose as Information Bulletin No. 6, 1980 by ICRISAT, Hyderabad. This includesSenegal, Mali, Upper Volta, Niger and Chad. This bulletin includes monthly rainfall, dependable rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. For Chad 60 stations data was included.
Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
[Thank you. .mod]

Reply to  Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
June 13, 2017 2:51 pm

Where can a copy of the handbook be obtained? It seems unavailable via internet.

Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy
Reply to  1sky1
June 13, 2017 5:05 pm

Director General, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics, ICRISAT Patancheru P.O., Telangana, India 502 324
Dr. S. Jeevananda Reddy

June 12, 2017 7:12 pm

So, the global warming warriors believe the situation will be helped by making people poorer.

Reply to  SocietalNorm
June 12, 2017 7:24 pm

No, they believe THEIR financial situation will be helped by stealing more money from people who actually work for a living. They don’t give a sh*t about the globe or environment or climate, just their bank accounts.

Reply to  David Middleton
June 13, 2017 4:31 am

The only thing that makes them feel good is increasing the misery and suffering of others. Money stolen from those said others is just gravy to them.

June 12, 2017 8:26 pm

That just helps prove that climate is a smokescreen for 3rd world wealth redistribution like past runs at this UN agenda item along with North South divide and other schemes.

June 13, 2017 2:23 am

“With most of Chad being unsuitable to agriculture largely due to a lack of water… could climate change really make things any worse? It’s hot. It’s dry. It’s been hot and dry longer than there are modern weather records. Could it really get worse?”
Yes. And Yes.

June 13, 2017 4:37 am

A great paper has been recently published on Lake Chad
The disappearance of Lake Chad: history of a myth

Crispin in Waterloo
Reply to  Tibesti
June 13, 2017 8:06 pm

I highly recommend the link to the Lake Chad document, provided by Tibesti.
It’s true that the lake shrank to 1500 sq km but it jumped back to >14,000 sq km a few years later in 2013. Back when the world was warmer, 8000 years ago, it was 340,000 sq km. Irrigation only takes 10% of the inflow.

June 13, 2017 6:28 am

Obama, the most prominent SJW on Earth, said, “not thousands and millions, but billions and trillions.”

Walter Sobchak
June 14, 2017 10:51 am

I think we can do a lot to help Chad. My proposal is to move the UN to Chad. It is in the center of Africa. It’s presence will result in the investment of billions of dollars to build 4 star hotels and three star restaurants. And lost of jobs for hookers.

June 16, 2017 3:26 am

Depends if that’s long term warming or cooling. And what the physical and economic effects of that are. Not a big dea anyway, per the IPCC.

June 21, 2017 4:59 am

That was highly unexpected. Like others, maybe even I was actually expecting the islands in oceania to top the list

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