Polar amplification is the greater temperature increases in the Arctic compared to the earth as a whole as a result of the effect of feedbacks and other processes. It is not observed in the Antarctic, largely because the Southern Ocean acts as a heat sink and the lack of seasonal snow cover. It is common to see it stated that “Climate models generally predict amplified warming in polar regions”, e.g. Doran et al.
Now with this paper, blowing the surface data out for AGW effects, what are they going to do?
Via the Hockey Schtick:
New paper finds only 1 weather station in the Arctic with warming that can’t be explained by natural variation
A paper published today in Geophysical Research Letters examines surface air temperature trends in the Eurasian Arctic region and finds “only 17 out of the 109 considered stations have trends which cannot be explained as arising from intrinsic [natural] climate fluctuations” and that “Out of those 17, only one station exhibits a warming trend which is significant against all three null models [models of natural climate change without human forcing].” Climate alarmists claim that the Arctic is “the canary in the coal mine” and should show the strongest evidence of a human fingerprint on climate change, yet these observations in the Arctic show that only 1 out of 109 weather stations showed a warming trend that was not explained by the natural variations in the 3 null climate models.
Note a “null model” assumes the “null hypothesis” that climate change is natural and not forced by man-made CO2 or other alleged human influences.
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 39, L23705, 5 PP., 2012
- I am using a novel method to test the significance of temperature trends
- In the Eurasian Arctic region only 17 stations show a significant trend
- I find that in Siberia the trend signal has not yet emerged
British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, UK
This study investigates the statistical significance of the trends of station temperature time series from the European Climate Assessment & Data archive poleward of 60°N. The trends are identified by different methods and their significance is assessed by three different null models of climate noise. All stations show a warming trend but only 17 out of the 109 considered stations have trends which cannot be explained as arising from intrinsic [natural] climate fluctuations when tested against any of the three null models. Out of those 17, only one station exhibits a warming trend which is significant against all three null models. The stations with significant warming trends are located mainly in Scandinavia and Iceland.
 The Arctic has experienced some of the most dramatic environmental changes over the last few decades which includes the decline of land and sea ice, and the thawing of permafrost soil. These effects are thought to be caused by global warming and have potentially global implications. For instance, the thawing of permafrost soil represents a potential tipping point in the Earth system and could lead to the sudden release of methane which would accelerate the release of greenhouse gas emissions and thus global warming.
 Whilst the changes in the Arctic must be a concern, it is important to place them in context because the Arctic exhibits large natural climate variability on many time scales [Polyakov et al., 2003] which can potentially be misinterpreted as apparent climate trends. For instance, natural fluctuations on a daily time scale associated with weather systems can cause fluctuations on much longer time scales [Feldstein, 2000; Czaja et al., 2003; Franzke, 2009]. This effect is called climate noise. Even very simple stationary stochastic processes can create apparent trends over rather long periods of time; so-called stochastic trends [Cryer and Chan, 2008; Cowpertwait and Metcalfe, 2009; Barbosa, 2011; Fatichi et al., 2009; Franzke, 2010, 2012]. On the other hand, a so-called deterministic trend arises from external factors like greenhouse gas emissions.
 Specifically, here I will ask whether the observed temperature trends in the Eurasian Arctic region are outside of the expected range of stochastic trends generated with three different null models of the natural climate background variability. Choosing the appropriate null model is crucial for the statistical testing of trends in order not to wrongly accept a trend as deterministic when it is actually a stochastic trend [Franzke, 2010, 2012].
 There are two paradigmatic null models for representing climate variability: short-range dependent (SRD) and long-range dependent (LRD) models [Robinson, 2003; Franzke, 2010, 2012; Franzke et al., 2012]. In short, SRD models are the most used models in climate research and represent the initial decay of the autocorrelation function very well. For instance, a first order autoregressive process (AR(1)) has an exponential decay of the autocorrelation function. LRD models represent the low-frequency spectrum very well, have a pole at zero frequency and a hyperbolic decay of the autocorrelation function. One definition of a LRD process is that the integral over its autocorrelation function is infinite while a SRD process has always an integrable autocorrelation function [Robinson, 2003; Franzke et al., 2012]. In general, both stochastic processes can generate stochastic trends but stochastic trends of LRD models can last for much longer than stochastic trends of SRD models. This shows that the rate of decay of the autocorrelation function has a strong impact on the length of stochastic trends. In addition to these two paradigmatic models we will also use a non-parametric method to generate surrogates which exactly conserve the autocorrelation function of the observed time series. Figure 1 displays the autocorrelation function for one of the used stations and the corresponding autocorrelation functions of the above three models. It has to be noted that there are a myriad of nonlinear stochastic models which can potentially be used to represent the background climate variability and the significance estimates will depend on the used null model. However, I have chosen the three above models because two of them represent paradigmatic models for representing the correlation structure and one conserves exactly the empirical correlation structure.
Figure 2. Map of stations: Magnitude of the observed trend in °C per decade.
 Figure 2 displays the location of all stations and the colour coding indicates the magnitude and sign of the temperature trends. The first thing to note is that all stations experience a warming trend over their respective observational periods. The largest trends (more than 0.4°C per decade) are in central Scandinavia and Svalbard. Most of Siberia experienced warming trends of about 0.2–0.3°C per decade.
 After finding evidence for warming trends we have now to assess their statistical significance; do the magnitudes of the observed trends lie already outside of the expected range of natural climate variability? The above three significance tests reveal that 17 of the 109 stations are significant against an AR(1) null model (Figure 3a), 3 stations are significant against a ARFIMA null model (Figure 3b), and 8 stations are significant against a climate noise null hypothesis using phase scrambling surrogates (Figure 3c). All these trends are significant at the 97.5% confidence level. This shows that while the Eurasian Arctic region shows a widespread warming trend, only about 15% of the stations are significant against any of the three significance tests.
Figure 3. Stations with a statistically significant trend against (a) AR(1), (b) ARFIMA, (c) phase scrambling null model and (d) stations with a significant trend: blue: weak evidence, green: moderate evidence and red: strong evidence.