Ta Moko

Guest Post by Willis Eschenbach

Yesterday afternoon we took off at 3:45 from Fiji en route to Brisbane. I always enjoy that flight, it’s often a cross-section of the types of clouds seen at different temperatures. Interestingly, we flew right over the course that we had just sailed. So having just seen the weather from the surface, I now got to fly over the exact same area. There were a number of thunderstorms.

thunderstorm shadowsI’ve discussed before the many often un-noticed ways that thunderstorms cool the surface. One of them is that thunderstorms often form in the late afternoon, and as a result their vertical towers shade huge areas of the ocean from the sun This cooling mechanism is clearly visible in the photo.

Mike and I rolled out this morning to go hang out with a friend of his named Tu, who is a well-known Maori tattoo artist. It turned into a most interesting day. Now you may recall I’d said before going to sea, I have a tattoo, viz:

vuda last 4In that post from last week I said:

As a result of several hasty decisions, back in the eighties I’d ended up in the Solomon Islands north of Australia, where I got involved with people from the island of Bellona. This is a version of one of their traditional tattoos. The top fish is a “gupo” fish, which is their sacred mythical fish. The top row shows more gupo fish. The middle row is frigate birds, and the bottom row is sharks’ teeth. A Bellonese policeman who was a friend of mine gave me the tattoo using three sewing needles wrapped in thread and india ink … but obviously, it pales in the light of Mike’s tattoo. So I’m happy to meet Tu, but I’m not sure how this will all end. I’ll let you know how this part of life’s rich pageant turns out. Here’s Tu’s web page to consider in the interim.

So, today we went to Tu’s home in the hills above Brisbane. He and his good lady Ify live there with their two young boys. Ify is an excellent tattoo artist as well, and they do the tattooing in a dedicated room in the house. Now, I didn’t know if Tu was going to have time to do a tattoo, or would want to do a tattoo. So I just set that whole question aside and we sat down to the seafood-and-chips-for-four that Mike had bought on the way in. It was delicious fare. I played peek-a-boo with one of the little boys.

Afterwards, we went out an talked on the porch for an hour or so.

`tu 1We talked about nations and about tribes. Tu said that the New Zealand government had sponsored him to go on an artistic interchange program touring the US. He’d visited with the Nez Perce and a number of other tribes. He was giving talks about the Mauri tattooing art, which is called “ta moko”. A couple of mynah birds magpies listened to the discussion, their necks brilliant white in the sunshine.

tu mynahI could understand the interest of the magpies. Tu is an interesting and impressive man, with a direct gaze and gentle eyes.

turumakinaAt some point I asked if he would be willing to work on my tattoo. He said, let me see your tattoo. I showed him, and explained the story. He said he had time and would do it. So then the talk turned back to more interesting matters. He talked about the history of the Maori, and of his own lineage. He said he’d been trained by one of the men responsible for reanimating the nearly lost art and knowledge of the traditional Maori tattoos. He talked about a little-known piece of history, which was the attempt of the New Zealand Government to stamp out the traditional practices of the Maori.

After while, the discussion moved inside to his tattoo room. In response to my question, he explained that traditionally the face and body tattoos told the story of the person. It identified them by tribe, and by rank or status within the tribe, and their occupation, and the like. He has a picture on the wall of his grandma in her sixties, with her traditional chin tattoo.

He had examples of his work on the wall, powerful art, and a whole raft of books. You gotta know the man is a serious artist when he has Michelango’s Complete Works and Leonardo’s Sketchbook mixed in with the Tianzuntang Tattoos of Shanghai, China …

Tu booksNow, I still wasn’t sure what I would ask him to do with my tattoo. After much reflection I said “OK, I’ve figured out what I want”. I said “I want you to refine and inspire the existing tattoo, and I leave it up to you how to do that.” He thought about that, and said “OK, refine and inspire”. He asked me how old my ink was. I said thirty years. And with that he put the new sterile disposable sheet on the tattoo table. I lay down, and he started to sketch on my shoulder. It took him about an hour to do the sketch, and the discussion rolled on. Mike sat in the corner.

I noted a curious thing during his sketching. I’ll have to back up a little to explain it. When I was a kid, I really wanted to be an artist … but I was horrible at it. Whatever I drew, it didn’t look like what I’d imagined, and I’d get all tense and concerned about making it look perfect, and nothing went right.

But when I was about twenty-five, I was once again trying to draw something when I suddenly realized that I’d been going at it totally backwards my whole life. I’d been concerned about how the finished product looked. I realized that was the wrong goal, and what I really should be concerned with was how my hand and my arm and my body felt while doing the drawing. That day I was sitting in the sun attempting to draw a large aloe plant. I took a new sheet of paper and started my drawing over, but this time with long, sensuous sweeps of my arm, reveling in the raw feeling of the pencil sliding over the paper and the stretch and flex of my hand. When I was done, I looked at my drawing of the cactus and I was overjoyed. For the first time in my life, I had finally drawn something that I really liked the look of. I can’t tell you how elated I was, I’d finally broken the code that had frustrated me since I was a kid with crayons. On that day I finally understood that art was about how I felt creating the art, and not about the finished product. I realized that when I draw with joy and abandon, the finished product takes care of itself.

But it wasn’t until today that I ever considered what the piece of paper felt like when I drew on it all tensed up, or what the paper felt like when when I drew on it as form of pleasure. Today, I could feel Tu’s hands through my skin as he drew line after line after line, and it was clear how much he enjoyed the physical work of doing his art.

Eventually, the sketch was done. I looked at it. I thought I liked it, although I couldn’t really imagine how it would look when it was completed. Some things were crossed out in red and others drawn in. I was going to ask but upon reflection I figured, trust the talent. Tu made a pot of coffee, and we all had a cup. The day grew older. I went back in, and laid down again. He opened the package of a new sterile tattoo needle, and assembled it onto his tattoo machine. He gave me a heads-up, and he started tattooing.

Now, when I got my first tattoo, it was almost totally painless. Jimmy wielded his three thread-wrapped needles by hand, slowly and carefully applying the tattoo. There was little discomfort, he was good. The tattoo machine, on the other hand, makes a curious sensation.

If you run away from the feeling of the tattoo machine and tense up against it, the sensation could easily be pain … and since it could be, it is. But I’d learned a while ago to lean into pain. I learned that you can transform pain back into sensation if you actively intend it rather than running from it. When I did that, it wasn’t so much a pain as a curious sensation that was kind of a mild electric shock combined with a vibration of the skin. Not pleasant, but not really painful either. I mentioned this to Tu, and he said “Yes, you have to make friends with the needle”. I grinned at the image, and the discussion flowed. I asked more about his history. The tattoo machine kept humming. Mike sat in the corner. Tu laughed that Mike liked to watch, and Mike said it meant he wasn’t under the needle, so everything was fine with him.

The machine hummed. I leaned into the sensation. Tu said the man he studied with started out as a master carver, and in his later life he was instrumental in bringing the art and knowledge of ta moko back from the time of the governmental ban. “Hang on”, I said, “the government banned tattooing?” He explained the history. The New Zealand government was trying to suppress the “tohunga”, who were the traditional Maori medicine men/healers/tattoo artists. I asked him to spell “tohunga”, and when he did I asked if that was the same as what the Hawaiians call the “kahuna”. He said yes, they were just different dialects of Polynesian but they meant the same thing.

He told us what had happened. In 1907, the New Zealand Parliament passed what was called the “Tohunga Suppression Act of 1907”. I laughed when I heard the name, and said “Well, at least the Kiwis were honest about it”. Tu asked what I meant. I said if Americans had done it, we’d have called it something like the “Maori Cultural Improvement Act of 1907”. We all laughed. The shadows lengthened. The machine hummed. He said that the Act made it illegal to be a practicing tohunga. I looked it up this evening. It was very short:

 “Every person who gathers Maoris around him by practising on their superstition or credulity, or who misleads or attempts to mislead any Maori by professing or pretending to possess supernatural powers in the treatment or cure of any disease, or in the foretelling of future events, or otherwise”

Dang … not pretty. However, he said that the government wasn’t the main means of suppression of tattooing. That was the Church. The Church authorities, following the lead of the government, decreed that someone deciding to get tattooed was giving in to superstition and idolatry and they would be banned from the Church. In a religious population such as the Maori were at the time, this was a heavy punishment.

However, there were some people who had kept parts of the ancient knowledge and practices alive. These practices were a mixture of healing methods using traditional herbs, spiritual or shamanistic healing, esoteric practices, and tattooing. And in modern times, while much of the old knowledge has sadly been lost, there has been a renewal of interest and study of the ways of the tohunga. And Tu is the beneficiary of that knowledge. He is working with Maori people to renew interest in the traditional ways, as we well as continuing his cultural exchange work, such as his work with the local Indigenous Australian population.

The tattoo machine hummed and the afternoon waned, and Mike went in the living room and was reading Moby Dick out loud to a six-year-old. Moby Dick? Go figure. Mike has a raft of kids and grandkids, children flock to him. Me, I listened to Tu and realized that although there was perhaps some trace of resentment of the loss of the old knowledge, he was not telling another story of the bad things done by melanin-deficient folks. Yes, he spoke of those things, but his focus was unerringly forward. He looked ahead at further knowledge and renewal, not backwards at loss and sorrow. Mike continued to read Moby Dick. I said to Tu “Well, the good news is you don’t have to worry about my skin stretching and ruining the tattoo when I get old … that sucker is pre-stretched” … he laughed and switched to a skinny needle and started the fine line and shading work. I said “Yowch” and leaned hard in the direction of the sensation, letting it wash over me as the conversation ebbed and flowed.

And after what I would testify was no more than six days of tattooing compressed into one afternoon, Tu finally said I was done. I looked in the mirror, and I was a happy man. Tu had both refined and inspired my tattoo, just as I had asked.

tu tattooThe gupo fish had multiplied, I have three instead of one. The frigate birds have gone up in the sky where they belong. The sharks’ teeth are still at the bottom, with a groove down the middle like some shark teeth have. I asked about the thin lines in the background. He said they are called “navigator lines”. When a person was learning to navigate they would first learn the marks and depths and signs of the ocean, all the courses and paths and currents in the area from the shore out to the visible horizon. That’s the first line. Then when those were learned, they would go to the first horizon and learn the ocean’s ways and mysteries from there out to the next visible horizon.

So the navigator’s lines are the horizon lines of our successive steps in learning to navigate the shoals and seas of this marvelous world of ours. Works for me …

And that was my day. My great thanks to Tu and Ify for warmly welcoming me into their lives. It was heartwarming to hang out with them and the kids, talking story and listening to their tales of old things made new again, of dreams and plans, of tattooed grandmothers and fallen chiefs and ancient wars … my hat is off to them, seriously good folks and fine artists, I wish them the best.

On the other hand, the first thing Mike said when he saw my tattoo was “So when you come back to Oz, you’re going to get the other shoulder done, right?”

I declined to answer, perhaps impolitely, on the grounds that it might lead me to utter bad words and traduce his ancestors … he called me a name which was far from politically correct implying a lack of manliness on my part … what are mates for?

My best regards to all, what an amazing world we live in.

w.

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expat
May 11, 2016 10:50 am

The bird is an Australian Magpie

Rodzki of Oz
Reply to  expat
May 11, 2016 2:25 pm

And the view looks like the Gold Coast.

Mick In The Hills
Reply to  expat
May 12, 2016 2:32 am

And it’s a white-back maggie, not a black-back.

Bloke down the pub
May 11, 2016 10:52 am

One of my earliest memories as a child was seeing the mynah bird that was resident in the pet department of a store in Peckham. One of its favourite calls was ‘the coppers are coming’.

May 11, 2016 11:14 am

Did you see any islands being swallowed by the sea?

RHS
May 11, 2016 11:36 am

Looks much nicer than a tattoo which would explain the life of a lot of keyboard jockey’s, various sizes and fonts of QWERTY. Nice quality lines!

May 11, 2016 11:45 am

Really enjoyed your summary on the history of the art. As tortured as the suppression laws were it is too bad that the Islanders didn’t enjoy a feast of Margret Meade and put an end to the sociological philosophy of “cultural relativism” in its infancy. As you know, the modern Malthusians have actively recruited Native Americans to oppose science under a shroud of “cultural spirituality”. Truly a shame. The Nez Pierce are a case in point. As a tribe they were culturally part of the expansion and economic vitality of western settlement until racism and greed conspired to rob them of their property and lively hood. Again truly a shame and as you noted the church was at the center of the debacle.

Horace
Reply to  fossilsage
May 11, 2016 2:28 pm

An anthropologist was lamenting to a Cook Islander the loss of his traditional culture due to the influence of missionaries. The Cook Islander responding by telling the anthropologist he should be glad they became Christians, otherwise he would be eating him now.

KRM
Reply to  fossilsage
May 11, 2016 2:47 pm

Actually the Tohunga Suppression Act was introduced for good reasons. European introduced diseases such as smallpox were hugely damaging to the indigenous population and the Tohunga remedies were ineffective. The Act was supported by prominent Maori as a means of reducing mortality. One of the Maori leaders recommended that the same regulations should apply to European snake oil salesmen, and as a result the Quackery Prevention Act was introduced the following year. And that brings the topic back to climate science…

JustAnOldGuy
May 11, 2016 12:43 pm

You spin a damn fine yarn, sir. I think it would be well worth the investment to buy you drinks all evening.

May 11, 2016 12:50 pm

WIllis,
Very interesting story which adds a lot to the information we received at a cultural evening with the Maori my wife and I had when visiting New Zealand a few years ago…

u.k(us)
May 11, 2016 1:19 pm

…”he called me a name which was far from politically correct implying a lack of manliness on my part”…
=========
Spill the beans for cripes sake, what was it ??
We’ll never tell.

kalsel3294
Reply to  u.k(us)
May 11, 2016 3:19 pm

Yes Willis, spill the beans, and help turn back the tide of the current Suppression Act of political correctness.
As always an enjoyable and interesting story and I look forward to your next one Willis.

Reply to  kalsel3294
May 11, 2016 7:21 pm

Think cat

James Fosser
May 11, 2016 3:03 pm

That bird is a magpie. Tremendously friendly most of the year and even come right up to you for food but in the breeding season will dive down and rip your scalp off to distract you from their young. Similar traits to many politicians if we just substitute the words food, breeding and young for whatever you wish (Mynah birds seem to be everwhere now as they seem to be chasing away the local birds).

Broadie
May 11, 2016 3:13 pm

Willis
Do you have your sextant?
Take a sighting, you may find you are overlooking the Gold Coast. Probably Mount Tamborine?
That people in power were concerned about the Moari tradition of tattooing, may have been to do with infection. The practice of misrepresenting history and motives is common in our wealthy society, pretend you are a victim of climate change, European colonialism and you to can obtain funding and an audience.
I actually find History more interesting than the current rewrites. The story of the Moari Chief travelling to England to visit the King and ask for guns, stopping at New South Wales to try the Governor for same. Did he want guns to fight the imperialists? No, he was busy cleaning up his neighbours and between that and disease left the area around Auckland for settlement without consideration. And that was how the war began, according to my understanding.
http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/new-zealands-19th-century-wars/introduction
While in Australia, you should read this rollicking sailing adventure.
http://www.crommelin.org/history/Biographies/1845GeorgeWhiting/BrigMaria/Composite/Chronology.htm
We should credit our old people with the ability to think and do what they believed was best at the time. There is probably more damage being done now by the snake-oil salesmen selling gloom, doom, guilt and victimhood.
Like to see you while you are here and maybe treat that infection.
Broadie

Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 11, 2016 7:02 pm

From http://www.jennermuseum.com/vaccination.html:
“In 1798 he (Jenner) published all his research into smallpox in a book entitled: ‘An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae; a Disease Discovered in some of the Western Counties of England, Particularly Gloucestershire, and Known by the Name of The Cow Pox’.
In each of the next two years, he published the results of further experiments confirming his original theory that cowpox did indeed protect against smallpox.”

Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 11, 2016 7:26 pm

The (singular) definite article in Maori is “te”, not “ta”.
As for the healthy population, two comments.
(1) The average lifespan was 28-30 years. (Source: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/te-hauora-maori-i-mua-history-of-maori-health/page-1).
(2) The relative freedom they had from infectious diseases was due to (a) multiple rounds of founder effect so that most of them got left behind before they reached NZ and (b) low population densities, so that typical childhood diseases couldn’t sustain themselves. Founder effect also cost them pottery and building in stone.
They were pretty good about sanitation, which helped a lot. I was taught as a child that no decent Maori would sit on a surface used for food preparation.

KRM
Reply to  Richard A. O'Keefe
May 12, 2016 3:16 pm
broadie
Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 11, 2016 8:11 pm

Yes
And the Moa were walking around healthy before the Moari arrived. Lieutenant Cooks crew on their first circumnavigation were nice and healthy when they encountered the Polynesians. It wasn’t until they arrived in Batavia they suffered and some died. There is some suggestion the reason for Cook’s death was he insulted the Hawiians by denying his pox affected crew access to their friends ashore. Certainly there has generally been a general concern for the health of indigenous populations from the British colonists. One such piece of evidence is the letter from Protector of Aborigines in South Australia to Florence Nightingale.
http://firstsourcesguide.com/protectors-letters-c.html
Another example is in my previous reference, the Brig Maria, when the Basilisk came across the Black-birder Peri. There was concern and care for the people who remained on the schooner having rebelled against the European crew only to be die and be doomed in their escape attempt.
Very un-Willis to compare the results of two different experimental techniques. The Moari probably had the genetics of a hunter gatherer people suggesting a resilience to infection similar to the Bushman of the Kalahari. This coupled with survival of the fittest makes them a difficult population to compare with the Agrarian Colonists who travelled through areas of disease to arrive in New Zealand and our own populations where the weak are nurtured and their genetics preserved. The tohunga were probably working on the best of the best.
That said, I would love that their abilities worked and they could help in our remote welfare dependent communities.

george e. smith
Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 12, 2016 3:04 pm

They weren’t gringos; which is a Spanish word.
They were the Pakeha.
There is no ….. s ….. in the Polynesian alphabet (Maori at least) so all nouns are both singular and plural.
Only 14 letters in the Maori alphabet plus some combinations like ng, which is easy to say when in the middle of a word, as in hang or sung, but quite tricky when it starts the word; such as ” Ngauruhoe “. which is one of the three main volcanoes in the Tongariro National park. See there’s that …. ng …. again in Tongariro.
Note: it also is in Tonga, which is NOT Ton-Guh. Sounds exactly like Song-a.
All Maori syllables end in a vowel. No ‘Bs’ or ‘Ds’. No sibilants at all. It’s a very musical language.
My wife tells me that ALL of the vowel sounds in Maori, are identical to the vowel sounds in Spanish.
G

george e. smith
Reply to  george e. smith
May 12, 2016 3:14 pm

And it so happens the ng sound is present in Tohunga, which is more Tow-hoo-nga, than
To- hung- guh
But when a place like Onehunga gets bastardized to : Oh-knee-hung-guh, well you can see where the neighborhood is headed.
G

george e. smith
Reply to  george e. smith
May 12, 2016 3:18 pm

That’s (roughly) Pah-kay-hah, with any accent on the pah. Not much accenting though.
G

Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 13, 2016 3:25 pm

Interesting, another nail in the burial of the notion that recent European immigrants deliberately introduced small pox.
Beware of the need to ensure the deadly disease was small pox. Journals of one Spanish priest in Mexico describe what matches a hanta virus not smallpox.
Hanta virus are spread by rodents. In times of drought, which afflicted the Mayan empire for a long time, hungrier rats and closer living quarters lead to bites. In your story the people sound well fed, however.

u.k(us)
May 11, 2016 5:35 pm

2 minutes to post for the 5th race at Otaki in New Zealand, I bet the #7 just cus I can.
Update to follow.
Not holding my breath.

u.k(us)
Reply to  u.k(us)
May 11, 2016 5:40 pm

I think I’ll just try to lose money in West Virginia now, seeing as it is still today instead of tomorrow.

MRW
May 11, 2016 10:06 pm

New tattoo vast improvement on the old one.

meltemian
Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 12, 2016 2:30 am

Your father was a wise man!

May 12, 2016 3:21 am

“There were a number of thunderstorms.”
Hmm, too bad none of them made it into your picture. Would have been a nice view. Those clouds waay below your plane are shallow cumulus at best probably hardly able to produce a warm shower.

Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 12, 2016 9:59 am

The picture is actually fairly deceptive, in that the height of the building cumulonimbus towers is hard to see because we were right over them.

I must disagree – the picture is quite obvious. That is shallow convection..no more than 3000-5000 ft thick. Long shadows are created with shallow clouds by low sun angles…which is obvious with the intense sun glare in the upper left corner. Your picture was taken in the late afternoon flying south west.
You are factually incorrect with your term ‘building cumulonimbus’ – there is no such thing. Now these clouds may be building cumulus clouds but they do not turn into cumulonimbus clouds till the tops reach the tropopause & flatten out which these obviously have not.
There are three species of cumulus clouds:
humilis – are wider than they are tall… (trade-wind cumulus are mostly these)
mediocris – are as wide as they are tall
The following pixs show mixtures of these types (which is what your picture is of BTW)
http://c7.alamy.com/comp/C7P46P/aerial-view-of-cumulus-clouds-over-paso-xolul-park-in-yucatan-peninsula-C7P46P.jpg
http://media.gettyimages.com/photos/white-cumulus-clouds-over-blue-ocean-aerial-view-picture-id989587-003
http://il5.picdn.net/shutterstock/videos/8384989/thumb/1.jpg
Cumulus humilis w/ cumulonimbus (thunderstorms) in far distance
http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I000029JJ1sffCsw/s/900/900/014469-01.jpg
http://cdn.c.photoshelter.com/img-get/I0000IaqYMZsrHNM/s/900/900/009090-01.jpg
congestus – are taller than they are wide
Cumulus congestus:
http://cache2.asset-cache.net/gc/500867555-aerial-view-of-fluffy-cumulonimbus-clouds-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=klYxVa7ZeiFB5paNTF8P3TdR%2b8zGg3mY0eEAg33gAYKhqlloFtNpkz%2fPOO5X7tut
http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/lie/photos/cumulus_congestus.jpg
Cumulus congestus w/ cumulonimbus (thunderstorms) in far distance
http://images.intellicast.com/App_Images/Resources/Clouds/figure15.jpgcomment image
And finally, their own special species, Cumulonimbuscomment image
http://scool.larc.nasa.gov/images/Cb10.jpgcomment image

In addition, we were flying at 38,000 feet at the time (11.6 km).

Which should have told you something right there. Tropical cumulonimbus can easily make it up to 55-60,000 ft which would have been *WAY* above your flight level so, obviously, your clouds are not cumulonimbus or anywhere close or you would have been looking *up* at them.

Take a look at the shadows. They are long and tall, hardly from “shallow cumulus”.

Again, it only takes a shallow sun angle to produce long shadows from short objects.
J.

May 12, 2016 4:26 am

Tu is one impressive artist. Took an ok tatoo into a masterpiece. Don’t know how long he’s known you, but seems to get the essence of your character in the new design. The navigation lines are also our education lines, a set which hopefully will sail on.

Oatley
May 12, 2016 4:54 am

Great story, as usual, Willis. Still…I think there is deeper meaning here.
Man seeks a tattoo. Sets sail. Sail fails, returns to port. Hops plane. Big, big carbon footprint.
You can be absolved, my son by buying carbon credits.
SARC/ !!!

South River Independent
May 12, 2016 6:04 am

Appears the Maori are getting revenge for treatment by the missionaries one tattoo at a time. Another bad trade by America? A tattoo seems to be a small price to pay for a continuing great adventure. Keep the reports and pictures coming Willis.

James at 48
May 12, 2016 8:42 am

Dang that’s good. I love Maori tattoos. I’ve a coworker who’s Maori and she’s got some really artfully done ones around her ankles.

Alan Robertson
May 12, 2016 8:45 am

All rightie then.
Since you didn’t bother to tell us, we’ll just have to make up what those other part of the tattoo mean…
Willis if you only knew what that guy put on your arm. What a great joke’s been played on you.
I never would have suspected…

brians356
Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 12, 2016 11:33 pm

George stands well rebuked.

brians356
May 12, 2016 11:32 pm

Interesting to me that he singled out the Nez Perce tribe as having been visited, as I grew up just off the Nez Perce reservation. They are famous for their Apaloosa horses, and for Chief Joseph (“From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”) Their original territory encompassed perhaps the most compelling geography and river system of the continent.

brians356
Reply to  Willis Eschenbach
May 13, 2016 7:47 am

Willis,
Thanks! That’s interesting. I never saw a tattoo on a Nez Perce, but there’s obviously plenty I don’t know about their culture and history.

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