Is Extreme Weather Causing the World’s Rivers to Dry Up?

Reposted from American Thinker

By David R. Legates

A recent CNN article entitled “The World’s Rivers are Drying Up from Extreme Weather. See How 6 Look from Space” purports to argue that rivers such as the Colorado, Yangtze, Rhine, Po, Loire, and Danube are dwindling due to “a painful lack of rain and relentless heat waves.” The article concludes that “the human-caused climate crisis is fueling extreme weather across the globe,” which is responsible for making these rivers shrink in both length and breadth and, potentially, become virtually impassable.

While it is true that these rivers are indeed in low-flow conditions, it has long been argued that floods, droughts, and streamflow are driven by several factors in addition to precipitation. Yes, a lack of precipitation over an extended period of time will likely cause low flows in the area’s rivers. But it is not necessarily true that the existence of low flows indicates that a lack of precipitation was the culprit. Humans need water not just to survive, but to carry out a variety of water-intensive industries including paint and coating manufacturing, paper mills, wineries, and pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturing, for example. Agriculture too has a high demand for water, and the simple increase in population may tax existing water supplies.

So, it is unrealistic to simply assume that low flows in the six rivers upon which the CNN article focuses are caused by a lack of rainfall and the “relentless heat waves” that have supposedly swept the planet. In fact, the usual mantra from the climate alarmists is that rainfall will increase, not decrease. The rationale for this is that warmer conditions will lead to more evaporation (remember that more moisture can be held in saturated air at warmer temperatures than at colder temperatures), which, in turn, lead will to more rainfall, since “what goes up, must come down.” But, contrary to the actual physics, we are told that the climate becomes more “variable” under climate change in what has been referred to as “climate weirding.” This helps climate alarmists to argue that both floods and droughts will increase, as well as that both more snowfall and less snowfall is indicative of climate change.

To determine whether CNN is correct in suggesting that rivers are drying up due to “the human-caused climate crisis,” let’s take a closer look at some of these rivers.

Let’s start close to home. The Colorado River is cited as the first example, and, although CNN attributes its drying to the “historic drought in the US West,” they do not suggest that this drought is human induced. They do mention, however, that “around 40 million people in seven states and Mexico rely on the river’s water for drinking, agriculture and electricity.” But an evaluation of the current conditions from the USGS National Water Dashboard indicates, as shown below, that many stream gauge stations in western Colorado and Utah are near normal, and in New Mexico and Arizona, they are above and much above normal.

The black and dark blue dots indicate streamflow that is either at or near a record high, and the current forecast is for more rainfall. In fact, the 20th Century was the wettest century of the past millennium. Lake Mead (highlighted by the CNN article) is drying up, not because the streamflow in the region has gone to near zero, but, as University of Alabama climate scientist Roy Spencer shows, because the population of the “desert” has grown so much that the water resources of the region cannot support the water demand.

Next, the CNN article focuses on the Yangtze River in central China. The controversial Three Gorges Dam lies on the Yangtze River, and operation of the dam greatly affects the water levels of both the upstream and downstream portions of the river. Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest hydroelectric dam, but it also serves to enhance the shipping ability of the Yangtze River by controlling streamflow and reducing flood potential for downstream communities. It has adversely affected the landscape and ecology of the region, which is why it has become highly controversial, both domestically and internationally.

Earlier this year, an article in Science Alert (from a published study in Geophysical Research Letters) suggests that the biggest climate change threat to East Asia arises not from drought but from “atmospheric rivers” that will increase rainfall from more frequent and more severe events. So, which is it — lower flows or more flooding?

The remaining four rivers on which the CNN article focused lie in Europe — the Rhine in Germany, the Po in Italy, the Loire in France, and the Danube in Romania. For the Rhine, wetland restoration in the German mountains has had an impact on summer flow, particularly because “the recession flow following the peaks is higher” (i.e., the decrease in flow following the flood peak is increased), which would, according to Wetlands International, cause the water to drain faster, thereby creating a low flow sooner. The Po, too, is low due to a drought, but its flow was lower seventy years ago — well before purportedly manmade global warming took hold. The effect of draining wetlands and extensive industrialization also has had an effect on the river. Euronews reported an expert’s view that while the Loire is “drier than usual this year,” some of the photos of the Loire “are at least a dramatisation of the situation.” And the Danube in Romania is affected by extensive urban land development, the loss of flood plains, and deforestation. All three will exacerbate floods but decrease the flow during low flow conditions as little water exists in transit to the river to sustain the flow when rainfall is low.

However, the single most important factor that debunks the CNN argument that “the human-caused climate crisis is fueling extreme weather across the globe” that is causing the world’s rivers to dry up is in the pictures they choose to demonstrate their point. For five of the six rivers on which they focus (all but the Colorado River), their before-and-after aerial photography compares August 2022 to… August 2021 — just one year before. The dramatic change in just one year leads to the inescapable conclusion that this is not a climate issue; rather, it is a normal change in yearly weather conditions and local effects in dam operations. Climate change is measured over periods of at least 30 years, not a single year. On the Colorado River, diminishing streamflow is not the culprit for the low flow conditions; the highly increasing demand for water by a rapidly growing population in the desert Southwest of the United States is a far better explanation.

As is often the case, the facts usually disprove the alarmist position associated with climate change. This is no different with respect to the CNN article.

David R. Legates, Ph.D., Director of Research and Education for the Cornwall Alliance for the Stewardship of Creation, is former Professor of Climatology and Geography at the University of Delaware and co-author, with S. Fred Singer and Anthony R. Lupo, of the 3rd edition of Hot Talk, Cold Science: Global Warming’s Unfinished Debate.

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Stan Sexton
September 2, 2022 2:09 pm

The “water problem” is very tied to population. But here in SoCal, we haven’t learned anything. The powers that be are approving millions of apartment units that of course don’t use water or electricity. 

Reply to  Stan Sexton
September 2, 2022 2:36 pm

In addition, the ptb are wanting all californies in electric vehicles, even as they cannot supply the present electricity demands.

Reply to  Sturmudgeon
September 2, 2022 9:07 pm

There is an epidemic of stupidity in the world today but California is a special kind of stupid! Calif. is trying hard to prove Einstein right.
Only two things are infinite, the universe and human stupidity, and I’m not sure about the former.
Albert Einstein

Michael in Dublin
Reply to  Stan Sexton
September 3, 2022 5:32 am

Are they going to use a dry building technique?

Reply to  Michael in Dublin
September 4, 2022 10:00 am

” Are they going to use a dry building technique? ”

— No they will use a technique to build up wet conditions – or they will die.

In addition to the GHE, there is actually the explanation for upwardly deviating temperatures that an increasing lack of evaporation capacity over the land areas is responsible for it.
The following graphs indicate this.

comment image
comment image
comment image

If the troposphere loses 1% relative humidity, that means 1.3% less absolute humidity. With a total mass of atmospheric water of ~13000 km³ that is 170 km³ less during the year.
To compensate for this, we need 36-44 times this volume, since the residence time of H2O is only 8.5-10 days. There is a lack of ~ 6800 km³ evaporation capacity per year, which has accumulated over thousands of years through land use change (sealing, drainage, slash-and-burn, …etc.).
How a global energy balance could look like over land areas with 1350 km³/y of additional evaporation (irrigation, rewetting moors, etc.) can be seen in the graph GEB +9L/m² and is better explained here:
comment image

H Fan
Reply to  Stan Sexton
September 3, 2022 4:55 pm

San Diego has. Rates are high, but there is no shortage.

Gryunt Monglaar
Reply to  Stan Sexton
September 3, 2022 7:58 pm

This is an everywhere problem, and worse in places where the water is mostly “invisible” (i.e., everyone has a well).

September 2, 2022 2:15 pm

Talking about extreme weather
comment image
Is this another joke from NASA, did you spot human face?
But who is it?
It has looks of Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) American astronomer, the first to determine the size and shape of our galaxy.

Last edited 4 months ago by vuk
Old Cocky
Reply to  Vuk
September 2, 2022 5:35 pm

Gee, those Cybermen get around.

The Dalek must be hiding, though.

David Kamakaris
Reply to  Vuk
September 2, 2022 6:04 pm

Looks like Joe Biden trying to read his teleprompter.

Robert B
Reply to  Vuk
September 2, 2022 7:42 pm

Looks more like Dora Maar.

Sorry, but you need to help me out, here.

Reply to  Robert B
September 3, 2022 12:48 am

Zoom in to the centre of the image.

Old Cocky
Reply to  Vuk
September 3, 2022 1:04 am

The Cyberman is half way up on the left, about 1/4 of the way across.

People are very good at finding patterns, especially faces, where there aren’t any.

Reply to  Robert B
September 3, 2022 11:10 am

there, you are

Tom Halla
September 2, 2022 2:24 pm

Legates should have used the rainfall v water demand chart for the Colorado. Rainfall has been varying in the same range over the history, but demand has gone consistently up.

Reply to  Tom Halla
September 2, 2022 2:34 pm

Thank you.

Rud Istvan
September 2, 2022 2:37 pm

If we had evidence that these river’s low flows (except the Colorado, which is a water use not water flow issue) had endured at least 30 years, then we might infer climate change. BUT one summer only of low flow by definition is just weather.

Reply to  Rud Istvan
September 2, 2022 3:48 pm

Bad weather = climate change
Good weather = weather
Get with the program !

September 2, 2022 3:40 pm

“World’s Rivers to Dry Up?
Not down here in Australia.,. absolutely nothing is “dry” down here !

Reply to  b.nice
September 2, 2022 3:42 pm
Len Werner
Reply to  b.nice
September 2, 2022 4:41 pm

Apparently not in Pakistan either.

Clarky of Oz
Reply to  b.nice
September 2, 2022 5:13 pm

The 1956 floods in the Murray River (Australia’s greatest river) were the highest ever recorded. Nothing has even come close in the decades since. I do not believe CAGW had anything to do with the 56 flood or subsequent smaller floods or intervening dry spells.

Robert B
Reply to  Clarky of Oz
September 2, 2022 7:44 pm

And there is evidence that there was one four times bigger just before Europeans arrived.

Reply to  Robert B
September 2, 2022 8:10 pm

I read about that flood and Maitland on the Hunter River of New South Wales, inland from the Port of Newcastle at the head of the Hunter River, the flood at Maitland covered a nearby hill that has not been submerged since.

The local Aborigine tribes told early settlers after colonisation January 1788 that the Hunter River had earlier been completely dry from the high tide mark up into the hills where the tribes gathered to take advantage of natural spring fed water holes.

Reply to  Clarky of Oz
September 2, 2022 8:06 pm

And in the early 1900s the Murray-Darling river system was dry in many places during a severe drought.

Reply to  Clarky of Oz
September 2, 2022 8:42 pm

I wonder what the weather patterns were in 1956 because I remember massive flooding in the city where I grew up in the midwest USA. My parents to me down to the bottoms to see the damage. I still have a memory of that.

Reply to  b.nice
September 2, 2022 8:05 pm

The land of droughts and flooding rains, Australia.

Reply to  b.nice
September 3, 2022 9:48 pm

Across the wide brown land downunder it seems most Govts State & Fed have GreenLeft anti-dam bureaucracies who favour letting rain water wash down rivers direct to the sea.  That’s the default imperative now. Some States use so called “Wild Rivers” laws to bolster the case for rapid rainwater to sea movement.

Richard Page
September 2, 2022 5:03 pm

One of the major components of the Rhine, and a factor that can determine low or high flow rates, is snow and glacier melt in the German mountains. In years when there has been more retention of snow and little glacier melt there has been a significant reduction in water levels of the Rhine.

Old Man Winter
Reply to  Richard Page
September 2, 2022 6:05 pm

Climate is the Poster Child for Warmunista abuse- low rivers,
glaciers melting, high rivers, growing glaciers, more snow/rain,
less snow/rain, hot weather, cold weather…. It’s all a sign
of glow-bull warming!

Old Man Winter
September 2, 2022 5:12 pm

H.L. Mencken- “The whole aim of practical politics is to keep the populace
alarmed (and hence clamorous to be led to safety) by menacing it with an
endless series of hobgoblins, all of them imaginary.”

Since Arctic & Greenland ice levels aren’t cooperating with Algore, the
Atlantic hurricane season has started very slow, & the W US burn acreage
is so far very low as of yet, the theme for scaring people this year is
drought & heat. In one case, water was diverted into an irrigation canal for
a stretch of the Rio Grande River before being put back into it. Despite
satellite imagery showing this & knowing there were record rains in New
Mexico, they claimed the Rio Grande was going dry- an obvious BOLD
FACED LIE. What chutzpah!

September 2, 2022 6:11 pm

I know I’m way off topic for the thousandth time but, dammit, they have totally lost their minds.

Richard Page
Reply to  john
September 2, 2022 7:37 pm

No their minds are pretty much normal for Democrats – to them, he would be the perfect choice to funnel money to the ‘people who matter’ and away from the ‘little people.’
And goes to show that no matter which Democrats the American people vote for they just get the same government as before. Petain once remarked that a hallmark of a fascist government was a complete lack of choice to the voter; the UK and USA do seem to be lurching in that direction, don’t they?

Paul Johnson
September 2, 2022 7:20 pm

It’s surprising how often an “unprecedented” drought or glacial retreat reveals historical evidence of that exact thing happening in the past.

Reply to  Paul Johnson
September 2, 2022 8:11 pm

Earth Cycles

September 2, 2022 8:04 pm

Meanwhile here in Australia and Mid Coast New South Wales torrential rain is falling again since yesterday with predictions that very wet conditions can be expected here well into the summer months, again.

There are have been major floods on and off since early 2020.

Jon R
September 2, 2022 8:08 pm

Before I could comment  I would need to know are we talking about like a nacho burrito type extreme or like a MAGA destroyer of Republic type extreme??

paul courtney
Reply to  Jon R
September 3, 2022 4:02 am

Mr. R: This is far more dangerous and alarming than MAGA destroyer or any burrito combo. Ordinarily we have a problem created by progressives, and they propose spending on non-solutions. Here, we have a problem (too many users) that is an actual problem which will only get worse as progs mis-diagnose the issue as “AGW-caused drought”. Progs are great for imposing solutions that spend money and make the problem worse. I wonder if letting folks walk in from the south will make the “too many user” problem worse?

Jon R
Reply to  paul courtney
September 4, 2022 12:53 pm

Well I guess this time of extreme stupidity isn’t much worse than the pueblo Indians who tried over and over
They’ll find out.

Peta of Newark
September 3, 2022 12:40 am

OK, some light in the tunnel.


  1. numbers of people
  2. farming and tillage
  3. city building
  4. dam construction
  5. wetland drainage
  6. deforestation

….. all contributed to the low river-flows, the (seeming) drought and flash-flooding
Those things are all (to be expected) manifestations of Climate Change soooooo:
Which came first? What caused what?

Were those activities (1 > 6) caused by:

  • CO2 instigated Climate Change
  • Natural Variation by some unseen hand
  • Sunspots, Mankowich, Cosmic Rays etc
  • …..or……
  • Did they Change the Climate and the CO2
  • Are they still actively changing the CO2 and the Climate

To be absolutely clear, The Climate Is Changing.
The only one clear single observation that’s needed are brown-water flash-floods coming down rivers where previously, let’s say 4 generations ago, they did not.

Reply to  Peta of Newark
September 4, 2022 1:08 pm

First off this from NOAA:

Today, climate scientists split the Earth into approximately five main types of climates. They are:

A: Tropical. In this hot and humid zone, the average temperatures are greater than 64°F (18°C) year-round and there is more than 59 inches of precipitation each year.

B: Dry. These climate zones are so dry because moisture is rapidly evaporated from the air and there is very little precipitation.

C: Temperate. In this zone, there are typically warm and humid summers with thunderstorms and mild winters.

D. Continental. These regions have warm to cool summers and very cold winters. In the winter, this zone can experience snowstorms, strong winds, and very cold temperatures—sometimes falling below -22°F (-30°C)!

E: Polar. In the polar climate zones, it’s extremely cold. Even in summer, the temperatures here never go higher than 50°F (10°C)!

I think we would all agree that the CONUS has three of those zones: Dry (American Southwest), Continental (the upper central plains), and Temperate (the rest of the US). Notice that all of these are defined by their average weather, not extremes. Extreme outliers exist in every natural system, so if Kentucky has several “thousand-year” flood events over a couple of years, which climate type is it “changing” to? Certainly not Dry; doesn’t look like Continental is a very good match, either. And Polar and Tropical are Right Out.

Items 1-6 are all human activities. CO2 didn’t cause the increase in paved surfaces, which reduce rainfall from being absorbed into the soil. It didn’t cause some countries to deforest large areas of the ground — which also reduces soil intake.

Finally, this warming started in the late 1800s, long before there was enough human-produced CO2 in the atmosphere to have any GHE. That warming right there falsifies the AGW hypothesis. At most, it’s been a slight accelerant.

September 3, 2022 1:05 am


Next question…

Reply to  griff
September 3, 2022 4:08 am

Interesting answer.
Please show your working.

Richard Page
Reply to  Oldseadog
September 3, 2022 6:21 am

His working? That would assume that Griffy actually thought this through when, in fact, we know Griffy doesn’t think, he only feelz!

Gunga Din
Reply to  griff
September 3, 2022 8:21 am

August 11, 2022 10:14 am
another ‘1 in 1,000 year’ rain event – well off the scale of previous Kentucky floods.

Of course this is climate change.

We are getting multiple new record 1 in 1,000 year floods across the globe every year now…”

Make up your mind, griff!

Gunga Din
Reply to  griff
September 3, 2022 9:09 am

This is the second time in two days that I’ve made a comment that disappeared. After coming back to them 15 or minutes later and seeing they was gone, I retyped them and put them back up.
Both times both the new comment and the the old one showed up.
(I used “edit” to then change the new one to something else like I did here.)

Last edited 4 months ago by Gunga Din
Reply to  griff
September 3, 2022 3:39 pm

And another lie spewed by the lie spewing liar! Good job, c*nt.

Reply to  griff
September 3, 2022 10:10 pm

But you claim it is making things wetter 3% in UK alone.

Your response makes no sense … next answer?

Rod Evans
September 3, 2022 1:20 am

You have to admire the Climate Alarmists ability to flog their dead donkey.
They have tried virtually every story that contains a negative and woven it into ‘Man Made Climate Change’
We have had the GBR dying stories pushed for the past ten years by the media, only to be shown the GBR is normal, thanks to the honesty and sacrifice of people like Peter Ridd reporting the actual truth.
We have had ‘accelerating sea level rise’ attributed to MMCC. This one continues to be popular with Alarmists even as each and every reference to the rising sea levels are shown to be either normal rates, typical of past glaciation declines recorded as such for thousands of years , or the land is heaving or falling relative to the nominal sea level on the planet.
The hurricanes are going to intensify due to MMCC they broadcast, certain that a hurricane will come to show how right they are. Their problem is the trends show the storms we name are getting less pronounced and less powerful, than they have been in the periods prior to so called human influence on weather, sorry I mean climate, sorry about that, inadvertent Griff slip there, sorry.. 
Wild fires are less wild, but more widely reported this century than they were in the last.
Droughts come and they go. When they come it is due to MMCC, when they go it is again due to MMCC as the inevitable flood takes over their news coverage.
The Guardian News Paper here in the UK, is the co-ordinating agent for all climate alarm stories world wide. They are proud of their central role in spreading nonsense, it is what they do. They are assisted in their task by their broadcasting partner the BBC.
The consequence of these agents of doom, is the Net Zero movement has captured and destroyed several gullible high profile politicians, Boris being the name currently in the news, but Frau Merkel precedes him. Who knows what will become of the Green Commander in Chief as his term in office rolls along?
The damage caused by the hype presented by the Media is immeasurable, yet they do not see the dangerous part they play. 
People have lost confidence in Main Stream Media sources and for good reason. The media report knowingly false stories! That presents us with an uncomfortable question.
If the media is not to be believed, who is?

Last edited 4 months ago by Rod Evans
Tom Abbott
Reply to  Rod Evans
September 3, 2022 4:12 am

“If the media is not to be believed, who is?”

You definitely cannot believe the Leftwing Media. They have a leftwing political bias which slants their reporting of events, wittingly or unwittingly.

There are a few honest reporters still out there. You just have to find them and use your own common sense to try to figure out the truth.

One good rule of thumb is to always assume the leftwing press is distorting the truth for political purposes because they almost always are. And don’t believe anything they say about Trump. It’s all a distortion of reality. The only way to get the true meaning of Trump’s statements and actions is to listen to Trump. The Leftwing Media spins anything he says so as to put him in the worst light possible.

The Lying Leftwing Media is the greatest danger to the personal freedoms of all of us. The nation cannot govern itself properly if the people are constantly fed partisan political lies. That’s what has been happening and is happening now. That’s why we have a fool like Joe Biden as president. If the truth were told, Joe Biden wouldn’t have a chance of being president, and the Democrat Party would be a failed political party peopled only by the lunatics.

We’ve been lied into putting Joe Biden and the lawless Democrats in charge of our lives. How’s that working out for everyone? Thanks Lying Leftwing Media.

I guess we are going to see pretty soon just how many people the Lying Leftwing Media can fool. Can the Leftwing Media lie enough to keep the lawless Democrats in power?

Trump is giving his first public speech since the lawless Democrats invaded his house, tonight at 5pm U.S. central time. That ought to be interesting. So much so to me, that I will have to record part of the University of Oklahoma football game today because Trump’s speech starts at about halftime.

I imagine Trump will have a few things to say about the situation. I wonder how many people will show up tonight? I expect to see a roaring crowd.

Newmax tv will carry the Trump speech live. All the Fox News viewers like me will be tuning to Newmax because the idiots running Fox News refuse to cover Trump’s speeches. That’s ok. Go ahead and lose a few million viewers during that time. Those running Fox News are censoring Trump. They are aiding the lawless Democrats in their attempted takeover of the United States by force.

Anyone who votes for a Democrat is aiding the lawless Democrats in their attempted takeover of the United States by force. It doesn’t matter if your Democrat represents you well. What matters is electing that Democrat gives the lawless Democrat leadership the ability to become our dictators when they use the power of the press and the power of the federal government to weaponze both to gain and keep power in perpetuity, as they are attempting to do now.

If you vote for a Democrat, you are voting to throw your personal freedoms away. You are giving them the ability to take them away, and they will if you get in their way. Look at what they are doing to Trump right in front of our eyes. If they can do this to Trump, they can do this to you. Don’t put them in a position to do so ever again. Don’t vote for Democrats.

Last edited 4 months ago by Tom Abbott
Climate believer
September 3, 2022 1:36 am

CNN? who cares what they think?

Answer: nobody.

Michael in Dublin
September 3, 2022 5:28 am

In March 2018 Cape Town was on the verge of “Day Zero” and the media were cheering on the first major city to run out of water. This was blamed on extreme weather with much more promised. As the fifth winter rainfall season draws to a close (with about a month to go) the main dams are 84% full and have been close to or even completely full over the past five seasons. The weather evidently did not get the climate memo.

Richard Page
Reply to  Michael in Dublin
September 3, 2022 6:34 am

Cape Town is a clear case in point where the reservoirs in the catchment area haven’t been expanded in 40+ years but the agriculture and industry (some very good brewery’s) upstream of Cape Town have done. In addition the population of the city has increased by about 4 times it’s size in that same time period, leading to a massive drain on the water resources; the area around Cape Town gets rainfall every year but this fluctuates – some years just enough to half fill the reservoirs, some years they fill completely. The message was that, as the population increased, so should the water capacity of the reservoirs but, unfortunately, that message was drowned out by the steady, monotonous chant of ‘climate change’ so that now the city hasn’t increased it’s storage and the next low rainfall period will see the same thing happen.

Michael in Dublin
Reply to  Richard Page
September 3, 2022 11:09 am

My first visit to Cape Town was the winter of 1963. It was green and lush like the West coast of Ireland. You are right about the problem not being a climate one. It is due to bad management by central government who are responsible for building of dams – which get no further than committee discussions. 

Gryunt Monglaar
Reply to  Richard Page
September 3, 2022 8:02 pm

Nobody’s maintain current infrastructure anywhere, much less expanding it.

Except in Asia.

September 3, 2022 1:08 pm

Extreme ignorance of empirical data is allowing propaganda to replace reason for the masses. Official measurements are dismissed as misinformation by the brainwashed. Anything slightly contrary to obvious media lies are branded as a right wing conspiracy.

Martin Mason
September 3, 2022 4:00 pm

The low levels in the Danube are mainly the result of corruption between local agriculture and local government along the river. Massive amounts of water are pumped out of the Danube to water crops paid for by bribes to local government. Disgusting? No we love the low prices of the crops. A disaster of course because it gives the screamers the chance to blame MMCC which is the last reason

Curious George
September 4, 2022 11:51 am

Why don’t they look at Indus river in Pakistan? One third of that country is under water.

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