Guest Post by Willis Eschenbach
I read a curious statement on the web yesterday, and I don’t remember where. If the author wishes to claim priority, here’s your chance. The author said (paraphrasing):
If you’re looking at any given time window on an autocorrelated time series, the extreme values are more likely to be at the beginning and the end of the time window.
“Autocorrelation” is a way of measuring how likely it is that tomorrow will be like today. For example, daily mean temperatures are highly auto-correlated. If it’s below freezing today, it’s much more likely to be below freezing tomorrow than it is to be sweltering hot tomorrow, and vice-versa.
Anyhow, being a suspicious fellow, I thought “I wonder if that’s true …”. But I filed it away, thinking, I know that’s an important insight if it’s true … I just don’t know why …
Last night, I burst out laughing when I realized why it would be important if it were true … but I still didn’t know if that was the case. So today, I did the math.
The easiest way to test such a statement is to do what’s called a “Monte Carlo” analysis. You make up a large number of pseudo-random datasets which have an autocorrelation structure similar to some natural autocorrelated dataset. This highly autocorrelated pseudo-random data is often called “red noise”. Because it was handy, I used the HadCRUT global surface air temperature dataset as my autocorrelation template. Figure 1 shows a few “red noise” autocorrelated datasets in color, along with the HadCRUT data in black for comparison.
The HadCRUT3 dataset is about 2,000 months long. So I generated a very long string (two million data points) as a single continuous long red noise “pseudo-temperature” dataset. Of course, this two million point dataset is stationary, meaning that it has no trend over time, and that the standard deviation is stable over time.
Then I chopped that dataset into sequential 2,000 data-point chunks, and I looked at each 2,000-point chunk to see where the maximum and the minimum data points occurred in that 2,000 data-point chunk itself. If the minimum value was the third data point, I put down the number as “3”, and correspondingly if the maximum was in the next-to-last datapoint it would be recorded as “1999”.
Then, I made a histogram showing in total out of all of those chunks, how many of the extreme values were in the first hundred data points, the second hundred points, and so on. Figure 2 shows that result. Individual runs of a thousand vary, but the general form is always the same.
So dang, the unknown author was perfectly correct. If you take a random window on a highly autocorrelated “red noise” dataset, the extreme values (minimums and maximums) are indeed more likely, in fact twice as likely, to be at the start and the end of your window rather than anywhere in the middle.
I’m sure you can see where this is going … you know all of those claims about how eight out of the last ten years have been extremely warm? And about how we’re having extreme numbers of storms and extreme weather of all kinds?
That’s why I busted out laughing. If you say “we are living today in extreme, unprecedented times”, mathematically you are likely to be right, even if there is no trend at all, purely because the data is autocorrelated and “today” is at one end of our time window!
How hilarious is that? We are indeed living in extreme times, and we have the data to prove it!
Of course, this feeds right into the AGW alarmism, particularly because any extreme event counts as evidence of how we are living in parlous, out-of-the-ordinary times, whether hot or cold, wet or dry, flood or drought …
On a more serious level, it seems to me that this is a very important observation. Typically, we consider the odds of being in extreme times to be equal across the time window. But as Fig. 2 shows, that’s not true. As a result, we incorrectly consider the occurrence of recent extremes as evidence that the bounds of natural variation have recently been overstepped (e.g. “eight of the ten hottest years”, etc.).
This finding shows that we need to raise the threshold for what we are considering to be “recent extreme weather” … because even if there are no trends at all we are living in extreme times, so we should expect extreme weather.
Of course, this applies to all kinds of datasets. For example, currently we are at a low extreme in hurricanes … but is that low number actually anomalous when the math says that we live in extreme times, so extremes shouldn’t be a surprise?
In any case, I propose that we call this the “End Times Effect”, the tendency of extremes to cluster in recent times simply because the data is autocorrelated and “today” is at one end of our time window … and the corresponding tendency for people to look at those recent extremes and incorrectly assume that we are living in the end times when we are all doomed.
All the best,
Usual Request. If you disagree with what someone says, please have the courtesy to quote the exact words you disagree with. This avoids misunderstandings.