Of Doric columns and climate change

By Christopher Monckton of Brenchley

I am designing a cottage orné in the high Classical manner, to be built on our little patch of the Scottish Highlands. The Doric Order, the earliest of the three orders of Grecian architecture that have been so influential throughout the Western world, has always impressed me by its elegant solidity. If there is an architectural embodiment of the virtue of honesty, it is the Doric.

Here is the principal front of our little cottage.

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A Doric building is a formalization in stone of what must once have been a much-loved timber building. The tree-trunks became stone columns; the vertical emphasis of the bark was represented by the 20 vertical channels or flutes; the stone triglyphs in the frieze above the colonnade represent purlin-ends; the acroteria are stylizations of the palmette. My own take on the acroterion is art-deco.

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Does the thickness of the tree-trunk plus all branches therefrom remain constant? Is that why tree-trunks become narrower as they ascend? Leonardo da Vinci considered this question in one of his notebooks, in the age when science was more about enquiring than proclaiming, learning than preaching.

He carefully drew a formalized tree as a heuristic, ensuring that the combined thickness at every bifurcation remained constant. The result looks uncommonly like a real tree.

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Be that as it may, the Greeks, like the Persians, Hindus, Arabs and Egyptians before them and the Romans after them, were enthusiastic mathematicians. Dr. Hugh Plommer, the eminent scholar who taught me Classical architecture at Cambridge, used to theorize that the gently convex curvature of the stylobate in a Doric temple, designed to overcome the optical illusion that a colonnaded temple sags in the middle, was a shallow parabola.

He also considered that the echinus, the cushion on which the abacus and, above it, the entablature rests, was a hyperbola. But where, I asked him, was the third conic section, the ellipse?

Dr. Plommer left that question unanswered. He liked to set a hare running and watch his students gallop after it under their own steam. I galloped to the faculty library and rootled about among the Classical journals.

I found what I had expected to find. There were two schools of thought about the extent to which the architects of noble temples such as the Parthenon, the archetype of the Doric, had consciously deployed the conic sections and other elements of mathematics in their designs.

Most scholars thought that there was so much variation from one temple to another, and that the correspondence between the actual curves as carved by the stonemasons and the pure theoretical forms was so approximate, that it was mere coincidence.

However, a substantial and not uninfluential minority, which I shall dub the Plommerian school in honor of the great man, maintained that the architects of the Doric Order had deliberately adopted the conic sections in their designs. For one thing, it was necessary for them to brief the stonemasons on the curvature they desired. Using established curve-generating functions would have made that easier.

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In the learned literature the debate on this charming but arcane question had raged – or, rather, delightfully maundered on – for years, without ever becoming so vulgar as to reach a conclusion in one direction or another.

By now you will be gagging to know where the missing ellipse was in Doric buildings. My answer, well supported in the literature, is that the architects of ancient Greece achieved the startling combination of diminution (tapering towards the top) and entasis (bulging on the way up) that is the most instantly recognizable and distinctive feature of the Doric column by constructing it as a truncated semi-ellipse.

The minor axis of the ellipse, so the Plommerian theory goes, corresponded to the diameter of the column at its foot. The semi-major axis, of unit length, extended from the center of the foot all the way to the geison (cornice). The resultant semi-ellipse was truncated approximately 0.618, or (1 + √5) / 2, units above the stylobate (the stone floor).

The distinctive profile of the Doric column, then, was an ellipse whose semi-major axis stood in the golden ratio to the height of the column.

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I once explained the Plommerian theory to the parish priest of Paestum, which has some fine Doric temples. Startled, he gave me a postcard and asked me to use my architectural drawing program to overlay semi-ellipses on a couple of the columns. He was fascinated to see how close the fit was.

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What, you may wonder, has any of this got to do with climate change? The answer is this. The polite debate in the Classical journals about the origin of the Doric column’s form is in one crucial respect similar to the viciously angry debate about global warming.

Both debates are about matters that are in essence quantitative, not qualitative. Yet it is the propensity of academics, followed by politicians and environmental lobbyists and even short term loans UK companies, to argue qualitatively about climate change (and, for that matter, about Doric columns) when they should really get out into the field and do some measurements, and then get back to the pub and do the math.

By now it ought to be obvious to all who are not already blinded by politics, prejudice or passion that there is no definitive method of determining the sensitivity of the climate to carbon dioxide. The extravagant guesses of the global warming profiteers are just that – guesses – and no more. Guesswork is not a sound basis for policy-making.

So we are going to have to wait and see. This is where the measurements come in.

History will crown Anthony Watts as one of the great heroes who defended the freedom to do science rationally against the political forces that would have flung us into a new Dark Age by their Marxian insistence that science should conform to the party line (excitingly rebranded “consensus”) rather than vice versa.

The Climate Reference Nursing Homes Network  – has only been in existence for a short time. Already, though, its results are strongly suggesting that much of the imagined “global warming” of the past 60 years may have been not just imagined but imaginary.

Before we spend any more trillions on making putative “global warming” go away, it would surely be wise to find out whether and to what extent it is occurring. At present, the measurement uncertainty in the global instrumental temperature record is a twentieth of a Celsius degree.

Given that the climate debate is about minuscule fractions of a degree, that measurement uncertainty is too large for comfort. It is one reason why we are able to say that over the past couple of decades the measured global warming is statistically indistinguishable from zero.

To make matters worse, there is now overwhelming evidence that climatologists all over the world have been tampering with temperature data, sea-level data, paleoclimate data, etc., etc.. The tampering always seems to be in the direction of making it appear, artificially, that there is more of a problem than there is.

So we now need to extend the Climate Reference Network from the United States to the rest of the world. The cost would be a small fraction of the vast sums being squandered on windmills, solar panels and suchlike fooleries.

As far as possible, the Climate Reference Network should be independently supervised by experts in instrumentation and in statistics. Climatologists should be allowed nowhere near it: they have proven themselves untrustworthy. Their role will be to receive the results from their betters with appropriate humility and gratitude.

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The same applies to sea level, where the NOAA has recently had to confirm what the Envisat satellite had long and clearly showed: sea level is rising at a rate equivalent to two or three inches per century, or less than a quarter of the rate reported by the climatologists who have been tampering inappropriately with the raw data from the laser-altimetry and gravitational-anomaly satellites.

While we’re about it, we should also establish a new network of bathytelemetry buoys to take repeated, worldwide measurements of the acid-base balance of the oceans. Are the oceans becoming less alkaline or not? I suspect the answer is “not a lot”, but we shall not know unless and until someone stops giving money to the 50-odd climate models that now cost us a purposeless fortune and redirects it towards actual measurement.

So it is with the Doric columns. When I retire, in about half a century, I shall bumble around Greece, Asia Minor and the Italian littoral taking careful measurements of the circumference of each drum of a typical Doric column. Then I shall do some curve-fitting to see how close the results come to the shape of an ellipse.

There will be uncertainties, of course: the stones have been around for a long time, and they are well worn by the weather, the Turks and the restorers. At the end of it, though, I shall have a clearer answer to the ellipse question than anything now available in the scientific literature.

In the meantime, I have asked Anthony to post up a link to a PowerPoint presentation that shows my design for our little cottage in Rannoch. Here is its East Front, which faces the long view down Loch Rannoch to the snowy hills.

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It looks big, but it is small (just 26 ft high). It looks expensive, but, like the original Doric temple, its ornamentation, including the columns, will be of timber, carved by a trainee craftsman as his apprentice-piece. It is a simple building and will not cost much.

The profile of each column is a truncated semi-ellipse. The apprentice will have no difficulty in reproducing it accurately.

Finally, the wreaths in the metopes are taken from the Choragic Monument of Thrasyllus on the flank of the Acropolis in Athens. The Turks blew it up in 1820, but it had been much admired and sketched by then, and its influence on architecture – especially in the United States – is out of all proportion to its size.

I am a devoted admirer of the United States, so I wanted to incorporate in my cottage one detail from the Capitol in Washington DC. Next time you visit the Capitol, take your binoculars into the Rotunda and train them on the frieze high above you. There you will see the Thrasyllean wreaths. If you visit us in Rannoch, you will see them there too, but you will not need binoculars.

Let me know what you think of the Plommerian theory, and of my designs for the cottage in Rannoch. If climatologists were half as systematic in their approach to their subject as the architects of ancient Greece, there would be no climate scare.

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Footnote: In case one or two of the architectural terms are unfamiliar, here is a glossary of the ornamentation characteristic of the Doric order.

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See the plans here in this PowerPoint: doric (pptx)

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Philip

Beautiful.

Ron Richey

🙂

John V. Wright

“History will crown Anthony Watts as one of the great heroes who defended the freedom to do science rationally against the political forces that would have flung us into a new Dark Age by their Marxian insistence that science should conform to the party line (excitingly rebranded “consensus”) rather than vice versa”.
Well said, Christopher. And thank you for this column – indeed, all the columns. Eh up lad, you can’t get this over at Joe Romm’s place…

Beta Blocker

” ….. In the learned literature the debate on this charming but arcane question had raged – or, rather, delightfully maundered on – for years, without ever becoming so vulgar as to reach a conclusion in one direction or another. ……..”
More succinctly, the heat of this debate had reached the maundering minimum.

Christopher, you write “By now it ought to be obvious to all who are not already blinded by politics, prejudice or passion that there is no definitive method of determining the sensitivity of the climate to carbon dioxide”
There is a half-arsed way of trying to calculate climate sensitivity from the measured data, which I invented. Beenstock et al have used advanced statistical techniques to see whether there is a CO2 signal in any modern temperature/time data. They failed to find a CO2 signal. I have eyeballed all the data I can find, and I can find no CO2 signal.
If we are allowed to conclude that there is no CO2 signal that can be measured against the background noise of natural variations, then we can conclude that the climate sensitivity of CO2 must be indistinguishable from zero.
What do you think?

mojo

Nothing about Phi?

RockyRoad

I’ll add Lord Christopher Monckton to that list of illumanaries that have dealt death blows to overblown and incidious Marxian science some fondly refer to as “Anthropogenic Global Warming”.
It would only be fitting.

Vincent

Fascinating. Thanks Lord Monckton.

Math geek.

((1 + √5) / 2) – 1 = 0.618, just sayin’

michael hart

Like global-warming, I think it might look a little out-of-place on Rannoch Moor, Christopher. But there’s space there for a bit of character.

Hoi Polloi

Who carez….

Clearly, the Climate Reference Network “strongly suggest[s[ that much of the imagined “global warming” of the past 60 years may have been not just imagined but imaginary”. But, Christopher, if you had actually taken the time to, say, compare the Climate Reference Network to its older counterpart, the Historical Climatological Network (USHCN), you may have reached a slightly different conclusion:
http://rankexploits.com/musings/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Screen-Shot-2013-01-16-at-10.37.51-AM.png

Great column!!!!! Oh,the stone one is nice also.
Alfred

AleaJactaEst

Wonderful. And what pray, will Your Lordship be doing when the Loons in the Scottish Gubberment do when they litter your front garden with bird mincers? One hopes you’ll take a cannon to them.

Coalsoffire

By Christopher Monckton of Brenchley
Be that as it may, the Greeks, like the Persians, Hindus, Arabs and Egyptians before them and the Romans after them, were enthusiastic mathematicians. Dr. Hugh Plommer, the eminent scholar who taught me Classical architecture at Cambridge, used to theorize that the gently convex curvature of the stylobate in a Doric temple, designed to overcome the optical illusion that a colonnaded temple sags in the middle, was a shallow parabola.

My Lord,
Sitting on the floor in an old open cylinder building in summer of 2164 B.C.E. at midnight, one can measure the full moon on a most low height over the southern horizon all 19 years.
http://www.volker-doormann.org/images/stone_s_shot0.jpg
This gives the positions of Rahu and Ketu, who are ‘eating the moon’.
There are people in India, who have such cylinder building to measure the moon cycle of 19 years:
http://www.volker-doormann.org/images/ring_india2.jpg
It seems that people have measured the moon’s position for a longer time near Stonehenge in a similar simple precise open cylinder:
http://www.volker-doormann.org/images/stone_shadow_spring.jpg
There was fun, dance, and music the whole night as Diodor has told.
http://www.volker-doormann.org/images/scthans1.jpg
Thank you for good basics.
Best
V.

Doug Proctor

Cool!
On trees: wrt tapering trunks while branches grow, maintaining a total cross-sectional area constant.
Struck me that the cube-square rule for surface area vs volume (mass), if the trunks taper as the branches grow, the weight/unit area stays constant above the start of branches, but results in a top-heavy tree (even if mass radially distributed equally). A co-created significant strengthening of the lower trunk would be required as the tree grew, especially as foliage would add mass.
I would EXPECT a reduced mass/h relationship so that less strain would be added to the lowest area. Plus some strengthening mechanism. The heartwood, however, may be lighter than the main, living wood, so a lightening mechanism may be occurring in the lower section to reduce the total weight on the lowest trunk.
As to the Turks blowing it up: didn’t the Turks store their explosives there and an accident/enemy action blow it up? That was Lord Byron’s war, wasn’t it?+

Austin

Who knew that Pythagoreans could become Cartesians?

george e. smith

“””””…..Jim Cripwell says:
January 24, 2013 at 9:56 am
Christopher, you write “By now it ought to be obvious to all who are not already blinded by politics, prejudice or passion that there is no definitive method of determining the sensitivity of the climate to carbon dioxide”
There is a half-arsed way of trying to calculate climate sensitivity from the measured data, which I invented. Beenstock et al have used advanced statistical techniques to see whether there is a CO2 signal in any modern temperature/time data. They failed to find a CO2 signal. I have eyeballed all the data I can find, and I can find no CO2 signal…..”””””
Well Jim, you make the same mistake that they all make.
“Advanced statistical methods” can only recover a “signal” when they are applied to data which actually contains a signal.
You can apply the methods, to the numbers you find on a couple of randomly chosen pages in your local telephone directory. The statistical answers are equally valid for almost any set of numbers; they just don’t mean anything if the set of numbers are actually not valid data from some real system. Since virtually all real experimental data gathering systems are sampled data systems, the numbers one gets are not valid samples unless they conform to the Nyquist sampling theorem,
So statisticate to your hearts content; but that will not make a signal where there is none.
You only need to undersample a band limited signal by a factor of two (one sample per full cycle of the band limit frequency) to have the corrupted reconstructed spectrum fold back to zero frequency, and the zero frequency signal is the average value of that signal.
So even if you have no need to reconstruct the original continuous signal from the samples, you can’t get the average correct if you undersample by just a factor of two.
Climate “data” undersample the earth surface by orders of magnitude; not by factors of two.
Even the time variable is undersampled by the commonly employed daily min and max sampling method, which would only be valid when the time signal is purely sinusoidal containing no higher frequency overtone components, than one cycle per 24 hours.
That’s why GISSTemp or HADCrut are records only of GISSTemp and HADCrut, and are not related to the earth’s surface Temperature.

oldseadog

Nice paper; but I will be interested to see what the planning department in Perth have to say when you apply for planning permission. And will it be up to standard regarding insulation?

ConTrari

Oh no…please don’t mix a Doric temple with a Palladian villa, doesn’t work, y’see.
But then, there are other examples just as bad; as a 14-year old I saw Blenheim castle for the first time, and decided that it was a monster, camouflaged rather poorly as French Classicism. I kept a good distance.

Dodgy Geezer

Um… I don’t suppose anyone wants to see pictures of the shed I put up at the bottom of my garden? It combines elements of Modernism and ‘Neues Bauen’….

AnonyMoose

“Does the thickness of the tree-trunk plus all branches therefrom remain constant? Is that why tree-trunks become narrower as they ascend?”
Do the sap-carrying capillaries under the bark every split in two? If not, then there is a good reason to tend to keep the same total circumference all the way out to the leaves. The leaves are sucking moisture out of the roots, and if the pathway between rarely splits, then we’re seeing the effect of a cylinder of suction straws which has some straws bent off along branches occasionally.

RockyRoad

But Zeke, if you had actually taken the time to, say, show us a 60-year comparison in your graph rather than just 8, you may have reached a slightly different conclusion.

Robert Austin

Christopher Monckton, as always an interesting read. Perhaps it is the classical education combined with the inquiring and skeptic mind. You will have to make a sacrifice to Pallas Athene to consecrate your cottage when completed. Amongst other virtues, she was the goddess of wisdom. I suppose it will be alleged by the usual suspects that your “temple” will be paid for by the contributions of “big oil”.

Your Lordship’s eloquence brings a tear to my eye and reminds me of Richard Feynman’s Lost Lecture. In it, Feynman derived Newton’s model of planetary motion using conic sections, the mathematics of Infinitesimals not yet being fully developed by either himself, or Liebnitz.
Your proposed cottage is a delight: “As above, so below…”

george e. smith

Tut tut Lord Christopher; I am surprised by your lack of completeness.
Well as to the conic sections of course. You have completely expunged two very important ones; well three actually.
If your intersecting plane passes through the exact point where the two halves of the cone meet, then you will get that singular point itself as one special conic section; but only if the plane intersects the cones at no other point.
If your parabola “plane” happens to also intersect the cones at that singular point, then you will get a single straight line that is tangential to the cones, and presumably is a degenerate parabola having zero polar radius of curvature.
I will leave it to your Lordship to explain why that parabola now seems to be on both sides of the center, as that is far above my pay grade.
Then if your hyperbola plane also passes through the singular central point, you will get two straight lines at an angle, which is a degenerate hyperbola that is identical to its asymptotes.
That case will also make it apparent that your hyperbola plane does not have to be restricted to be parallel to the axis of the cones.
Any angle with the axis, that is less than the cone half angle, must eventually cut both halves of the cone, and give a hyperbola.
But I will cut you some slack Lord Monckton, as you are no doubt thinking about more important issues; like maybe figuring out how you are going to drop in and take over some future meeting of the Security Council of the United Nations.
In any case, your house is looking rather nice, and deserving of a classicist tenant such as yourself.

DavidG

More English aristocrats moving into the highlands! After all the crimes of the English in Scotland! He should be ashamed to announce this ludicrous exploitation. Bring back the Crofters!

Michael D Smith

While I can appreciate your interest in math and classical architecture, I can’t think of a design that would look more out of place in a natural setting. I’d go for more of an alpine architecture with other mathematical features (bifurcated tree trunks as structural elements would be interesting). Something built into the hills and hardly noticeable would be an even higher level concept, but could still employ extremely cool math elements. (CNC milled helical cedar columns with an exponentially varying diameter and helix, with underlying doric formula elements driving the other equations, for example). Doric / modern hybrid concepts could make unique interior elements. You could have exhibits inside explaining how all of the math ties together with the ancient stuff…
Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication. Doric is simple but not functional.

Ray

Give this man a crown.
From mathematical puzzles to skydiving… Isn’t there anything your can’t do Lord Monckton?

Dolphinhead

Zeke thats the shortest 60 years I’ve ever seen

Dr Burns

“At present, the measurement uncertainty in the global instrumental temperature record is a twentieth of a Celsius degree.”
You have got to be kidding ?

Alan A.

Wow. This gentleman can think. And write.

tgmccoy

Al Sharpton or Lord Monckton? guess who I’d trust to teach me about the realty of Global/Climate/Anthropomorphic/Wierd/Extreme what ever…
Either Al (Gore or Sharpton) stand and deliver?

Yet another entertaining and educational read. Thank you, Sir.
…and to you Anthony, for hosting.

“When I retire, in about half a century…” I like this. 🙂
And your little cottage looks grand!

Bloke down the pub

One ought to have a pied a terre. I started by looking up cottages but found cottaging by mistake. Turns out to be something entirely different.

Arno Arrak

I quote: ‘ Before we spend any more trillions on making putative “global warming” go away, it would surely be wise to find out whether and to what extent it is occurring….’
Agreed. Already done by Ferenc Miskolczi. It’s extent is zero. In 2010 he used NOAA database of weather balloon observations to measure the absorption of long-wave radiation by the atmosphere and discovered that it had been constant for 61 years. At the same time, the amount of carbon dioxide in air increased by 21.6 percent. Greenhouse theory tells us that absorption of long-wave radiation by carbon dioxide is the energy source of global warming. But Miskolczi has proved that the added carbon dioxide had no effect whatsoever on the absorption of long-wave radiation by the atmosphere. This is an empirical observation, not derived from any theory, and it overrides any predictions from theory. Greenhouse theory is incapable of explaining it but Miskolczi shows that its cause is negative water vapor feedback. With it, the greenhouse effect is dead. And the theory of anthropogenic global warming likewise is dead. While Miskolczi is the first to use this particular database to study long-wave absorption by the atmosphere, the same analysis could have been performed even before IPCC got started. That is because in 1988, the year IPCC was established, it already contained forty years worth of observations. That would have been enough for the same analysis that Miskolczi performed in 2010. It would have proved that anthropogenic global warming does not exist and that there was no justification for starting up the IPCC. Miskolczi has been vilified and called a crackpot by true believers in the blogosphere, to the extent that opponents of global warming have been afraid to cite his work. That avoidance of Miskolczi should stop because it proves without a doubt that the so-called global warming “science” is nothing but a pseudoscience.

You Know this is so much easier to see at Paestum. Is there anywhere else in the Ancient World you can get so close to miniature replicas of the Parthenon? For those who have not been, there are 3 temples there and it was literally forgotten after a malerial outbreak left it abandoned. Covered over in weeds for centuries and worth heading south if you ever find yourself on the Amalfi Coast.
The reasond for the Global Warming scare become much clearer after reading what Ulrich Beck and Anthony Gibbens wrote in the book Reflexive Modernization published by the Stanford Press in 1994. It also fits perfectly with all the Ehrlichs ecological catastrophe hyping then and now. http://www.invisibleserfscollar.com/we-are-at-the-historical-stage-for-the-emergence-of-one-particular-new-kind-of-person/
It also fits with the National Science Foundation’s new math and science curricula of the 90s that provoked the math wars. And therir Cyberlearning and USGCRP pushes now.
There’s a lot of consistency once we locate the political theories this is all founded upon.
I still remember my son ordering pizza just outside the gates to Paestum for lunch right after the cafe opened. They brought the wood for the pizza oven into the cafe in a wheel barrow. Ahh, and the Buffalo Mozzarella in that region.

Give it a rest Zeke . After the use of so many scare tactics and overemphasis by so many of your fellow warmists and lukewarmests , with no rebuttal from you or any other agw proponent , your voice and your opinion mean very little . Chrisopher Monckton , you are always interesting .

M Seward

Its 7 am in Tasmania as I read this article, my first sips of espresso coffee ( black with one), the brain has now had a run around the block with the dogs on a leash and I am ready for the day.
I knew Doric columns were tapered in some way, but elliptical! Cooool! Oh those Greeks were good. How is it that our universities, 2500 years later, now turn out such intellectual dross as the AGW alarmists who just cannot do measurement and maths properly? How in the %#@& is that possible? Are we still even a civilisation?
Thankyou Christopher.

“Does the thickness of the tree-trunk plus all branches therefrom remain constant?”
As far as I recall, your lordship, Constructal theory confirms that this is the case. Constructal theory, which I think may be the only physical law covering both the inanimate and animate, might well also show (okay I am speculating somewhat) that evolution is a slow-motion flow system maximising energy capture into animation. If so, opting to shrink energy usage would doom those who try to extinction, while others who don’t follow this path will inherit the future.

viejecita

This is great fun.
I am going to send the link to all I can think about.
¡ Enhorabuena M’ Lord !

RockyRoad,
It is rather difficult to show 60 years of CRN data when the network has only been around since 2004. However, if you extend the HCN line backwards from the graph I posted you get this:
http://rankexploits.com/musings/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Screen-Shot-2013-01-16-at-10.40.46-AM.png

kakatoa

Loved the Leonardo reference! It just so happens I have spent a lot of hours during the last few week trimming fruit trees. As I still have the trimmings in various piles I think it might be kind of interesting to see how the rings change at different heights up the truck, major limbs and branches.
I am very glad that it’s been a bit warmer, and dry, in my neck of the woods recently. The microclimates in my area are really tricky for the local weatherman to predict future conditions due to all the elevation changes in such short distances. The rather odd heat exchange that happens when the wind and pressures are just right to bring the colder air down from the mountains must drive them nuts.
I 100% in favor of better measurement capabilities and hopefully better models to predict when I have to address (adapt to) a few temperature related tipping points. Blowing out 2″ winter lines at a pressure tank due to low temperatures for many hours when the the wind is from the north or east is a tipping point I would rather not repeat.
I am glad that someone better at math then me will be incorporating the heat flows in my microclimate. Actually, it’s rather amazing that the weatherman can predict a few days out at all given the variables they have to deal with:
http://phys.org/news/2013-01-x-factor-weatherman-wrong.html
I hope your local building codes don’t infringe to much on your building design.

What, you may wonder, has any of this got to do with climate change?
My lord.
according to a legend Dorus (forebear of Dorians one the two most politically important ancient Greek ethnic groups) and Magnes (forebear of Magnetes, a prosperous ethnic group of Thessaly) were cousins and grandchildren of Zeus.
What, you may wonder, has any of this got to do with climate change?
Well, my calculations show that the climate natural change is most likely result of the interaction between the solar and Earth’s magneticvariability:
http://www.vukcevic.talktalk.net/EarthNV.htm

bw

The author has also produced an excellent summary of the science related the the AGW issue
http://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/200807/monckton.cfm

Myron Mesecke

Columns. That Art History class I was forced to take in college actually came in handy.