Apollo 17: 50th Anniversary of the Most Successful Manned Space Mission… So Far

Guest “What a field trip!” by David Middleton

On December 7, 1972 (a date which should no longer solely “live in infamy”) at 12:33 a.m. EST astronauts Gene Cernan, Harrison “Jack” Schmitt and Ronald Evans lifted off Kennedy Space Center’s Launch Pad 39A, atop a massive Saturn-V rocket (SA-512) to begin the final (so far) manned space mission to the Moon. This mission is considered by many to be the most successful manned space mission on record.

Apollo 17 Crew

  • Commander (CDR) Eugene A. Cernan (left)
  • Command Module Pilot (CMP) Ronald E. Evans (center)
  • Lunar Module Pilot (LMP)Harrison H. Schmitt (right)

On Aug. 13, 1971, NASA formally announced the crew for Apollo 17, the sixth and final Apollo Moon landing mission, planned for December 1972. The prime crew consisted of Commander Eugene A. “Gene” Cernan, Command Module Pilot (CMP) Ronald E. Evans, and Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) Harrison H. “Jack” Schmitt. Cernan, selected as an astronaut in 1963, would be making his third trip into space, having flown on the Gemini IX mission in 1966 and Apollo 10 in 1969 – the dress rehearsal flight for the first Moon landing. He also served as the backup commander for Apollo 14, but did not fly on the mission. Evans, selected as an astronaut in 1966, would be making his first spaceflight. He served on the support crews for Apollo 7 and 11, and as the backup CMP on Apollo 14. Schmitt, selected in the first group of scientist astronauts in 1965 and making his first trip into space on Apollo 17, served as the backup LMP on Apollo 15. He was the first geologist selected to land on the Moon.

NASA
On Dec. 19, 1972, the Apollo 17 crew returned to Earth. Apollo 17 was the sixth and last Apollo mission in which humans walked on the lunar surface. On Dec. 11, Lunar Module Pilot Harrison H. Schmitt and Commander Eugene A. Cernan, landed on the moon’s Taurus-Littrow region in the Lunar Module, while Command Module Pilot Ron Evans continued in lunar orbit. During their stay on the moon, the astronauts set up scientific experiments, took photographs and collected lunar samples.
In this image, Schmitt, Evans and Cernan are photographed with a Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) trainer during the rollout of the Apollo 17 rocket. This, the last of the Apollo/Saturn missions launched Dec. 7, 1972.
Image Credit: NASA
Last Updated: Nov 15, 2017

As I write this post, I am 63 years old… I was 13 when Apollo 17 lifted off and totally enthralled with the space program. I still recall the grainy video of Neil Armstrong setting foot on the Moon in 1969 and the better resolution videos of the Apollo 15, 16 and 17 landing crews riding around in the lunar rovers. I still find it hard to accept that we abandoned the Apollo program right when NASA was perfecting the missions. Apollo 15 was the first true science mission J-missions). Apollo 15 and 16 were very successful J-missions, in no small part due to the fact that geologist Jack Schmitt played a huge role in training the crews in field geology. However, Apollo 17 was, in my opinion, the most successful of the J-missions. In 2011, I had the great pleasure in actually meeting Jack Schmitt at the American Association of Geologists (AAPG) convention in Houston, Texas. As a geologist, Apollo 17 holds a special place in my heart (possibly the only space not occupied by Mrs. Middleton and our 12 dogs).

If you have the time, this site is worth tuning in to…

APOLLO 17 IN REAL TIME A real-time journey through last landing on the Moon.

NASA has a brief, but, nice summary of the mission here:

Apollo 17

Of course, as a geologist, my primary interests are the geological aspects of the mission. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) maintains an incredible inventory of lunar regolith and rock samples returned by Apollo and the Soviet-era Luna missions.

Left: The night launch of Apollo 17. Right: The Taurus Littrow valley as seen from the Lunar Module a few hours before landing. The landing site in the center of the valley is indicated by a diamond. SM indicates the South Massif, studied on EVA 2, and NM and SH indicate the North Massif and Sculptured Hills, studied on EVA 3. The flat region at the top of the image is Mare Serenitatis west of the landing side. (LPI)

The Taurus-Littrow landing site was chosen because it was thought that it would provide opportunities to study mare basalts, deeper crustal rocks and possibly evidence of more recent volcanism.

The Valley of Taurus-Littrow

The Apollo 17 landing site is in a spectacular location called The Valley of Taurus-Littrow on the southeastern edge of the Sea of Serenity (Mare Serenitatis). Sometime about 3.8 to 3.9 billion years ago, a mountain-sized asteroid or comet hit the Moon and blasted out a basin nearly seven hundred kilometers in diameter. Around the rim of Serenitatis, great blocks of rock were pushed out and up, forming a ring of mountains. In places, the blocks quickly fell again, and left radial valleys among the mountains. Taurus-Littrow is one such valley, located just south of Littrow Crater in the southwestern Taurus Mountains ( 0.9 Mb ) that form the highlands east of Serenitatis.

About 100 to 200 million years or so after Serenitatis formed, lavas welled up from the lunar interior and began to fill the low places. Many of the flows first reached the surface at the weak, fractured margins of the basin; and, as Schmitt and Cernan discovered, at some stages the flows were accompanied by fire fountains that blanketed their surroundings with tiny glass beads. Some of the beads were orange in color, but most were very dark. Even from Earth, the borders of Serenitatis look dark and, prior to the mission, there were many who speculated that this was an indication of recent volcanic eruptions.

Taurus-Littrow is elongated on an axis that points northwest toward the heart of Serenitatis. At its inner, southeastern end, the valley butts up against a large, blocky mountain called the East Massif. Toward the south, a narrow outlet – partially blocked by a large crater – leads off to another valley. On the west side of this outlet, a second blocky mountain called the South Massif forms the southwestern wall of Taurus-Littrow. North of the East Massif, across an outlet into another small valley, the Sculptured Hills and farther to the west, the North Massif form the remaining walls of Taurus-Littrow. Between the North and South Massifs, the main exit from the valley leads out toward Serenitatis. This exit is about seven kilometers wide and is partially blocked by a kilometer-high hill called Family Mountain and, also, by a fault scarp that stretches between the North and South Massifs. In places, the scarp is 80 meters high.

The inherent geologic variety of Taurus-Littrow was a major reason for the selection of the site. From a landing point out in the middle of the valley, the crew could sample the dark soil, collect samples of the valley-filling lavas dug out by impacts, and sample pre-Serenitatis crustal material in both the North and South Massifs. Of particular interest were a number of large boulders seen in Apollo 15 orbital photographs of the lower slopes of the Massifs. Some of these boulders are sitting at the ends of tracks which show that they had rolled down from outcrops high on the mountains. Additional points of interest included a South Massif avalanche that drapes across the southern end of the scarp, and an intriguing crater called Shorty which sits like a dark blemish at the northern tip of the landslide outflow. Here, some of the geologists thought, might be a young volcanic vent. And finally, there were the Sculptured Hills which, from orbit, look as though they are not directly related to the Massifs and the Serenitatis impact but, rather, it was thought, might represent ejecta from the more recent Imbrium impact.

During the preceding missions, none of the crews that attempted pinpoint landings actually landed farther than about a half-kilometer from their target. Of course, as had happened in case of Apollo 11, larger errors were possible, particularly if the flight-path could not be updated during the powered descent; and NASA wanted to be sure that Cernan would be able to land even if Challenger were headed as much as four kilometers long or short of the target and as much as three kilometers to either side. Taurus-Littrow is not a large valley; and, indeed, the Apollo 17 crew was able to cover nearly half of it during their three geology trips. Still, it is large enough to contain the landing ellipse and several more besides. The actual target point was on the valley’s central axis, well away from the Massifs, and about six kilometers short of the scarp. This northwestward placement was chosen so that the crew would fly over the Sculptured Hills at substantial altitude as they entered the valley and, later, could drive to the foot of the South Massif without violating walkback constraints. In detail, the target area is a relatively smooth patch of ground in the midst of a cluster of large craters. The largest of these is Camelot Crater, about 600 meters across, and it promised good samples of the valley fill. Camelot is about a kilometer west of the target and provided Cernan with a visual fix at pitchover. Closer at hand, he had a trio of small craters called Punk, Rudolph, and Poppie to show him exactly where to land. He wanted to land midway between Poppie and Punk and just south of Rudolph.

Corrected Transcript and Commentary Copyright © 1995 by Eric M. Jones.

The rocks and regolith samples collected by Cernan and Schmitt generally fell into three categories: basalts, breccias, and highland crustal rocks.

Mare Volcanism: Apollo 17 basalt 75015, collected at Camelot Crater, has a mass of 1.0 kilograms and consists primarily of the minerals pyroxene, plagioclase, and ilmenite. It has relatively coarse mineral grains, 1-2 mm across, reflecting its cooling and solidification below the lunar surface. The reference cube in this and the other photographs on this webpage is 1 cm across. LPI
Impact Melt Breccias at the North and South Massifs: Left: Apollo 17 sample 73255 from Station 3 is a fine-grained impact melt breccia with a mass of 394 gm. In addition to the impact melt, it contains numerous clasts of various compositions that pre-date the impact event that created the breccia. Right: Apollo 17 sample 76215 is an impact melt breccia from the large boulder at Station 6. It has a mass of 644 gm. It contains numerous vesicles, which are small holes in the rock created when the material was melted during either the Imbrium or Serenitatis impact events. LPI
Rocks from the Deep Crust: Left: Apollo 17 sample 76535 is a troctolite with a mass of 155 gm. It is an igneous rock and consists primarily of plagioclase (grayish-white) and olivine (greenish-brown), whose coarse grain size (2-3 mm) indicates crystallization and cooling at great depth in the crust. It was collected as part of the rake sample from the regolith at Station 6. Right: Apollo 17 sample 78235 is a 199 gm norite sample from a small boulder at Station 8. It consists primarily of yellow-brown orthopyroxene and bluish-gray plagioclase. The plagioclase has mostly been converted to maskelynite glass. The coarse grain size indicates crystallization at significant depth in the crust and the maskelynite indicates that the rock reached shock pressures of at least 300-400 kilobars when ejected to the lunar surface by the Serenitatis impact. LPI

Some of the deep crustal rocks were fairly unusual compared to other crustal samples.

The Apollo 17 crew also collected several rare types of lunar rock, including norite, troctolite, and dunite, at stations 2, 6, and 8 near the base of the North and South Massifs and the Sculptured Hills. Norite consists primarily of the minerals plagioclase and orthopyroxene. Troctolite consists primarily of plagioclase and olivine, and dunite is nearly pure olivine. Many of these rocks originally formed in the lower half of the Moon’s crust during the solidification of the Moon’s magma ocean. These rocks formed between 4.2 and 4.5 billion years ago (the solar system formed about 4.56 billion years ago). They were later brought to the Moon’s surface by large meteorite impacts, such the impact that formed the Serenitatis basin.

LPI

One of the most interesting discoveries was the “Orange Soil“, initially interpreted by Schmitt as the result of a fumarole and evidence of recent volcanism.

Apollo 17 surface photo showing orange soil discovered during the 2nd EVA near Shorty Crater at the Taurus-Littrow landing site on the Moon. Upon close examination on Earth, the soil was seen to contain many orange volcanic glass particles, giving it its distinctive color. The tripod at left center is a gnomon and photographic reference chart. This picture was taken on 12 December 1972. (Apollo 17, AS17-137-20990) NASA

However, it turned out to be ancient volcanic glass.

Mare basalts were emplaced as fluids that flowed easily across the Moon’s surface. However, photographs taken from lunar orbit suggested that some explosive volcanic activity had also occurred in this region, and some geologists thought this activity might have occurred recently in lunar history. Shorty Crater was explored to determine if it was actually a volcanic vent. Orange and black volcanic glass (the famous “orange soil”) was found near the rim of Shorty Crater and did form in an explosive volcanic eruption. On Earth, such eruptions are sometimes called fire fountains. However, the relationship between Shorty Crater and the volcanic glass is just coincidental. The glass formed 3.64 billion years ago from material that melted about 400 kilometers below the surface. Shorty Crater turns out to be an ordinary impact crater, and the lack of degradation of its features indicates that the crater is much younger than the glass.

LPI

The Geologic Investigation of the Taurus-Littrow Valley: Apollo 17 Landing Site

Setting records on the Moon

Gene Cernan and “Jack” Schmitt set records that have stood for 50 years: 75 hours on the lunar surface, with three extra-vehicular activities (EVA’s) in the lunar rover (LRV), comprising over 22 hours. The second EVA was truly remarkable.

The second EVA was the longest of the Apollo program both by duration, 7 hours and 37 minutes, and by traverse distance, 20.4 km roundtrip, reaching a maximum distance of 7.6 km from the Lunar Module at Station 2. It was likely also the most complex EVA of Apollo based on the diversity of the geologic targets. Cernan and Schmitt began by repairing the right rear fender of the rover using laminated maps and small clamps. The fender had been damaged when snagged by a rock hammer during EVA 1. The repair substantially reduced the amount of dust that the rover kicked up while driving. Stations 2 and 3 were on a landslide at the base of the South Massif. The mountains surrounding the landing site were uplifted by the impact that formed the Serenitatis impact basin, and the boulders on the landslide gave the crew to access to material that had originally been located far up the South Massif slope. Stations 4 and 5 were on the valley floor while returning to the Lunar Module. Shorty Crater (Station 4) was suspected prior to the mission to be a possible volcanic vent due to the dark halo surrounding the crater. Schmitt discovered orange soil, which turned out to be 3.6 billion-year-old pyroclastic glass from an ancient volcanic eruption. Camelot Crater (Station 5) is 600 meters in diameter with a very rocky rim. The ejecta at the edge of the crater provided samples of basalt that was originally more than 100 meters below the valley floor.

LPI
Diagram based on Apollo 17 Traverses Lunar Photomap, Edition 1, Sheet 43D1S2[25]. Air & Space Museum.

In addition to the successful geological traverse, Commander Cernan also managed to both damage and repair the rover…

At 118:51:20, while doing final Rover preparations before driving out to meet Jack Schmitt at the ALSEP deployment site, Gene Cernan accidentally caught the hammer he had stowed in his calf pocket under the right rear fender, tearing off the rearward extension. He used grey duct tape to re-attach the fender extenstion but, at about 122:47:48 during the drive back to the LM from Station 1 at the end of the EVA, the tape failed and the fender extension fell off.

Gene and Jack did not stop to retrieve the fender extension and, during the rest period after EVA-1, support personnel in Houston designed a replacement fender that Gene and Jack could make from tape, unneeded maps, and some clamps they had in the cabin. See the discussion at 137:19:09.

A detail from AS17-137-20979 is presented at the top of this page, showing the replacement fender on the Rover just before Gene and Jack leave Station 2. At the time Gene took the picture, the replacement fender had been tested during 9.1 km of driving.

At about 167:41:11, during the drive to Station 9 late in EVA-3, the replacement fender began to fail, perhaps due to the combined effects of prolonged solar heating and the dust and rock fragments thrown against its underside during the total of about 29 km of driving they’d done since Gene installed it.

Later, after parking the Rover east of the LM so that the world could watch LM liftoff with the Rover TV, Gene removed the replacement fender and brought it back to Earth. As of September 2005, it was still on display at the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum.

Apollo 17 Replacement Fender

In just over 22 hours of EVA’s, Cernan and Schmitt traveled over 22 miles across the lunar surface. Only Lunokhod 2 and Opportunity traveled farther. However, Lunokhod 2 operated on the lunar surface for four months and Opportunity spent about 14 years covering 28 miles on the surface of Mars.

Every rover, ranked by distance traveled on the moon and Mars. Mashable com

Don’t hit the Lem!

Shortly before departing the lunar surface, Jack Schmitt probably set the record for the longest rock hammer throw in geological history…

170:29:49 Schmitt: Let me throw the hammer? Please.

170:29:50 Cernan: It’s all yours.

170:29:51 Schmitt: You got the gravimeter

170:29:52 Cernan: You deserve it. A hammer thrower…You’re a geologist. You ought to be able to throw it.

170:29:56 Schmitt: You ready?

170:29:57 Cernan: Go ahead.

170:29:58 Schmitt: You ready for this? Ready for this?

170:30:00 Cernan: Yeah. Don’t hit the LM. Or the ALSEP. (Pause)

[Jack throws the hammer with a discus motion. It is visible against the sky for a long time. Gene’s picture of Jack, AS17-143-21941 may have been taken just after he threw the hammer.]

170:30:07 Cernan: Look at that! Look at that! Look at that!

170:30:12 Schmitt: Beautiful.

170:30:14 Cernan: Looked like it was going a million miles, but it really ‘t.

170:30:17 Schmitt: Didn’t it?

Where on the Moon is Jack Schmitt’s Hammer?

Everything but the hammer…

In 2011, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter took photos of the Apollo 17 landing site from lunar orbit. You can see the tracks of the lunar rover, astronaut footpaths, and the lunar module descent stage. Air & Space Museum
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Tom Halla
December 7, 2022 6:14 am

I still have the feeling Apollo was curtailed because Nixon hated Kennedy, and thought Apollo brought up favorable memories of Kennedy, not good press for Nixon.

Tom Halla
Reply to  David Middleton
December 7, 2022 6:51 am

I am a few years older than you(67), and Nixon was never enthusiastic for Apollo. Partly it was that the media always associated John Kennedy with the program, despite it reaching it’s goal under Nixon.
Nixon always struck me as being petty.

Moriarty
Reply to  Tom Halla
December 7, 2022 8:47 am

“Nixon always struck me as being petty.”

Hard to argue with that statement.

Ron Long
Reply to  Tom Halla
December 7, 2022 8:51 am

I am 76 years old. I stood near President Nixon on the Sabre Heliport runway at DiAn, Vietnam, in 1969, as he handed out medals and gave a speech. I took his picture, and nothing about him struck me as “petty”.

michael hart
Reply to  Tom Halla
December 7, 2022 7:08 am

My understanding is that Congress cut the funding on a very expensive project. The American public were also getting bored.

Tom Halla
Reply to  michael hart
December 7, 2022 7:25 am

It was also that the Democrats had been taken over by the McGovern wing, which had no real interests but “domestic programs”.

Alan
Reply to  Tom Halla
December 7, 2022 9:46 am

And Carter shut down the ALSEP’s.

Tom in Florida
Reply to  michael hart
December 7, 2022 8:01 am

Yes they cut the funding. Mainly because liberals questioned the expenditure when there we “many poor” that could be saved with the money. Of course that never happened.

John Hultquist
Reply to  michael hart
December 7, 2022 9:24 am

getting bored “
I remember listening to the ping or beep from the first Sputnik and reading about the stray dog Laika that went up with #2. She died in space. Those were in 1957. I do agree that after the 1972 moon flight many of us had new things to occupy our time, such as marriage, jobs, and house payments.
However, I know exactly where I was when the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded on January 28, 1986.

Hivemind
Reply to  michael hart
December 7, 2022 5:08 pm

Nixon’s signature policy was solving cancer. The money was needed for that. But also, the Russians had withdrawn from the space race & so the major impetus was gone. Few people these days understand how important values like ‘beat the Russians’ was then.

sturmudgeon
Reply to  michael hart
December 8, 2022 1:17 pm

“Pocket Change” compared to the ‘projects’ occurring now!

Admin
December 7, 2022 6:41 am

Project Orion“, by Freeman Dyson’s son George, details how for a time the Project Orion nuclear drive was considered for the Apollo missions.

Project Orion was a conceptual ship powered by nuclear bombs. The drive was so powerful that its most extreme configuration could have reached a small percentage of the speed of light, fast enough to power a hundred year trip to Alpha Centauri. Less extreme configurations could have affordably delivered thousands or even millions of tons of payload to anywhere in the solar system.

The project exposed engineered structures to real nuclear bomb blasts, discovering if they coated the steel with a thin spray of oil, the plasma created when the oil was vaporised protected the steel from the extreme heat, preventing scorching and erosion. A small conventional explosive powered scale model was also built and tested.

Instead of a trip to the moon, the nuclear powered Apollo project would have been a tour of the inner solar system, with landings on the Moon and Mars, and a visit to Venus.

If the Orion missions continued, by now we would have had permanent bases on the moon, orbital factories and possibly orbital colonies, a colony on Mars, and possibly settlements on Ceres and Titan.

I don’t in any way want to detract from the amazing achievement of Apollo, but when I think of Apollo, I can’t help also thinking of what could have been.

Last edited 1 month ago by Eric Worrall
John Kelly
Reply to  Eric Worrall
December 7, 2022 7:17 am

Absolutely Eric, “what could have been.”

Premium Cracker
Reply to  Eric Worrall
December 7, 2022 7:44 am

“If the Orion missions continued, by now we would have had permanent bases on the moon, orbital factories and possibly orbital colonies, a colony on Mars, and possibly settlements on Ceres and Titan.”

Now that is a load of bullshit. What would all of these colonists be doing exactly? Who would financially support all of this? No democratic society is going to allow lawmakers to spend the boat load of money needed to support these activities. The economics simply do not work. It would not have happened years ago and it will not happen in the future. Your silly space fantasies will never be reality.

Tom Halla
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 7, 2022 8:10 am

Lunar or asteroid mining, for one probable return.
Spemding for social workers and other hangers on will always exhaust the income of any country if not inhibited.

Joseph Zorzin
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 7, 2022 8:38 am

never?

DMacKenzie
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 7, 2022 10:09 am

There were technical issues….a nuclear detonation once a second, far enough away from a shock absorber plate so that the plasma temperature was “only” 15000 C was a possible problem, considering we can’t make a shock absorber for cars that lasts through a North Dakota winter…..

Admin
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 7, 2022 2:18 pm

Lunar mine for supporting construction in orbit.

Mars – living space, and long term terraforming.

Asteroid mines because if you can bring a 5 mile asteroid into Earth orbit, you can mine that cheaper than the moon. And the ability to move Asteroids opens the possibility of a space elevator, which would really cut the cost of getting to space.

A lot of the good stuff like Platinum is in the Earth’s core, but some Asteroids appear to be made of dense metals.

Titan – long term stay scientific base.

The only thing holding back all this stuff is launch cost.

sturmudgeon
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 8, 2022 1:23 pm

Are you purposefully ignoring the trillions governments are truly WASTING at the present time? Likely the 10%-to-the-big-guy would pay for much of what “could have been”.

John Kelly
December 7, 2022 7:16 am

What the hell has happened to NASA? I’ve read the Nixon vs Kennedy comments below, but Nixon has been long gone. What has NASA done since 1971? That’s 51 years ago and the space programme is just restarting. I’m also old enough to have watched Armstrong live. Perhaps the most exciting TV footage ever. The world was enthralled, at least that part of the world that could watch. And now so little since 1971. Sure there are a couple of great satellites that have been launched since, but to not to back to the Moon in so long just beggars belief.

Premium Cracker
Reply to  John Kelly
December 7, 2022 7:56 am

“What the hell has happened to NASA?”

They cancelled the remaining Apollo flights.
They launched Skylab and then allowed it to fall back to Earth.
They developed the space shuttle based on many promises, the economics of which all failed, two blew up and killed a bunch of people.
They developed a bigger, more expensive space station, also made a lot promises which never came true. Just as it was completed, the space shuttle was retired. For the second time in the short history of NASA, they had a space station and no space vehicle to reach it.
Now they are building a new moon rocket to go back to the moon because…

Tom Halla
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 7, 2022 8:16 am

NASA is an example of Pournelle’s Iron Law of Bureaucracy. Those who were expert in the internal politics of the organization took control, and totally ignored the purported goals of the group. Education is a fair example of this effect, as was General Motors as a car company.

Moriarty
Reply to  Premium Cracker
December 7, 2022 10:35 am

But NASA did do Muslim outreach during the Obama years.

Tom in Florida
Reply to  John Kelly
December 7, 2022 8:03 am

My theory has always been that the aliens told us not to venture off our planet. Mechanical probes OK but humans in space no way. It was the aliens that took out Kennedy because he defied them.
That’s my theory and I am sticking to it.

Ron Long
December 7, 2022 7:25 am

Great report, David. I was in DiAn, Vietnam, in July, 1969 when Neil Armstrong stepped down the ladder from Apollo 11, and onto the moon. It was night time in Vietnam, so I went outside, put my biggest telephoto lens on my Pentax Spotmatic,and some extenders to boot, and took a picture of the moon. For several years afterward I showed people the photo and told them Neil was in the picture, until my wife asked me “have you noticed how people look at you when you tell them this?”.

sciguy54
December 7, 2022 7:29 am

Thanks for putting this together, David. Such a trove of Apollo and scientific information.

Tom in Florida
December 7, 2022 8:05 am

I was attending the Florida Institute of Technology at the time of Apollo 12 and 13. I saw both launches in person. The Saturn V rocket still rates with me as the most awesome man made thing I have every witnessed.

rah
Reply to  Tom in Florida
December 9, 2022 11:36 pm

I got back from a run down to BSAF beside the airport at Huntsville, AL at 04:30 yesterday morning. That big Saturn V that stands configured as for an Apollo mission at the Space Center there never fails to impress. I drive by several of the gates for Redstone along the way.

Last edited 1 month ago by rah
rah
December 7, 2022 8:48 am

December 7th will remain a day that will live in infamy.

comment image

However, as bad as the attack on Pearl Harbor was, there were bright spots which took some time to recognize.

  1. Had the US fleet been alerted to the attack and sailed to meet the Japanese they almost certainly would have been severely beaten. The ships, later salvaged from the shallow waters of the anchorage would have been lost in deep water where salvage was impossible. And that could well have included the aircraft carriers. Out of the 100 commissioned Navy ships at Pearl Harbor when the attack came, only the battleships Arizona and Oklahoma were total losses. All the others that were sunk were salvaged or at least had their major equipment salvaged for new construction.
  2. Nagumo sailed off having failed to do the job he was to do. Despite the damage, the facilities at Pearl were relatively quickly repaired and then expanded upon.
  3. Key among the facilities not attacked were the huge fuel storage tanks which stood plainly in view. Nimitz believed that had those tanks been destroyed it would have been a year before the US Navy could engage the Japanese with anything coming out of Pearl except submarines. As a result the Japanese could have taken Midway, Port Morsby, and the islands necessary to effectively isolate Australia and possibly invaded that country. Even submarine operations in the central Pacific and Japanese home waters would have been far less effective without Midway available for them to top off their fuel before proceeding west.
  4. The submarine docks and the vessels docked there were not attacked.
  5. The dry docks, essential for major repairs and maintenance, suffered little damage.
  6. The very nature of the attack motivated the people of the US to unite in a way that had heretofore in our history had never occurred before and probably never will again. The resolution, determination, a spirit of cooperation, and yes, pure hate, that surprise attack fostered spelled the doom of Imperial Japan and the Axis. American industry, in less than two years, became an irresistible force unlike anything ever seen before on this earth. A legacy which most of us here are old enough to have enjoyed the benefits which sprang from it.
Janice Moore
Reply to  rah
December 7, 2022 11:29 am

Yes. 😔 Thank you for that, rah. The author’s sweeping aside the significance and horror of that “date” troubled me. December 7th was also my grandma’s birthday. Our family, yet, also considered it a “date which will live in infamy.”

And considers it so.

comment image

And, yes, indeed. That tragedy was used by God for good — America was now in. And that meant good would, in the end, triumph over evil.

ferdberple
Reply to  Janice Moore
December 7, 2022 8:43 pm

Good and evil must remain in balance the Karmatic version of Newton’s third law.

rah
Reply to  David Middleton
December 8, 2022 6:20 pm

Not knowing where the US carriers were, was the primary factor which influenced them to not make a third attack. The Enterprise was less than 300 miles from Pearl.

rah
Reply to  David Middleton
December 9, 2022 5:37 am

The list:
USS West Virginia

The West Virginia suffered the third-highest number of casualties, having lost 106 sailors during the attack. The vessel suffered two bomb strikes and seven torpedo hits before sinking. Thanks to the shallow waters of the harbor, the West Virginia was later refloated and returned to service in July of 1944. 

USS California

By the time the Japanese pulled back and left the harbor, 100 crewmen were left dead on the California. After two bomb and two torpedo strikes, the California sank. By January of 1944, the California had been refloated and returned to service. 

USS Maryland

As the smoke cleared from Pearl Harbor, the Maryland had lost four crewmen. Two bombs damaged the lower part of the vessel’s hull. The Japanese reported that the Maryland had sunk, but in February of 1942, she returned to service after repairs.

 USS Pennsylvania
After being struck by one bomb, the Pennsylvania lost nine crewmen and suffered minor damages. She is believed to be the first battleship to fire on the Japanese bombers and fighters.

USS Tennessee

Five sailors perished aboard the Tennessee during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Though the battleship was struck by two armor-piercing bombs, neither detonated completely and the ship suffered mostly from debris from the Arizona and the West Virginia. By February of 1942, the Tennessee began taking part in training exercises.

rah
Reply to  rah
December 9, 2022 11:54 pm

One might wonder why, the less damaged Battle Ships that could be repaired quickly, like the Tennesse, did not take part in the Guadalcanal Campaign. The struggle to take that island saw the most sustained and violent ship to ship surface actions in the history of the US Navy and the shortage of major fleet units from Aircraft Carriers to cruisers became acute.

The primary reason was that all the older battleships were fuel hogs and the logistical arrangements for their operation in the area of the Solomons were not in place yet. And thus, it was only the newer and more fuel efficient “fast battleships” which were sent into that fray.

Last edited 1 month ago by rah
rah
Reply to  David Middleton
December 7, 2022 6:07 pm

It is a very rare occasion when I have disagreed with anything you write.

Thank you.

Timo V
December 7, 2022 9:08 am

For all the space exploration fans, i recommend “For All Mankind’ tv-series, It has a wonderfull alternate “what if”-plot.

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=7IeyVb31zHQ

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_All_Mankind_(TV_series)

drh
December 7, 2022 11:26 am

Well, David, no one can say you don’t know Jack Schmitt.

Hivemind
December 7, 2022 5:06 pm

My parents bought a television set just so we could watch the lunar landings. Up until then, they’d never allowed one in the house.

ferdberple
December 7, 2022 8:18 pm

Dec 7. A date that will live in …..

ihzachayra
December 8, 2022 4:01 am

thanks for your information, dont forget to visit airlangga university’s website https://unair.ac.id/unair-celebrates-68th-anniversary-with-community-festival-and-team-building-olympics/

Dean S
December 8, 2022 7:01 pm

This crew sounded like they had real serious fun on the mission as well. The banter between them was amazing.

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