by Roy W. Spencer, Ph. D.
This is an update to my previous posts [here and here on WUWT] describing a new technique for estimating the average amount of urban heat island (UHI) warming accompanying an increase in population density. The analysis is based upon 4x per day temperature observations in the NOAA International Surface Hourly (ISH) dataset, and on 1 km population density data for the year 2000.
I’m providing a couple of charts with new results, below. The first chart shows the global yearly average warming-vs-population density increase from each year from 2000 to 2009. They all show clear evidence of UHI warming, even for small population density increases at very low population density. A population density of only 100 persons per sq. km exhibits average warming of about 0.8 deg. C compared to a nearby unpopulated temperature monitoring location.
In this analysis, the number of independent temperature monitoring stations having at least 1 neighboring station with a lower population density within 150 km of it, increased from 2,183 in 2000, to 4,290 in 2009…an increase by a factor of 2 in ten years. The number of all resulting station pairs increased from 9,832 in 2000 to 30,761 in 2009, an increase of 3X.
The next chart shows how the results for the U.S. differ from non-US stations. In order to beat down the noise for the US-only results, I included all ten years (2000 thru 2009) in the analysis. The US results are obviously different from the non-US stations, with much less warming with an increase in population density, and even evidence of an actual slight cooling for the lowest population categories.
The cooling signal appeared in 5 of the 10 years, not all of them, a fact I am mentioning just in case someone asks whether it existed in all 10 years. I don’t know the reason for this, but I suspect that a little thought from Anthony Watts, Joe D’Aleo & others will help figure it out.
John Christy has agreed to co-author a paper on this new technique, since he has some experience publishing in this area of research (UHI & land use change effects on thermometer data) than me. We have not yet decided what journal to submit to.