The planet Mercury has a comet like tail

Via Eurekalert: Mercury found to have comet-like appearance by satellites looking at sun

This is an image of Mercury's tail obtained from combining a full day of data from a camera aboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The reflected sunlight off the planet's surface results in a type of over-exposure that causes Mercury to appear much larger than its actual size. The tail-like structure extending anti-sunward from the planet is visible over several days and spans an angular size exceeding that of a full Moon in the night sky. Credit: NASA/STEREO

ROME and BOSTON – Scientists from Boston University’s Center for Space Physics reported today that NASA satellites designed to view the escaping atmosphere of the Sun have also recorded evidence of gas escaping from the planet Mercury. The scientists reported these findings at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) meeting in Rome, Italy this week.

The STEREO mission has two spacecraft, in orbits just inside and outside the earth’s orbit around the Sun, and thus increasingly ahead and behind the earth (STEREO, or Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory, is the third mission in NASA’s Solar Terrestrial Probes program). This configuration offers multi-directional views of the electrons and ions that make up the escaping solar wind. On occasion, the planet Mercury appears in the field of view of one or both satellites. In addition to its appearance as a bright disk of reflected sunlight, a “tail” of emission can be seen in some of the images. The announcement of this new method of observing Mercury and possible explanations for the nature of the gases that make up this tail were presented today at the EPSC.

It has been known that Mercury exhibits comet-like features, with a coma of tenuous gas surrounding the planet and a very long tail extending in the anti-sunward direction. From Earth, observations of both of these features can be done using light from sodium gas sputtered off the surface of Mercury. The Sun’s radiation pressure then pushes many of the sodium atoms in the anti-solar direction creating a tail that extends many hundreds of times the physical size of Mercury. “We have observed this extended sodium tail to great distances using our telescope at the McDonald Observatory in Texas,” Boston University graduate student Carl Schmidt explained, “and now the tail can also be seen from satellites near Earth.” Much closer to Mercury, several smaller tails composed of other gases, both neutral and ionized, were found by NASA’s MESSENGER satellite as it flew by Mercury in its long approach to entering into a stable orbit there.

This is a schematic representation of the viewing geometry that allows the STEREO camera systems to make observations of Mercury's tail. Credit: Boston University Center for Space Physics

“What makes the STEREO detections so interesting is that the brightness levels seem to be too strong to be from sodium,” commented Schmidt, lead author on the paper presented at EPSC. Of special interest is the way the tail was spotted in the STEREO data by Ian Musgrave, a medical researcher in Australia who has a strong interest in astronomy. Viewing the on-line database of STEREO images and movies, Dr. Musgrave recognized the tail and sent news of it to Boston asking the BU team to compare it with their observations.

“A joint study was started and now we have found several cases, with detections by both STEREO satellites,” explained Jeffrey Baumgartner, senior research associate in the Center for Space Physics at Boston University. Baumgartner designed of the optical instruments that discovered the exceptionally long sodium tail.

This image shows examples of the very long tails of sodium escaping from Mercury. These images were taken at the Boston University Station at the McDonald Observatory, run by the University of Texas in Austin. Reference: Orbital Effects on Mercury's Escaping Sodium Exosphere, Carl Schmidt, Jody Wilson, Jeffrey Baumgardner and Michael Mendillo, ICARUS, 2010. Credit: Boston University Center for Space Physics

The current focus of the team is to sort out all of the possibilities for the gases that make up the tail. Christopher Davis, a researcher at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Chilton, England and member of the STEREO team responsible for the camera systems on both satellites, is working closely with the Boston University group on refining brightness calibration methods and determining the precise wavelengths of light that would get through the cameras’ filters.

“The combination of our ground-based data with the new STEREO data is an exciting way to learn as much as possible about the sources and fates of gases escaping from Mercury,” said Michael Mendillo, professor of astronomy at Boston University and director of the Imaging Science Lab where the work is being done. “This is precisely the type of research that makes for a terrific Ph.D. dissertation,” Mendillo added.

###

Research in Boston University’s Center for Space Physics involves interdisciplinary projects between members of the Astronomy Department in the College of Arts and Sciences and faculty, staff and students in the College of Engineering. Research areas include observational and theoretical studies in atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, planetary and cometary atmospheres, solar and heliospheric physics, and space weather.

Founded in 1839, Boston University is an internationally recognized private research university with more than 30,000 students participating in undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. As Boston University’s largest academic division, the College and Graduate School of Arts & Sciences is the heart of the BU experience, creating an extensive global reach that enhances the University’s reputation for teaching and research.

IMAGES

Figure 1: Image shows examples of the very long tails of sodium escaping from Mercury. These images were taken at the Boston University Station at the McDonald Observatory, run by the University of Texas in Austin. Reference: Orbital Effects on Mercury’s Escaping Sodium Exosphere, Carl Schmidt, Jody Wilson, Jeffrey Baumgardner and Michael Mendillo, ICARUS, 2010.

Figure 2: A schematic representation of the viewing geometry that allows the STEREO camera systems to make observations of Mercury’s tail.

Figure 3: An image of Mercury’s tail obtained from combining a full day of data from a camera aboard the STEREO-A spacecraft. The reflected sunlight off the planet’s surface results in a type of over-exposure that causes Mercury to appear much larger than its actual size. The tail-like structure extending anti-sunward from the planet is visible over several days and spans an angular size exceeding that of a full Moon in the night sky.

Figure 4: A movie showing a 4 day period when Mercury tail was visible from the STEREO A spacecraft on 6-9 February 2008.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Boston University Center For Space Physics

Research in Boston University’s Center for Space Physics involves interdisciplinary projects between members of the Astronomy Department in the College of Arts and Sciences and faculty, staff and students in the College of Engineering. Research areas include observational and theoretical studies in atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, planetary and cometary atmospheres, solar and heliospheric physics, and space weather.

Founded in 1839, Boston University is an internationally recognized institution of higher education and research. With more than 30,000 students, it is the fourth largest independent university in the United States. It contains 17 colleges and schools along with a number of multi-disciplinary centers and institutes which are central to the university’s research and teaching mission

European Planetary Science Congress (Epsc) 2010

EPSC 2010 is organised by Europlanet, a Research Infrastructure funded under the European Commission’s Framework 7 Programme, in association with the European Geosciences Union, with the support of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) and the INAF Institute of Physics of Interplanetary Science (IFSI) in Rome. EPSC is the major meeting in Europe for planetary scientists. The 2010 programme comprises 48 sessions and workshops covering a wide range of planetary topics.

EPSC 2010 is taking place at the Angelicum Center – Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome, Italy from Sunday 19 September to Friday 24 September 2010.

For further details, see the meeting website: http://meetings.copernicus.org/epsc2010/

Europlanet Research Infrastructure (RI)

Europlanet Research RI is a major (€6 million) programme co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission.

Europlanet RI brings together the European planetary science community through a range of Networking Activities, aimed at fostering a culture of cooperation in the field of planetary sciences, Transnational Access Activities, providing European researchers with access to a range of laboratory and field site facilities tailored to the needs of planetary research, as well as on-line access to the available planetary science data, information and software tools, through the Integrated and Distributed Information Service. These programmes are underpinned by Joint Research Activities, which are developing and improving the facilities, models, software tools and services offered by Europlanet.

Europlanet Project website: http://www.europlanet-ri.eu/

Europlanet Outreach/Media website: http://www.europlanet-eu.org/

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53 thoughts on “The planet Mercury has a comet like tail

  1. Not a great surprise. Mercury’s gravity is very low, solar wind highly concentrated, magnetic field is about 1% of the Earth’s, any gas molecules floating around would be eventually blown away by the strong solar wind.

  2. “It has been known that Mercury exhibits comet-like features, with a coma of tenuous gas surrounding the planet and a very long tail extending in the anti-sunward direction.”
    It’s great that STEREO gives us a new and different view of what we’ve already observed. I couldn’t quite make out from the article if STEREO was going to be the only way to determine the composition of the tail or if it was only going to be able to determine if specific elements were present in the tail; specifics being limited by the filters that are on board STEREO.
    Betcha’ a quarter I find out the answer in comments from those “in the know” around here.

  3. Oh my!, don’t tell it to the EU guys!
    Wanna provoke an armageddon here, at WUWT, between Dr.S and the Thunderbolts people? 🙂
    Plasma anyone?

  4. vukcevic says:
    September 22, 2010 at 11:39 am
    Not a great surprise. Mercury’s gravity is very low, solar wind highly concentrated, magnetic field is about 1% of the Earth’s, any gas molecules floating around would be eventually blown away by the strong solar wind.
    Yes, but what I find quite interesting is the sodium: Why so much?
    One is given to believe that the major constituent element of that planet is sodium.
    Rather unusual, I think …

  5. Yep, when your planet’s magnetic field dies, you are cooked, At the distance from the sun that Mercury is, the solar wind has got to be fierce. And for how long has the sun been stripping Mercury of all it’s atmosphere …
    Same thing has been happening to further away planets from the sun, Mars and Venus, only Earth remains with a strong magnetosphere.
    The most interesting future question is what happens when the magnetic poles reverse on Earth. Will the Earth’s field go to zero, stay at zero, stay at zero for how long? Lots of really important unknowns. Stand by …

  6. Actually, give Mercury’s surface has many millions of freeze/bake cycles behind it, one might reasonably have expected any volatiles to have departed ages ago.
    Could solar irradiation be generating volatiles by interaction with the Mercury surface?

  7. Hey!
    That’s my son (she said as she puffed up with pride;0)
    Credited under the images: Dr. Jody Wilson
    Hmmmmm… So he really was staying awake up on that mountain in Texas.

  8. Does that mean that the surface is ablating and that the planet will completely evaporate some day (before the sun eventual expansion phase swallows it)?
    As it looses mass will its distance from the sun increase?

  9. tarpon says
    September 22, 2010 at 12:48 pm (Edit)
    Yep, when your planet’s magnetic field dies, you are cooked,

    Mercury has a comparitively strong magnetosphere for its size.
    “Despite its small size and slow 59-day-long rotation, Mercury has a significant, and apparently global, magnetic field. According to measurements taken by Mariner 10, it is about 1.1% as strong as the Earth’s. The magnetic field strength at the Mercurian equator is about 300 nT.[62][63] Like that of Earth, Mercury’s magnetic field is dipolar.[61] Unlike Earth, however, Mercury’s poles are nearly aligned with the planet’s spin axis.[64] Measurements from both the Mariner 10 and MESSENGER space probes have indicated that the strength and shape of the magnetic field are stable.[64]”

  10. “This is precisely the type of research that makes for a terrific Ph.D. dissertation,” Mendillo added.
    Butbutbut…. were’s the AGW tie-in!?
    Seriously, it is awesome that some people are doing science for the sake of science.
    “Of special interest is the way the tail was spotted in the STEREO data by Ian Musgrave, a medical researcher in Australia who has a strong interest in astronomy. Viewing the on-line database of STEREO images and movies, Dr. Musgrave recognized the tail and sent news of it to Boston asking the BU team to compare it with their observations.”

  11. justin says:
    September 22, 2010 at 1:49 pm
    Enneagram, that site is a joke, right?
    It is absolutely NOT, what is a joke it is the obsolete idea of a “pebbles universe”, the “flinstones universe”, and worst the ghosts inhabited universe of dark matter, blackholes, and “spaguetti universes” of entangled strings, which only post normal and progressives can conceive.

  12. Just an ordinary plasma tail as seen on Mars and Venus. Nothing unusual about it.
    “The ionosphere and upper atmosphere of Mars and Venus is subject to strong solar wind and solar EUV/FUV forcing. While the latter results in the formation of a planetary ionosphere, the solar wind delivers energy and momentum for the ionospheric plasma outflow and escape. MEX and VEX measurements show that the solar wind interaction leads to a comet-like acceleration and escape of ionospheric ions, with low velocities near the planets, gradually picking up speed at high altitudes and in the planetary plasma tail.”
    http://www.ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp/~alfven5/abstracts-pdf/alfven5o_Lundin_2.pdf

  13. OT, but why should the planets names remain old roman/greek god names? I recommend Mercury be renamed “Crematoria” since it gets to 400C during its long day. I know, I’m plagiarizing that name from a science fiction, but it would be a cool name for the nearest planet to the sun.

  14. another natural wonder:
    New Aurora Pictures by Thio Bubek: Sky Shows Sparked by Sun Eruption
    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/photogalleries/100921-aurora-borealis-northern-lights-norway-new-pictures/#/aurora-borealis-cme-september-clouds_26305_600x450.jpg
    “Natural climate cycles” has 36% of small vote so far:
    Poll: Global warming, global weirding, or what?
    http://voices.washingtonpost.com/capitalweathergang/2010/09/global_warming_global_weirding.html

  15. The tail is neat but expected. What is more interesting is the striations in the background of the top overexposed B&W picture. Are those wave striations just a artifact of the CCD or does the sun send such precise waves in the solar wind. You can see such buffeting on SOHO’s site but I never assumed non-random. If the waves were merely random you would expect over the time of the lengthy exposure they would have been smooth out to a smooth grey, but, there they are. The dark areas do look like defects (variance) in the CCD. Interesting.

  16. Step in the right direction, how can we ever get to study the interactive effects of the planetary magnetospheres and their extended tails, as the more outer planets pass through the increased ion content down stream on the solar wind. If we don’t investigate the dynamics as chances to do so present themselves.
    Apparently silicon is light enough, with a low enough boiling point to be driven off of the surface by the heat and forces of the solar wind. So the result will be a gradual concentration of elements and compounds with higher boiling points, and densities.
    This is one of the principals practiced by alchemy in action, the gradual distillation enhancement of the heavier compounds, by repeating heat/cool cycles gradually removing the lighter more volatile compounds. [fractional distillation same as oil refining]
    The sun is just pre-processing the next slug of nuclear fuel it intends to ingest, like fire charring trees ahead of the main combustion front.

  17. Cathy: September 22, 2010 at 12:52 pm
    Hey!
    That’s my son (she said as she puffed up with pride;0)
    Credited under the images: Dr. Jody Wilson
    Hmmmmm… So he really was staying awake up on that mountain in Texas.

    Congratulations Cathy! My daughter is also a physicist (geo variety), and I too was “puffed up with pride” the first time I saw her name in print. Feels good. 🙂
    /dr.bill

  18. John Phillips says:
    September 22, 2010 at 2:48 pm
    What’s cool about the nearest planet to the Sun?
    DaveE

  19. “Of special interest is the way the tail was spotted in the STEREO data by Ian Musgrave, a medical researcher in Australia who has a strong interest in astronomy. Viewing the on-line database of STEREO images and movies, Dr. Musgrave recognized the tail and sent news of it to Boston asking the BU team to compare it with their observations.”
    Ian Musgrave and I have been working together with the STEREO images for a few years now in an effort to discover new comets. Ian is a firm believer in Global Warming, so we have not communicated with each other lately. However, I was very surprized to hear about his involvement with Mercury, since nothing about this was mentioned on his blog.
    http://astroblogger.blogspot.com/
    Once again, Ian has done something special with the STEREO images and discovered something new.
    Another application of the STEREO images was to monitor the brightness of the Earth in an effort track changes of the albedo over time.
    Ian is a firm believer in Global Warming, so we

  20. “A salty little planet baked in the goodness of the Sun”
    Like a snack food. “It’s crunchy too, with extra folds of flavor”.
    Let’s save Crematoria for a real he11hole. Like Venus.

  21. Wow,
    My Jaguar XK-140 had sodium cooled exhaust valves; now we find out that mercury does too. So how come there is any of this stuff left on Mercury after all that time ?

  22. Richard Holle says:
    September 22, 2010 at 3:46 pm
    My guess is that the tail comprises either iron or silicon vapor and the sodium line is an instrumental anomaly. I would think that sodium is too reactive to be in unbound form. Just a WAG.

  23. Andrew30 says:
    September 22, 2010 at 1:08 pm
    Does that mean that the surface is ablating and that the planet will completely evaporate some day (before the sun eventual expansion phase swallows it)?
    As it looses mass will its distance from the sun increase?

    Pulled in, or blown away …
    I will think the former first, followed then by maybe the latter, depending upon how much mass remains.

  24. Wow, this is cool!
    Now I’m wondering if Earth has a “tail” as well. I was wondering the same thing! I’m sure from some perspective there must be some kind of comma from Terra. 🙂

  25. Dieter says:
    September 22, 2010 at 5:14 pm
    Now I’m wondering if Earth has a “tail” as well.
    ———————————————–
    Yes, the Earth has a plasm…*COUGH*…a “magnetotail” 😉

  26. check your six says:
    September 22, 2010 at 7:14 pm
    Ever stood under a tree with large leaves when it was misting? The leaves accumulate the fine mist until it forms a drop and falls off, the shift in weight as the drop leaves the leaf causes a bounce in the unloading spring of the leaf stem, so you can watch the leaves flip around slightly as they go through the “unload the drip” cycle.
    WUWT recently had an article about solar wind magnetosphere tail space quakes,
    http://wattsupwiththat.com/2010/07/27/spacequakes/
    that are the same as the leaf flips, as the Earth’s magnetosphere drips off clumps of accumulated solar wind plasma that is more than it can hold.

  27. I need to check my archived STEREO images…
    The STEREO camera does saturate with bright objects and will show a “tail” in the up and down directions on the camera image. This has me curious about the direction of this Mercury atmospheric “tail” and if it is not only a camera artifact…
    Since Ian and I have both studied thousands of STEREO images for years now, I am rather surprized that I had not noticed this also.
    My subject of study was to measure the albedo of the planets imaged with the STEREO spacecraft and this is something I would have noticed.
    Since Ian has not talked about this on his blog, I am starting to sniff something that does not smell right…
    Look at the image at the top of this posting. Is the tail of Mercury not also aligned with a dark streak just below it? Why?

  28. @Cathy
    I am sure your Son has done an outstanding job and you should be proud of him.
    Sorry, but there is something very curious about this news report…

  29. The thunderbolts site is just word salad, with a sprinkling of megalomania on top. If I had a nickel for every innumerate, uneducated fool that thought he had The One True Theory Of Astrophysics (despite the fact he couldn’t pass Physics 101), I’d hardly need a job. Meh.

  30. Justin
    Shakes head in disbelief!!!
    When is a gas not a gas, when it is a plasma and plasma hos its own physics.
    When observations do not match theory, what do you do. Well the warmists have it off pat, they make it up. (hide the decline)
    Another branch of science does the same but being ahead in the game, they do it cosmically.

  31. The tail as with comets will always face away from the sun. The orbit of mercury around the sun is 58.65 days.
    (creating a tail that extends many hundreds of times the physical size of Mercury)
    The diameter of mercury is 4879km.
    Using 3 as a substitute for many, we have a tail of 300 x 4879km or 1,463,700km. Now if the ‘gas’ is being accelerated to the speed of the solar wind of 333km/sec, it will take 4395 secs to create the tail. If these ‘gas’ particles travel at the speed of light 299792km/sec it would take appx 5 seconds to create the tail. Mercury rotates 4 arc seconds per second so this tail will be curved depending on the particle velocity to somewhere between 5 arc seconds and 5 degrees.
    So my question is, how fast are these particles going and why can’t we see the curve (or can we). Or have I just messed up the maths completely.

  32. Phil M2 wrote:
    <The orbit of mercury around the sun is 58.65 days."
    Actually, the revolution period of Mercury around the Sun is 87.97 days.

  33. I was able to locate a video that I created from STEREO B images between 1/15/09 and 1/28/09 as the planets Mercury and Venus passed through the field of view of the H1 camera. This is a large video and best viewed in HD format on YouTube.

    This was produced from the raw STEREO HI images and shows all the flaws of this camera, to include saturation from bright objects. The planets are labled and reference stars are marked with red circles.
    Sorry, but I could not find any indication of Mercury’s tail.

  34. I suspect all planets have a long ‘magneospheric’ plasma tail. Venus certainly does and it is around 45 million kilometres long. During inferior conjunction with Earth, the electrically charged plasma tail interacts with our own magnetosphere.
    Perhaps the surface of Mars is not ablating, rather the planet focuses the solar wind (plasma) emerging from coronal holes and pushes it our behind Mars in a long tail. If this is true, and sodium is the main constituent of the tail, then it must be coming from the surface of the sun.

  35. As you can observe in the following infrared picture of Andromeda, all Suns are connected in a rosary of plasma, a long Birkeland’s current where each of them is a z-pinch generated star. It resembles that all of them attached, like with an umbilical chord, to its central star, which in turn is connected to the cosmic grid.
    http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap100219.html
    A recent image, from Paranal telescope showing the same in NGC 1365 galaxy:
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/09/100922082336.htm

  36. Richard Holle says:
    September 22, 2010 at 3:46 pm
    And its actual interaction with the planets. We MUST overcome the obsolete and silly view of a dead cosmos we were taught at the school: That of a “sky” filled with round stones called planets. The pseudo philosophers of the “illustration”, in its desire of achieving a secularized society, neglected and still neglect any cosmology which could endanger their progressive “weltanschauung”, which could involve any “ethos” behind. This really drives them crazy. And this ideology is what is and it has been behind “global warming”, “ecology”, green movements, etc.
    We must not call ourselves to error, there is a battle here, an armageddon, and WUWT has been occupying the right ditch, as well as other good hearted people.

  37. Tenuc says:
    September 23, 2010 at 7:45 am
    If it is not an artifact of STEREO, then your explanation seems to be the best hypothesis. Sodium is element number eleven, so it would be an early fusion product originating in the suns core. That is, if sodium lines really mean sodium is there (or is the sodium from the glass observation lenses or diffraction gratings?). Remember, most scientific error is produced by the observer becoming entangled with the thing being observed. Besides, can we really take as rote anything the space agencies or scientific-government elitists say anymore?

  38. Cathy: September 22, 2010 at 12:52 pm
    Hey!
    That’s my son (she said as she puffed up with pride;0)
    Credited under the images: Dr. Jody Wilson
    Hmmmmm… So he really was staying awake up on that mountain in Texas.
    dr.bill says:September 22, 2010 at 3:51 pm
    Congratulations Cathy! My daughter is also a physicist (geo variety), and I too was “puffed up with pride” the first time I saw her name in print. Feels good. 🙂
    /dr.bill

    Congrats. Always a good thing when children succeed.
    But one question……What’s their take on AGW?

  39. Tenuc says:
    September 23, 2010 at 7:45 am
    That is absolutely right and it would be silly not to think of the interaction between plasma and the atmosphere of planets. It is obvious, as an example, that the water cycle on earth it is not totally closed but open, of course regulated by the “buffer zone”(a zone where positive and negative charges are kept at relative equilibrium-as in a coke’s pH 3,5-, an electric “double layer”), in which protons, hydrogen nucleii, actually react with ozone in the upper atmosphere to form water.
    Jokingly we may argue, in the present case, whether all this sodium from mercury is God’s geo-engineering for neutralizing that malefic CO2 acidifying the oceans.
    BTW, we are watching a possible answer to the unsolved question of “whence did it come the salt of the oceans?”: This answer involves to recent witnessed facts: The 2008 eruption of Chaiten volcano, emitting fumes of HCl (hydrochloric acid) and now sodium from Mercury, that results in NaCl, our known common salt of our oceans.

  40. I’d like to put a question to floor of bloggers here who know infinately more about things of this nature than i: Where does earth stand on the ‘bleeding atmosphere’ question. Can we say we definately (for wheel-Ali G) that we are not doing the same at any point in our movement around the sun??? Any thoughts???

  41. OT: Extremes are bad, that is why equilibrium at buffer zones exist, then we arrive at the conclusion that those progressive ones are truly extremely acidic, reaching in some cases a net free acid content. 🙂

  42. johnnythelowery says:
    September 23, 2010 at 8:51 am
    “…Where does earth stand on the ‘bleeding atmosphere’ question…”
    Good question, but the answer is complicated.
    Earth has high gravity and an atmosphere which is too cool at the top to lose much air to thermal energy (Jeans escape) – it also has a strong magnetic field which deflects the solar wind and so prevents it stripping the outer fringe.
    I suspect most of the loss is due to sequestration in rocks and soil, with perhaps some ingress from cosmic dust and CME’s to balance this. So I expect at some times we get a small net loss, while at others a small gain. Don’t know how you could accurately quantify these small and erratic changes over time?

  43. Tenuc says:
    September 23, 2010 at 10:02 am
    The “buffered zone”, a “double layer” above our heads, working as a osmosis membrane (as our body’s skin) prevent the earth of sudden and catastrophic “pH” changes. So input and output do occur but intermediated and controlled by this “buffer zone”, called by others “ionosphere”, which btw is part of our earth emission field.
    Some guys down here, self designed as “angels from above”, as holy “Al”, believe can manage things differently, and they can do real harm by poking their big maked up noses in God’s affairs.

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