Single dose Malaria cure has high potential

From the University of Cape Town comes some bad news for global warming alarmists, Malaria deaths may soon be a thing of the past and their attempts to link such deaths to global warming will evaporate if this cure holds up in clinical trials. Of course it never did anyway: Another alarming climate myth bites the dust – mosquito borne malaria does NOT increase with temperature

So if this is a real cure, no more cushy grants for Michael Mann to study Malaria and AGW then, see Mann’s 1.8 million Malaria grant – ‘where do we ask for a refund’? The most amazing part is the research is only 18 months old….so I expect it will be given an even more rigorous clinical review.  (h/t to WUWT reader Jason) – Anthony

African research identifies strong candidate for possible single-dose malaria cure

28 August 2012

A compound discovered by a UCT drug discovery programme has been selected by MMV for its potent activity against multiple points in parasite’s lifecycle

Prof Kelly Chibale (centre), here with Minister Naledi Pandor Panel report: Dr Tim Wells, Prof Kelly Chibale, Minister Naledi Pandor, Dr Max Price and Dr Richard Gordon
Big news: Prof Kelly Chibale (centre), here with Minister Naledi Pandor, speaks about the compound MMV390048 that he and international collaborators hope will lead to the development of a single-dose treatment for malaria. Panel report: Dr Tim Wells, Prof Kelly Chibale, Minister Naledi Pandor, Dr Max Price and Dr Richard Gordon of the Technology Innovation Agency address the media at a press conference where they announced the development of the new compound.

A recently discovered compound – named MMV390048 – from the aminopyridine class not only has the potential to become part of a single-dose cure for all strains of malaria, but might also be able to block transmission of the parasite from person to person, according to a research collaboration involving the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), based in Switzerland, and the Drug Discovery and Development Centre (H3-D) at UCT.

This was announced at UCT today. 

On the basis of initial results it was selected by MMV for further development – making it the first compound researched on African soil to enter preclinical development in partnership with MMV.

An African solution to save lives

Naledi Pandor, the Minister of Science & Technology, said: “This is a significant victory in the battle to alleviate the burden of disease in the subcontinent. Clearly the war on this disease is not yet won, but I am excited by the role that our excellent scientists have played in this milestone in finding a potential cure for malaria and possibly preventing its transmission. Congratulations to Professor Kelly Chibale and all involved. This is evidence of the world-class science being done in South Africa and the continent, and of the power of continental and international scientific collaboration in the multidisciplinary approaches that are essential in addressing the societal challenges of our time.”

Dr Max Price, the vice-chancellor of UCT, said: “H3-D was founded at UCT in 2010 for this very purpose: to develop African expertise towards solving the health problems that beset the developing world. We trust this clinical candidate is the first of many contributions Professor Chibale and his team will be making to the advancement of international medicine.”

H3-D identified a molecule, code named MMV390048, which was selected in July 2012 by MMV’s Expert Scientific Advisory Committee for further development. The promising new compound shows potent activity against multiple points in the malaria parasite’s lifecycle. This means it not only has the potential to become part of a single-dose cure for malaria but might also be able to block transmission of the parasite from person to person.

The aminopyridine series was initially identified by Griffith University scientists in Australia as part of MMV’s extensive malaria screening campaign of around 6 million compounds. A team of scientists from H3-D, led by UCT Professor Kelly Chibale, further scrutinised and explored the antimalarial potential of the series. With parasitological, pharmacological and contract chemistry support from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Switzerland), the Centre for Drug Candidate Optimization at Monash University (Australia) and Syngene (India) respectively, the H3-D team selected the most promising compounds from the series to be optimised and retested.

In just 18 months the team had identified and developed a candidate suitable for preclinical development.

Equipping the next generation of African scientists

“We are very excited that this promising compound, researched by African scientists, has been selected by MMV for further development,” said Chibale, the founder and director of H3-D. “This is truly a proud day for African science and African scientists. Our team is hopeful that the compound will emerge from rigorous testing as an extremely effective medicine for malaria – a disease that accounts for 24% of total child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. What is more, H3-D and MMV achieved MMV390048 as a clinical candidate in record time. In the process we have developed a unique model for successful technology platforms, and generic modern pharmaceutical industry expertise and skills, to discover drugs in potentially any disease area in Africa.”

Dr Tim Wells, MMV’s Chief Scientific Officer, said: “This is a great achievement and an excellent example of the quality of research that can be fostered in Africa. We look forward to seeing more exciting compounds emerge from Kelly’s team and are proud to be collaborating with H3-D; not only is it conducting excellent science today, but it is also providing world-class training for the next generation of African scientists.”

What is so unique and exciting about MMV390048

  • It is very potent: it displayed a complete cure of animals infected with malaria parasites in a single dose given orally, and thus has the potential to cure millions of people.
  • It is active against a wide panel of resistant strains of the malaria parasite.
  • Developing the drug has made possible the training of more than 10 local scientists and cemented a strong relationship with an international partner.
  • The clinical candidate is in line to enter clinical trials in late 2013.

View a video of Prof Kelly Chibale speaking about H3-D.

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francois

Mr. Watts, the question these days is what is going on in the Arctic, Please answer. Epidemics might be of interest, but you are supposed to be interested in climate.

Hooray! Real science undoing the damage brought by Rachel Carson and her unfounded war on DDT. Silent Spring has cost enough lives.

Doug Huffman

It is ignorant to associate a hypothetical warming with increases in vector populations and/or infectiousness. The Lyme tick Ixodes lifecycle is so exquisitely tuned, across years, generations and stages, that warming and or cooling have little effect compared with daylight hours mediated diapause and growth rate function of temperature. In the paleartic, Ixodes are prevalent 10° farther north than in the neartic.

Les Johnson

Francois: you are a bit late to the party. Anthony has already addressed the issue of Arctic ice.
http://wattsupwiththat.com/2012/08/27/sea-ice-news-volume-3-number-11-part-2-other-sources-show-no-record-low/
Please pay attention.

TomT

Doug Huffman, it is not so much the lifecycle of the insect vector, but the ability of the pathogen to traverse its own temperature dependent lifecycle in that vector. For example, there are mosquitoes in the arctic, and avian malaria parasites are moving northward in bird populations that have no innate immune status against malaria. Think small pox and the American indians. The environmental temperature bottleneck for the malaria parasite is the time it takes to traverse its lifecycle in the mosquito, and increasing environmental temperature reduces this time such that the parasite can expand its range.
And Robin, mosquitoes were becoming resistant to DDT by the 1960s.

danolner

Good point – this would be like funding a number of groups to try different approaches to dealing with cancer. What a waste of money when one of them might find a cure!

Larry Geiger

Wow. That is some really great news. Especially for some folks that live in certain areas of the globe. Way cool!

Good news!

something to eliminate parasites… Hmmm… Does it come in anti-wind creep strain? I need a few gallons

davidmhoffer

francois says:
August 30, 2012 at 9:58 am
Mr. Watts, the question these days is what is going on in the Arctic, Please answer. Epidemics might be of interest, but you are supposed to be interested in climate.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Since when francois do you get to decide what Mr. Watts is supposed to be interested in?
For the record, there were two threads on arctic ice on the 27th and another thread on the 29th regarding the manner in which heat gets stored in water below the ice and how this affects ice over all. That’s not enough for you?

Kasuha

“It is active against a wide panel of resistant strains of the malaria parasite.”
So it’s not working against all of them? That may mean it’s only matter of time until the resistant ones prevail…

Gail Combs

francois says:
August 30, 2012 at 9:58 am
Mr. Watts, the question these days is what is going on in the Arctic, Please answer. Epidemics might be of interest, but you are supposed to be interested in climate.
_______________________________
Read the headline banner.
It is Anthony’s site so he gets to say what he wants to publish not you and he often publishes various items of interest.
Thank you Anthony for bringing this very important breakthrough to our attention. I an old enough to remember the polio vaccine breakthrough. I had classmates with polio some of whom died so this really strikes a resonating cord.

Steve East

We have had a cure for Malaria since 1995 which has been used by Malawi and by hundreds of thousands of people around the world … me included! The fact that mainstream medicine chooses to ignore it is a question for them to answer ,but would suggest since it is a very common substance there is no money to be made! Google Jim Humble!

Timbo

I most sincerely hope that this is as claimed. My father contracted malaria in Burma (look it up) during WWII and had recurring attacks during his life.

Jeff L

This sounds very promising, but also sounds like it is still early in the research & development cycle. Here’s to continued success with their work!

TomT

“From the University of Cape Town comes some bad news for global warming alarmists, Malaria deaths may soon be a thing of the past …”
Anthony, name someone that wishes malaria deaths.
Give us a name.
REPLY: Ah, I see. Your ploy is to put words in my mouth not said nor implied. My point is that Malaria death statistics are used to hype of ‘malaria spread/increase is caused by AGW’ and there are plenty of bogus examples of that, see the link in the first paragraph. Another alarming climate myth bites the dust – mosquito borne malaria does NOT increase with temperature
– Anthony

Navy Bob

Tom T: In the 1930’s between one in five and one in ten Siberians north of the 50th parallel between the Ob and the Yenissey Rivers had malaria, p.244, Biodiversity of Malaria in the World,
Jean Mouchet, Pierre Carnevale, Sylvie Manguin.
It was pretty cold there long before evil humans had warmed the globe.

DaveF

Steve East 10:34am:
I accepted your invitation to google Jim Humble. It seems he markets, as a cure for practically everything, a mixture of Sodium Chlorite and citrus juice which is banned in Canada, and which has been described by USA and Australian authorities as industrial bleach. There are others on this site far more chemically knowledgeable than I am who could tell you why this is more likely to be a scam than anything else.

GlynnMhor

“… transmission of the parasite from person to person.”?????
The parasite is transmitted from person to mosquito, and then from mosquito to person. Except for blood transfusions from infected persons to the uninfected, it seems unlikely that any effort is necessary to block person to person transmission.

TomT

“From the University of Cape Town comes some bad news for global warming alarmists, Malaria deaths may soon be a thing of the past and their attempts to link such deaths to global warming will evaporate if this cure holds up in clinical trials. ”
OK, then name an “alarmist” that will view it as bad news that they can now longer link malarial deaths to global warming.
Name just one.
I suspect they all would view the eradication of malaria as a GOOD THING.

TomT

““… transmission of the parasite from person to person.”
It was short-hand, an oversight omission of the word “mosquito”. What they are referring to is the ability of the drug to kill the stages of the parasite in human blood that transmit to mosquitoes.

TomT,
The same alarmist crowd that mistakenly believes that the current Arctic sea ice cycle is bad, and therefore cheers the decline in ice are the same reprobates that love malaria deaths. They believe it validates their belief system, and they could not care less about humanity.

Doug Huffman

An empirical quantitative framework for the seasonal population dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus by S.E Randolph, R. M. Green, A. N. Hoodless, M. F. Peacey in International Journal for Parasitology 32 (2002) 979-989. References include in particular ‘Diapause and biological rhythms in ticks’ by Belozerov, V. N. in Physiology of Ticks, Obenchain, F.D. and Galun, R. eds (Pergamon)

Steve Jones

Kasuha says:
August 30, 2012 at 10:26 am
“It is active against a wide panel of resistant strains of the malaria parasite.”
So it’s not working against all of them? That may mean it’s only matter of time until the resistant ones prevail…
==========================================
Let’s not bother then, is that what you are saying?

TomT

Navy Bob, from that same page 244, “This pandemic was particularly severe in the more temperate regions, although the cold regions were not spared.”
And what if those cold regions become more temperate?

Heystoopidone

Hmmm, let me check that claim with the world’s best central authority on the subject of endemic malaria, called the “World Health Organization”.
Link: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/country-profiles/en/index.html

TomT

Smokey, name someone that is cheering the decline in ice. My reading of the ice blogs is that they are alarmed, and that they believe it a tragedy.

You just can’t keep good Africans down….can ya?
Good news!

TomT-I have a close friend in public health and Africa was her beat for years. We have had many conversations about the lives she believes the DDT ban has cost in Africa.
And Rachel Carson actually comes up fairly frequently in my tiptoe through the footnotes investigations of what is really going on in the natural sciences, the social sciences, and education. You would be surprised at what gets confessed based on an assumption that only fellow converts will ever read the report or document. Then you follow those footnotes . . .

davidmhoffer

TomT
You are really cluttering up this thread with a series of comments that seem designed to prove that you are being willfuly obtuse. While I do not presume to speak for others, you have made your point with me and no further evidence seems necessary. Point accepted.

Steve Jones

TomT says:
August 30, 2012 at 11:20 am
‘And what if those cold regions become more temperate?’
Is your chain of reasoning as follows:
Cold regions could become temperate due to global warming.
Global warming is caused by man-made CO2.
Ban/drastically reduce CO2 or people in the temperate regions will start dying of malaria.
If it is, I think you have unwittingly demonstrated precisely why Mr Watts published this thread.

Peter

TomT says:
August 30, 2012 at 10:20 am
And Robin, mosquitoes were becoming resistant to DDT by the 1960s.
I have heard this from other commentors on other sites, but never seen a link to proof. Have always wondered if it is brought up to derail the accusation that the ban killed more people than the world wars. I always accepted the party line till the internet led me to evidence that the whole thing was political. Became very angry that human life was considered of such little value that mere accusations and suppostitions were enough to justify the ban. Much like what is happening with GW,
If this new medicine is effective it will be a godsend, but will not absolve those people who so dismissed the human consequences as a sad nessessity.

Les Johnson

TomT: As pointed out by others, malaria epidemics occured inside the arctic circle, ergo, there is no temperature blockage to the spread.
Your:
And Robin, mosquitoes were becoming resistant to DDT by the 1960s.
Not quite correct. Some insects were becoming DDT averse. In malaria prevention, this should be quite effcetive. Paint a weak solution of DDT on the inside of housing, and the mosquito either dies after landing (which they do after feeding), or the DDT averse mosquito never enters. In either case, the spread of malaria is stopped.
As for your other contention, that “alarmists” would welcome a cure? Well, “alarmists” like Greenpeace, WWF etc, all oppose the use of DDT, even in small amounts painted on walls.
Several million people MORE die per year now, due to the DDT bans, than before the bans.
Draw your own conclusions.

Jimmy Haigh

Once they have cracked malaria, can they have a go at dengue fever please? I’ve just got over a dose of that.

TomT

Anthony, your previous post on malaria temperature and temperature is based upon a study performed with a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelli. This parasite needs cooler temperatures for transmission, lower temperatures than for the human malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The rodent malaria model is great for many studies on human malaria, but transmission temperature is not one of them. To extrapolate to global warming, as you have done, is premature without a strong dose of caveat.

gringojay

Seems likely to me this specific MMV’s amino-pyridine conformation’s amino acid residue(s) docks at the malaria protozoa’s homologue of the potassium (K) voltage channel to (unlike the more researched 4-aminopyridine) foster excessive K+ outflow. When a cell has unblocked outbound K+ it leads to apoptosis (death) by internally inducing capsase cascades & internally breaking DNA. It bears elaborating that some K+ channel pore forming genes have been identified.
( for orientation see 2008 “Critical role of a K + channel in Plasmodium berghei transmission revealed by targeted gene disruption” …. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/17/6398.full)
Since effective MMV is a compound it probably has a molecular activator of the protein kinase C iso-zyme family (PKC). To be pro-apoptotic some specific variant iso-zyme of PKC must be engaged by a molecular component that will, via “g” protein signaling, increase outbound K+ – since there are variant iso-zymes of PKC which would otherwise inhibit apoptosis.

TomT,
Michael Mann sees pretty happy about it.

JohnB

BTW, DDT was never banned globally, though that is a common misconception in so-called “skeptical” circles:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DDT
(emphasis mine)
“Criticism of restrictions on DDT use:
Critics claim that restricting DDT in vector control have caused unnecessary deaths due to malaria. Estimates range from hundreds of thousands,[115] to millions. Robert Gwadz of the National Institutes of Health said in 2007, “The ban on DDT may have killed 20 million children.”[116] These arguments have been dismissed as “outrageous” by former WHO scientist Socrates Litsios. May Berenbaum, University of Illinois entomologist, says, “to blame environmentalists who oppose DDT for more deaths than Hitler is worse than irresponsible.”[85] Investigative journalist Adam Sarvana and others characterize this notion as a “myth” promoted principally by Roger Bate of the pro-DDT advocacy group Africa Fighting Malaria (AFM).[117][118]
Criticisms of a DDT “ban” often specifically reference the 1972 US ban (with the erroneous implication that this constituted a worldwide ban and prohibited use of DDT in vector control). Reference is often made to Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring even though she never pushed for a ban on DDT. John Quiggin and Tim Lambert wrote, “the most striking feature of the claim against Carson is the ease with which it can be refuted.”[119] Carson actually devoted a page of her book to considering the relationship between DDT and malaria, warning of the evolution of DDT resistance in mosquitoes and concluding:
It is more sensible in some cases to take a small amount of damage in preference to having none for a time but paying for it in the long run by losing the very means of fighting [is the advice given in Holland by Dr Briejer in his capacity as director of the Plant Protection Service]. Practical advice should be “Spray as little as you possibly can” rather than “Spray to the limit of your capacity.”
.

A cure for malaria sounds good, but I’d rather not contract it in the first place. Last time I was in malaria country was forty years ago. We took chloroquine tablets on a weekly basis. They were as big as buttons and if you didn’t eat a big meal before taking it, you were going to have stomach cramps and diarrhea for a few days. Never contracted malaria.

dvunkannon

@Smokey – No one “cheers the decline” in Arctic sea ice. Go read the comments on Nevens Arctic Sea Ice blog. Everyone is horrified. Non-skeptics anticipate large changes to weather patterns as a result of less ice in the summer, a disrupted jet stream and more blocking highs for example. That is climate change becoming weather becoming drought stricken crops and higher food prices.
If you think the current year-over-year changes in sea ice are a ‘cycle’, what is the period of this cycle? What are the highs and lows? What is the underlying physical process? What is the evidence? How big are the error bars? Decadal ice loss is accelerating, not decelerating.
From my perspective, the folks that could “care less about humanity” are the posters here that say “I wouldn’t mind it being warmer where I live” without thinking about their privileged position and the billions of people who don’t live where they live. It’s a smug, smarmy answer to a global concern. Apres moi, c’est deluge, baby, but I’m driving my SUV. As if ignorant provincialism was going to save us from World Government.

TomT

Steve Jones, the study on malaria transmission and temperature was conducted with the rodent malaria parasite model, Plasmodium yoelii. It is well known in the malaria research community that this parasite requires lower temperatures for transmission, such that malaria researchers thought it odd that it would be used as a model for temperature-dependent studies. The question was not addressed with the proper experimental system. To use Plasmodium yoelii on global warming commentary such as Anthony’s and yours is even more odd.

g3ellis

A co-worker and I caught this on Drudge this morning via Nat. Geo. This is Nobel worthy work in the extreme. I am crossing my fingers hoping that the rest of the clinical trials pass with flying colors.

TomT

Les Johnson, yes, malaria outbreaks occur in the north. But why are they “outbreaks” and not “endemic”? In Papua, New Guinea, why is malaria transmission less in the highlands? Same with Africa. Isn’t it a valid hypothesis to pose, and study with research, if change in climate will affect malarial endemicity?

dvunkannon,
Mann’s attitude toward declining sea ice is reminiscent of Phil Jones’ attitude when he heard of the death of the great John Daly. Plenty of others are cheering the [entirely natural] decline in Arctic ice. You can say they are “horrified”, but the truth is, they’re thrilled. It is the one [coincidental] prediction out of a raft of failed predictions that they can brag about.
What they cannot do is show that the Arctic is doing anything that is not completely normal and natural. And of course, there is no joy in the steadily increasing Antarctic ice.
Arctic ice cover today looks substantial compared with Arctic ice as recently as 1987. The alarmist crowd is running around in circles like Chicken Little, waving their arms and shouting, “The ice is disappearing!!”
But as we see, this is a natural and frequent occurrence. And in addition, no one is saying what the problem is. So let’s start with you. What’s the problem?

davidmhoffer

dvunkannon;
From my perspective, the folks that could “care less about humanity” are the posters here that say “I wouldn’t mind it being warmer where I live” without thinking about their privileged position and the billions of people who don’t live where they live. It’s a smug, smarmy answer to a global concern.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Perhaps the people who make such comments are simply better educated on the issues than you appear to be, and their comments aren’t smug and smarmy at all.
Anyone who delves into the physics of warming, by ANY driver, not just CO2, understands that the bulk of the warming is exhibited at night time lows, in winter, at high latitudes. Very little is exhibited by day time highs, in summer, at low latitudes. So, since most warming would happen where it is most beneficial, and very little where it would be actually harmful, those who wish for more warming where they live are wishing for fewer deaths from extreme cold (which outweigh deaths from extreme heat by hundreds to one or more), longer growing seasons, increased amounts of arable land, higher per hectare production of food, decreased heating fuel costs, improved engine efficiency, and many other very important benefits that would help sustain a larger and healthier human population world wise.
Now who is the smug, smarmy, uniformed one?

Phil.

Les Johnson says:
August 30, 2012 at 11:40 am
TomT: As pointed out by others, malaria epidemics occured inside the arctic circle, ergo, there is no temperature blockage to the spread.
Your:
And Robin, mosquitoes were becoming resistant to DDT by the 1960s.
Not quite correct. Some insects were becoming DDT averse. In malaria prevention, this should be quite effcetive. Paint a weak solution of DDT on the inside of housing, and the mosquito either dies after landing (which they do after feeding), or the DDT averse mosquito never enters. In either case, the spread of malaria is stopped.

Which was never banned and still continues. What was banned was the widespread use of DDT in agriculture which had the side-effect of rapidly introducing immunity to DDT. Since there were many effective insecticides that could be used in agriculture it was more effective to restrict DDT for use in indoor vector control and thereby maintain its effectiveness in that role.

Jimbo

Why is it that as the hockey stick went up malaria went down? 😉

Abstract
Climate change and the global malaria recession
…………………First, widespread claims that rising mean temperatures have already led to increases in worldwide malaria morbidity and mortality are largely at odds with observed decreasing global trends in both its endemicity and geographic extent. Second, the proposed future effects of rising temperatures on endemicity are at least one order of magnitude smaller than changes observed since about 1900 and up to two orders of magnitude smaller than those that can be achieved by the effective scale-up of key control measures. Predictions of an intensification of malaria in a warmer world, based on extrapolated empirical relationships or biological mechanisms, must be set against a context of a century of warming that has seen marked global declines in the disease and a substantial weakening of the global correlation between malaria endemicity and climate.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v465/n7296/full/nature09098.html

As far as Finland is concerned malaria is just a thing of the past. 😉

“A total of 1,803 persons died of malaria in the western parts of Finland and in the south-western archipelago during the years 1751–1773 [23]. Haartman [21] reports severe epidemics in the region of Turku in the years 1774–1777 and the physician F.W. Radloff mentioned that malaria was very common in the Aland Islands in 1795 [39].”
Huldén et al – 2005 Malaria Journal
http://www.malariajournal.com/content/4/1/19

Oh and this:

“…..sometimes common throughout Europe as far north as the Baltic and northern Russia….In fact, the most catastrophic epidemic on record anywhere in the world occurred in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, with a peak incidence of 13 million cases per year, and 600,000 deaths. Transmission was high in many parts of Siberia, and there were 30,000 cases and 10,000 deaths due to falciparum infection (the most deadly malaria parasite) in Archangel, close to the Arctic circle. Malaria persisted in many parts of Europe until the advent of DDT.”
Professor Paul Reiter, Institut Pasteur
http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200506/ldselect/ldeconaf/12/12we21.htm

Because of the self-serving Rachel Carson and her ilk, this beneficial product was withdrawn from the market. There are no reports of any ill effects from the wallpaper, and it prevented malaria infections.

TomT, Malaria was endemic in both temperate and sub-arctic areas of the north until relatively recently, as in less than two hundred years ago. The change was not temperature: it was the combination of proper water treatment and the draining of stagnant standing water in proximity to human habitation.
Africa’s water supply is generally still untreated and filled with all sorts of nasties, which is why most of the continent is still a hotbed of otherwise easily cured diseases that have passed to history in the west.

Les Johnson

TomT: your
Les Johnson, yes, malaria outbreaks occur in the north. But why are they “outbreaks” and not “endemic”?
They were endemic. The worst was in Siberia, in the 20s.
From Dr. Paul Reiter:
In fact, the most catastrophic epidemic on record anywhere in the world occurred in the Soviet Union in the 1920s, with a peak incidence of 13 million cases per year, and 600,000 deaths. Transmission was high in many parts of Siberia, and there were 30,000 cases and 10,000 deaths due to falciparum infection (the most deadly malaria parasite) in Archangel, close to the Arctic circle. Malaria persisted in many parts of Europe until the advent of DDT. One of the last malarious countries in Europe was Holland: the WHO finally declared it malaria-free in 1970.