Weekly Climate and Energy News Roundup #193

The Week That Was: 2015-08-22 (August 22, 2015) Brought to You by SEPP (www.SEPP.org) The Science and Environmental Policy Project


By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

Administration’s Power Plan: Independent analysts continue to provide details of the Obama Administration’s politically named “Clean Power Plan” (CPP). These studies make clear that the only forms of new electrical power generation the administration considers “clean” are solar and wind. Electric power generation from fossil fuels are condemned by the administration. Hydroelectric generation is out of favor, as explained by ex-EPA official Alan Carlin. There are no plans for federally supported new dam construction in the US. In fact, the thrust has been to tear down existing dams in the name of the environment.

Nuclear energy, which produces no carbon dioxide (CO2) is not an option. The administration mothballed the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and has not offered solutions for an alternative. Indeed, in 2009 the EPA published in the Federal Register a rule limiting radiation doses from Yucca Mountain for up to 1,000,000 years after it closes, demonstrating the absurd durations the administration considers its edicts are enforceable. Biomass burning on a large scale would require clearing the forests, as was done in the eastern US in the 18th and 19th centuries, which would be politically unacceptable.

This leaves only solar and wind as the major sources of electrical power generation. Both are unreliable, erratic, and expensive. The Administration’s concept would be more appropriately termed the unreliable power plan.

Even with its plans to prevent new, reliable electrical-power generation, a report by the Institute for 21st Century Energy of U.S. Chamber of Commerce finds the plan falls far short of the goals set by Mr. Obama.

“Even with these fairly generous estimates, these measures, which include some programs that haven’t even been announced yet, would fall about 800 MMTCO2 [Million Metric Tons of CO2], or 45%, short of the president’s goal. How does administration intend to plug the remaining gap? It hasn’t said. When asked by the Financial Times about the holes in the administration’s INDC [Intended Nationally Determined Contributions pledged for the UN-Conference of Parties (COP 21) in Paris in December], White House official Rick Duke chose to deny existence of a problem and instead change the subject: ‘Our numbers are quite clear. It’s other countries where we see more opportunities to clarify what the plans are.’” Boldface added.

We need other countries to define what our plans are? What will the administration do to fill the 45% shortfall is anyone’s guess? The report indicates that major industries should be on the alert. “Still, seeing as the entire industrial sector emitted a little over 800 MMTCO2 in 2013, even very steep cuts by industry won’t deliver nearly what’s needed”, according to the US Chamber.

Terry Jarrett, a former commissioner of the Missouri Public Service Commission, observed: “And if you’re skeptical of the threat posed by man-made CO2 in an ever-changing climate, then you’ll likely balk at the stunning price tag for this new set of rules, which the U.S. Chamber of Commerce estimates at an annual cost of $51 billion in lost GDP and 224,000 jobs lost.”

One can quibble about the numbers, but the direction is clear, the Administration is willing to damage an already weak economy (real growth rate of about 2% during the Administration), in order to fight global warming/climate change – an enemy so ill-defined that the Administration has failed to grasp the natural causes of climate change. See links under The Administration’s Plan – Independent Analysis, and The Administration’s Plan – Push-Back.


Quote of the Week: “Making dire predictions is what environmental groups do for a living, and it’s a competitive market, so they exaggerate.” – Matt Ridley, WSJ


Number of the Week: 119%


Needed Research: On his web site, Roy Spencer, co-founder of the method of measuring atmospheric temperatures by satellites, the only comprehensive, virtually global measurements existing, reported that: “As part of a DOE grant we are testing climate models against satellite observations, particularly regarding the missing ‘hotspot’ in the tropics, that is, the expected region of enhanced warming in the tropical mid- and upper troposphere as the surface warms. Since 1979 (the satellite period of record), it appears that warming in those upper layers has been almost non-existent, despite some surface warming and increases in low-level humidity.”

It is unclear if “we” refers to the entire group that reports global temperatures, based at the University of Alabama in Huntsville or not.

The research is much need. In its Second Assessment Report, (AR2 – 1996), the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) erroneously asserted the “hot-spot” was the distinct human fingerprint, which it is not. In 2007, Douglass, Christy, Pearson and Singer found the “hot spot” exists in the models, but not in observations. No one has been able to produce data establishing the “hot-spot.” The issue is more fully discussed at: http://multi-science.metapress.com/content/k7v3v4173346317x/. Yet, it is a critical part of the EPA’s 2009 finding that human greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2, endanger human health and welfare. Without EPA’s finding, the Administration has no legal or scientific basis for severely restricting CO2 emissions as prescribed in its CPP. See link under Challenging the Orthodoxy.


Balancing the Load: One of the topics avoided by the promoters of wind and solar, including government officials, is the need for balancing the load on the electrical grid. That is, roughly equating consumption with generation. Too much electricity generated at one time will blow transformers, capacitors, and other devices designed to give the system stability. The system will fail and it may require some time before it can be repaired. Too little electricity generated at one time results in brown-outs, black-outs and other forms of failure. The load must be balanced constantly, and utility companies do so by engaging electricity providers, daily, on an as needed basis. The electricity provided is often far more expensive than electricity provided consistently. Conversely, excess electricity must be dumped at low prices.

The only major form of electricity storage in general use is pumped-hydro storage. This usually involves pumping water uphill from one reservoir at one elevation to another reservoir at higher elevation, (several hundred feet higher). From the second reservoir, the water can be drawn down through hydroelectric turbines to create power when needed. In general, the system loses about 20 to 30% of available power and requires large reservoirs. The largest such facility is in Bath County, Virginia. Unfortunately, EPA clean water regulations are making the new construction of such facilities very difficult, even where geologically feasible.

On her web site, Jo Nova has graphs showing the erratic nature Australian Wind Energy Production in July and first half of August. Similar patterns are found elsewhere such as West Denmark: http://www.emd.dk/el/ and the Pacific Northwest (Bonneville Power Authority) http://transmission.bpa.gov/Business/Operations/Wind/baltwg.aspx.Zero values are not unusual. From August 17 to August 23, 2015, wind power generation at Bonneville varied from zero to over 4,000 MW, most of the time near the bottom.

No amount of government edicts or regulations will stabilize the wind. In the US, the Administration’s and EPA’s power plan suppresses stable, reliable forms of electricity generation in favor of erratic and unreliable solar and wind; yet, other regulations by the EPA and Administration suppress the ability to stabilize erratic electrical power so generated. See links under Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind


Capacity Factors: Another topic that promoters of solar and wind seldom discuss is capacity factors, which is a measure of reliability. Nameplate capacity is often used by promoters who will often statements of maximum capacity, such as the facility will provide enough electricity to power 500,000 homes. But nameplate capacity is not particularly meaningful if the facility will power 500,000 home only 5 minutes a day. Preston Cooper of the Manhattan Institute discusses capacity factors of various energy sources in the U.S. By far, in 2013, the greatest average capacity factor was 90.9% for existing nuclear, meaning that the nuclear plants remain on line, generating electricity over 90% of the time. Of course, nuclear is being suppressed by the Administration.

The greatest capacity factor for renewables is geothermal at 67.2%. Certainly, geothermal works well in Iceland, but few urban areas are built where geological plates are separating. There are few locations for geothermal in the US.

Biomass burning at 67.1% has a higher capacity factor than coal (steam turbine) at 58.9%, or natural gas (combined cycle) at 50.3%. Unfortunately, these statistics can be misleading. Biomass is used largely at paper-making and wood pulp locations where the waste is burned at the location for electricity. Other than the paper and wood industries, Biomass means little. Since coal is used more for base-load, it has an indicated higher capacity than natural gas, which is often used for more inefficient shoulder and peak-load.

When used alone, the capacity factors of erratic sources of electricity such as solar and wind are misleading because the power is not always available when needed. See links under Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind.


The Hiatus Again? Science Magazine published an article by Kevin Trenberth of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a well-known member of the climate establishment that helps generate the IPCC reports. Reading past the puffery, the article uses global mean surface temperatures to assert a staircase for rising temperatures since 1920. First a rise from 1920 to 1940, then a stable period (hiatus) to 1975, then a rise to 1998, then another inflection point reflecting a lower rate of rise from 1998 to present (all dates are approximate). Trenberth asserts that other than “human-induced climate change” the greatest driver of the temperature variation is the El Niño–Southern Oscillation in the Pacific Ocean. “The year 1998 was the warmest on record in the 20th century because of the 1997–1998 El Niño, the biggest such event on record.”

There are several issues with this analysis. One, a more traditional analysis would have the initial warming from about 1910 to 1940, followed by a modest cooling to 1975, followed an increase to 2003 (the 1997-98 El Niño year is ignored), followed by the current hiatus. The rate of the first warming is about the same as the rate of the second warming. This goes to the central point, what is the cause of the first warming? CO2 emissions were very low. A secondary point: is the cause of the second warming period different than the cause of the first warming period? The IPCC claims the second warming was caused by human greenhouse gas emissions, but offers no compelling evidence.

Another significant issue is the great inconsistency (since 1979) between global mean surface temperatures, with frequent adjustments, and the far more comprehensive satellite data, independently supported by measurements from weather balloons. Would Science Magazine published a similar study by Roy Spencer and John Christy using their data? All this undermines EPA’s claimed evidence that greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2, endanger public health and welfare. For the paper and other criticisms, see links under Defending the Orthodoxy.


Oil Glut? Watching those who predicted that oil prices will never fall back away from their predictions is more fun than watching those who predicated unprecedented and dangerous global warming back away from their predictions. With the first group, their predictions did not become part of US national policy. With the second group, their predictions are becoming an economically damaging part of US national policy.

Now, with the first group, instead of the world running out of oil, some analysts are forecasting an oil glut with the price dropping to $30 per barrel. The governments of petro-states, whose existence depends on high oil prices, should be worried.

With second group, western governments are insisting their policies are correct, the danger of human-caused global warming/climate change are established, regardless of the lack of evidence. The citizens of these countries, whose well-being depends on a rational, properly functioning government, should be worried. See Articles # 1 & # 2 and links under Energy Issues – Non-US


Merchants Again? Jo Nova and Luboš Motl reported that the film, “Merchants of Doubt”, failed at the box office’ but. It is now being considered for schools. In his youth, Motl lived under Communism and identifies the film as propaganda. In the US, Edward Bernays, “the father of modern advertising” “pioneered the scientific technique of shaping and manipulating public opinion, which he called ‘engineering of consent.’” During World War I, Bernays was an integral part of the US Committee on Public Information, which sold the war to the US public as necessary “to make the world safe for democracy.”

The opening chapter of his 1928 book, Propaganda, Bernays titles as “Organizing Chaos” with the opening paragraph stating:

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.”

Based on their book Merchants of Doubt by Oreskes and Conway and the recent film, one can ask: who are the masses that need to be manipulated? Could it be those who believe the book and the film? See links under Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda and Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda on Children


Number of the Week: 119%. The 2014 Annual Report by Energinet.dk, the government-owned company that transmits electrical power in Denmark, estimates that by 2020 it will have the capacity to import 8,000 MW of electricity, when needed. The expected maximum electricity consumption will be about 6,700 MW. Thus, the country has the ability to import 119% of expected maximum electricity consumption even if there is zero production from the 6,900 MW wind turbine and solar cell capacity and zero production from the 5,700 MW central and local power station capacity. How many countries has such generous neighbors such as Sweden and Norway that allow sharing, largely with pumped-hydro storage? Of course, the capacity is not free. No wonder Denmark has the highest consumer electricity costs in the EU! See link under Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind



Please note that articles not linked easily or summarized here are reproduced in the Articles Section of the full TWTW that can be found on the web site under the date of the TWTW.

1. A Crude Victory

Banning America from exporting oil while allowing Iran to do it.

Editorial, WSJ, Aug 14, 2015


SUMMARY: The editorial points out that the Administration’s decision to allow oil exports to Mexico is technically a swap – some US oil for some Mexican oil. The editorial writers assert Washington forbidding exports of oil makes no sense: “when America is becoming one of the world’s leading oil and gas producers. Today the main effect of the ban is to discourage some American producers from drilling for more supply, while leading others to get around the ban by exporting their oil in the form of refined gasoline and diesel, which can be exported.”


“There are also good strategic reasons for lifting the ban. It’s absurd to keep American oil producers from selling crude oil on global markets at a moment when the U.S. is about to lift the limits imposed by sanctions on the Iranians. Expanding the supply of U.S. oil would also provide allies in Eastern Europe with alternatives to their current oil dependence on Vladimir Putin’s Russia.


“The great irony is that President Obama, who has not been shy about asserting executive power, has the authority to allow American crude exports without Congress. But he’s made no move to do so…” and remains quiet on a bill eliminating the ban on exports.


2. Canadian Oil-Sands Producers Struggle

Drop in crude prices, high costs challenge whether deposits can be extracted at a profit

By Chester Dawson, WSJ, Aug 19, 2015


SUMMARY: “Canada’s high-cost oil-sands producers are struggling as oil prices sink to fresh six-year lows, and even the most efficient drillers are losing money on every barrel they produce at current prices, according to a report published Wednesday. [Not linked.]

“Canadian oil-sands production has grown 30% in the past five years but the recent price slump has hit producers’ bottom lines and forced them to suspend development of new projects.

“Western Canadian heavy crude costs more to extract than other oil sources because it must be separated from deposits of sand. It also trades at a discount to other crudes, in part because of the distance it must be transported from remote boreal forests in Alberta.


“Benchmark West Texas Intermediate oil cost less than $41 a barrel in Wednesday trading, which although at multiyear lows was still well above the Western Canadian Select average of around $24 a barrel.


“More than half of current oil-sands production can’t break even unless WTI crude-oil prices rise above $44 a barrel, according to a TD Securities Inc. report published Wednesday.”


“While about 45% of oil-sands production comes from strip mines, the remainder is tapped via horizontally or vertically drilled wells. Operators pump steam into these wells to melt deposits of crude embedded in sand using techniques called steam-assisted gravity drainage, or SAGD, and cyclic steam stimulation, or CSS. Current prices may no longer allow operators to cover the costs involved in extracting those deposits of heavy crude, or bitumen.


“Oil sands too deep for strip mines that must be tapped by drilling wells account for about 80% of Canada’s remaining reserves, which form the world’s third-largest source of undeveloped oil. But chronic cost overruns amid the pressure of lower oil prices are calling into question how much of those reserves can be recovered profitably.


“Despite lower prices, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers expects oil-sands output to continue to grow another 30% through 2020 as multibillion-dollar projects already under construction start producing.


“All the oil-sands crude—most of which is exported to the U.S.—is forcing rival heavy-crude producers like Venezuela, Mexico and Colombia to lower their prices to compete.”



Science: Is the Sun Rising?

The Sunspots 2.0? Irrelevant. The Sun, still is.

By Nir Shaviv, Science Bits, Aug 10, 2015


Reply to Eschenbach

By Nir Shaviv, Science Bits, Aug 15, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Rebuttal to a critique on the above.]

Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?

New paper finds another solar amplification mechanism by which solar activity & cosmic rays control climate

By Staff Writer, The Hockey Schtick, Aug 19, 2015


Warming the Stratosphere – And Adding Credence to Solar Variability?

Guest essay by Steven Capozzola, WUWT, Aug 14, 2015


Challenging the Orthodoxy

New Evidence Regarding Tropical Water Vapor Feedback, Lindzen’s Iris Effect, and the Missing Hotspot

By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Aug 17, 2015


Study: German Scientists Conclude 20th Century Warming “Nothing Unusual” …Foresee “Global Cooling Until 2080″!

By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Aug 21, 2015


Defusing the methane bomb

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 18, 2015


Link to press release: On warmer Earth, most of Arctic may remove, not add, methane

By Staff Writers, Princeton University, Aug 17, 2015


[SEPP Comment: More reason to doubt promoters of the fear of the methane bomb – which did not detonate during the Holocene Climate Optimum some 5,000 to 8,000 years ago.]

How Does The IPCC Explain the Severe Storms Of History?

Guest Opinion Dr. Tim Ball, WUWT, Aug 19, 2015


The Green Scare Problem

Environmental threats are often exaggerated, and remedies do more harm

By Matt Ridley, Rational Optimist, Aug 16, 2015


Originally in WSJ briefly summarized in Aug 15 TWTW

Defending the Orthodoxy

Has there been a hiatus?

By Kevin Trenberth, Science, Aug 14, 2015


The global warming hiatus re-examined

By Steve Davidson, CDN, Aug 19, 2015 [H/t Climate Etc.]


“Clearly, either Argo and the satellites are wrong, or Karl’s re-analysis is wrong. The hiatus is either real or it is not.

This much is certain, though: The science is not settled.”

[SEPP Comment: See link immediately above.]

Trenberth Is Wrong About Global Warming: The PDO Is An Effect, Not A Cause

By William Briggs, His Blog, Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: See Trenberth article above.]

Another excuse for the pause, Trenberth says ‘Internal climate variability masks climate-warming trends’

By Anthony Watts WUWT, Aug 13, 2015


Questioning the Orthodoxy

Alan Carlin’s “environmentalism Gone Mad” [Book Review]

By Steven Hayward, Power Line, Aug 18, 2015 [H/t Timothy Wise]


Cost of global warming wildly exaggerated

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 21, 2015


Link to study: Selective Reporting and the Social Cost of Carbon

By Havranek, Irsova, Jada, and Zilberman, CAMA, Aug 1, 2015


How we broke the climate change debates. Lessons learned for the future

By Guest Blogger Larry Kummer, WUWT, Aug 17, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Not clear who “we” references.]

Rare Win For Forces Of Sanity: Or, PM2.5 Isn’t As Scary As We’ve Been Told

By William Briggs, His Blog, Aug 21, 2015


[SEPP Comment: A practical example of overcoming a misuse of statistics.]

The wit and wisdom of Dr Glikson

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 17, 2015


The China – US Agreement?

U.S. Climate Deal with China Is No Deal At All

Editorial, IER, Aug 19, 2015


China’s Emissions Lowered Slightly

By Editors, Real Clear Energy, Aug 21, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Is this considered as compliance to the China-US agreement?]

Carbon accounting error reduces China’s emissions tally by twice Australia’s entire output

By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Aug 20, 2015


On to Paris!

EU urges major economies to submit climate summit targets

By Lachlan Carmichael, AFP, Aug 20, 2015 [H/t GWPF]


The ‘End of the high seas,’ or we watch the seas die

By Staff Writers, Munich, Germany (SPX) ,Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: We can expect many more disaster reports for spreading fear of CO2 in preparation for Paris.]

The Administration’s Plan – Independent Analysis

The Poor and Sick Suffer Under Obama’s Carbon Rule

By Caroline Bruff, IER, Aug 13, 2015 [H/t Timothy Wise]


Clean Energy Incentive Program: New Unlawful Element in EPA’s Power Plant Rule?

By Marlo Lewis, Global Warming.org, Aug 19, 2015


Jarrett: EPA’s Changes to Power Grid Could Wreck the Economy

By Terry Jarrett, Breitbart, Aug 12, 2015


UPDATE: Mind the Gap: The Obama Administration’s International Climate Pledge Doesn’t Add Up

By Stephen Eule, Institute for 21st Century Energy, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Aug 10, 215


The Administration’s Plan – Push-Back

The Obama-Clinton One-Two Blackout

By Alex Epstein, Forbes, Aug 5, 2015


“In 1985, Obama’s science advisor John Holdren predicted that by now we’d be approaching a billion CO2-related deaths from famine.”

Burney and Hampson: Obama Is In NO Position to Lead the World On Climate

By Derek Burney and Fen Osler Hampson, The Globe and Mail, [Canada] Via GWPF, Aug 18, 2015


Obama plan has no role for nuclear power

By Mark Perry, AEI, Aug 10, 2015


One potential loser in Obama’s climate plan? Existing nuclear plants.

By Brad Plumer, Vox, Aug 19, 2015


Opinion/Letter: EPA plan has little effect on climate

By Charles Battig, The Daily Progress, Charlottesville, VA, Aug 17, 2015


You Ought to Have a Look: Clean Power Plan Comes Under Fire

By Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger and Patrick J. Michaels, Cato, Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Interesting graph on the EPA’s increasing use of the term carbon “pollution.” Apparently, EPA officials consider themselves to be carbon-free life forms.]

Head of EPA Admits Climate Regulations Will Hit Low-Income Minority Families Hardest

By Nicolas Loris, Daily Signal, Aug 19, 2015


Dictatorial Powers

By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Aug 14, 2015


Report: EPA’s Global Warming Rule Could KILL Thousands Of People

By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller, Aug 17, 2015


EPA’s Green Attack on Red States

By Larry Bell, Newsmax, Aug 17, 2015


Obama Declares War On Natural Gas

Editorial, IBD, Aug 18, 2015 [H/t Timothy Wise]


EPA’s Methane Policy: Statistically Trivial For The Planet And Terrible For The Economy

By Mark Mills, Forbes Aug 21, 2015


Social Benefits of Carbon

The Fruitful Earth and CO2 Fertilization: A Biblical Defense (Part I: Essential Questions)

By Craig Idso, Master Resource, Aug 19, 2015


The Fruitful Earth and CO2 Fertilization: A Biblical Defense (Part II: Righteousness)

By Craig Idso, Master Resource, Aug 20, 2015


Problems in the Orthodoxy

EU debate on green energy targets pitches UK against Germany

By Barbara Lewis, Reuters, Aug 19, 2015


Seeking a Common Ground

The Role of Science in Society

Lecture by Hans von Storch, Die Klimazwiebel, Aug 12, 2015 [H/t No Tricks Zone]


Review of Recent Scientific Articles by CO2 Science

Alpine Ecosystems – Summary

By Staff Writers, CO2 Science, Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Empirical contradictions to claims by “James Hansen, former Director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, who in testimony given to the Select Committee of Energy Independence and Global Warming of the United States House of Representatives in 2008, declared — in no uncertain terms — that ‘climate is nearing dangerous tipping points,’ that if CO2 emissions follow a business-as-usual scenario, ‘alpine species will be pushed off the planet,’ and that ‘we have used up all slack in the schedule for actions needed to defuse the global warming time bomb,’ adding that his conclusions ‘have a certainty exceeding 99 percent.’”]

Likely Responses of Gorgonian Octocorals to Ocean Acidification

Gomez, C.E., Paul, V.J., Ritson-Williams, R., Muehllehner, N., Langdon, C. and Sanchez, J.A. 2015. Responses of the tropical gorgonian coral Eunicea fusca to ocean acidification conditions. Coral Reefs 34: 451-460. Aug 19, 2015


Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Western U.S. and Canada

Jarvis, D.S. and Kulakowski, D. 2015. Long-term history and synchrony of mountain pine beetle outbreaks in lodgepole pine forests. Journal of Biogeography 42: 1029-1039. Aug 18, 2015


Coral Recipe for Surviving Global Warming and Ocean Acidification

Towle, E.K., Enochs, I.C. and Langdon, C. 2015. Threatened Caribbean coral is able to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification by increasing feeding rate. PLoS ONE 10: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123394. Aug 17, 2015


[Rusults] “show for the first time that a threatened coral species can buffer ocean-acidification-reduced calcification by increasing feeding rates.”

Some Recent Benefits of Climate Change Over the Tibetan Plateau

Shen, W., Zou, C., Liu, D., Ouyang, Y., Zhang, H., Yang, C., Bai, S. and Lin, N. 2015. Climate-forced ecological changes over the Tibetan Plateau. Cold Regions Science and Technology 114: 27-35. Aug 14, 2015


Model Issues

New approach could reduce human health impacts of electric power generation

By Staff Writers. Atlanta, GA (SPX) ,Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: The issue is: are the assumed health benefits realistic?]

Measurement Issues

July 2015 Global Surface (Land+Ocean) and Lower Troposphere Temperature Anomaly & Model-Data Difference Update

Guest Post by Bob Tisdale, WUWT, Aug 17, 2015


Hottest July in 4000 years? Not even the hottest July since *2014* according to satellites

By Jo Nova, Her blog, Aug 21, 2015


Problematic Adjustments And Divergences (Now Includes June Data)

Guest Post by Professor Robert Brown of Duke University and Werner Brozek, Edited by Just The Facts: WUWT, Aug 14, 2015


“As can be seen from the graphic above, there is a strong correlation between carbon dioxide increases and adjustments to the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) temperature record. And these adjustments to the surface data in turn result in large divergences between surface data sets and satellite data sets.”

Changing Weather

‘Resilient’ New Orleans can bear another Katrina: mayor

By Robert MacPherson, Washington (AFP) Aug 18, 2015


“Some $14.6 billion in federal funds have gone toward reinforcing the levees that failed spectacularly when Katrina slammed into New Orleans on August 29, 2005, he said.”

[SEPP Comment: It would have been much less expensive to have built the barrier system in the 1970s that was stopped by litigation from environmental groups using the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).]

Ridiculous claim from Columbia University: ‘Warming climate is deepening California drought

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Aug 20, 2015


[SEPP Comment: At Columbia University, history began about 125 years ago?]

Changing Seas

New Study On 20th Century Sea Level Rise Signals That IPCC 21st Century Projections May Be Grotesquely Overblown

By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: NIPCC reports demonstrate they are! In this report, the human impact is reduced from the wide range of IPCC speculated values.]

Study Results Showing Phytoplankton Coping Far Better Than Expected Embarrass Greenpeace!

Phytoplankton coping better than expected with ocean acidification

By Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof: Fritz Vahrenholt [Translated, edited by P Gosselin], No Tricks Zone, Aug 17, 2015


[SEPP Comment: More bad news for those who believe life is static.]

Surviving The Ice Age, And Whatever Comes Next

By Doug Hoffman, The Resilient Earth, Aug 17, 2015 [H/t GWPF]


USGS plays the ‘100 year threat’ game with sea level rise

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Aug 14, 2015


Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

Summer habitat for most polar bears is either shoreline or sea ice in the Arctic Basin

By Susan Crockford, Polar Bear Science, Aug 20, 2015


“At this time of year, sea ice extent numbers are meaningless for polar bears. The extreme low September minimum of 2012 – when masses of polar bears didn’t die – showed rational people that this is true. Even the low 2007 summer extent, which hit earlier in the season than 2012, had little to no negative impact.”

Changing Earth

Frequent volcanic eruptions likely cause of long-term ocean cooling

By Staff Writers, Sydney, Australia (SPX), Aug 18, 2015


Link to paper: Robust global ocean cooling trend for the pre-industrial Common Era

By McGregor, et al, Nature Geoscience, Aug 17, 2015


Un-Science or Non-Science?

Most comprehensive projections for West Antarctica’s future revealed

By Staff Writers, Munich, Germany (SPX), Aug 19, 2015


“This corresponds to a 20 cm increase in global sea level by the end of this century – sufficient to fill the Caspian Sea – and close to 50 cm by 2200.”

[SEPP Comment: Article fails to discuss the geothermal warming under the ice sheet. The calculated sea level rise in the most extreme case is not significantly greater than current sea level rise. Could that sea-level rise be from geothermal melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?]

Lowering Standards

The unique way the BBC is funded

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 18, 2015


Communicating Better to the Public – Exaggerate, or be Vague?

How Safe Substances Become Dangerous

By Henry Miller, Project Syndicate, Aug 29, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Reasons to doubt UN pronouncements on pesticides.]

Halfway to Hell? – Alarmists are Growing Desperate in Their Efforts to Influence Public Opinion

Guest Post by Bob Tisdale, WUWT, Aug 14, 2015


The Coming Clean Energy Space Race

By Michael McDonald, Real Clear Energy, Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Poor analogy. In the space race competent scientists and engineers repeatedly tested their assumptions and models. Something that is not being done in the race for so called “clean energy.’]


Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.

Climate change set to fuel more “monster” El Niños, scientists warn

By Roz Pidcock, The Carbon Brief, Aug 17, 2015


Link to paper: ENSO and greenhouse warming

By Cai, et al, Nature Climate Change, Aug 17, 2015


Tony Abbott is a climate change ‘villain’, says Canadian author Naomi Klein

The writer, who is coming to Australia on a speaking tour, says she cannot tell where the coal industry ends and the federal government begins

By Oliver Milman, Guardian, UK, Aug 16, 2015


“Klein said climate change would exacerbate social problems such as racism and inequality, predicting Australia would become “meaner” as it gets hotter.”

Claim: some coastal dwellers of US at high health risk from climate change

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Aug 17, 2015


“According to Dr. Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness at Columbia University’s Earth Institute, ‘The science of climate change and the threat to human and population health is irrefutable – and the threat is evolving quickly.’”

Myths about Myths of the climate change debate (as made by the Sydney Morning Herald)

By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Aug 17, 2015


New study calls on Indonesia to scrap coal and save lives

The Southeast Asian country’s plan to build more than 117 coal-fired power stations could increase pollution-related diseases such as lung cancer to respiratory failure, says a new study by Harvard University and Greenpeace.

By Jean Chua, Eco-Business, Aug 13, 2015


Link to report: “Human Cost of Coal Power: How coal-fired power plants threaten the health of Indonesians.

By Staff Writers, Greenpeace, August, 2015


[SEPP Comment: The potential “threaten health” becomes the definite “kills.” Every day, traffic in the U.S. threatens the health of tens of millions.]

Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda

Merchants of Doubt, spoilers

By Luboš Motl, The Reference Frame, Aug 19, 2015


Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda on Children

Merchants of Doubt — insidious propaganda in schools

By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Aug 19, 2015


UNESCO wants green activists in the classroom

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 20, 2015


Climate Craziness of the Week: James Hansen is using children to sue US government over climate

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Aug 19, 2015

Climate Craziness of the Week: James Hansen is using children to sue US government over climate

[SEPP Comment: Has James Hansen become an ambulance chaser?]

Expanding the Orthodoxy

Climate Change Museum: Where’s The Dinosaur Exhibit?

By Kerry Jackson, IBD, Aug 17, 2015 [H/t Timothy Wise]


Expanding the Orthodoxy – The Pope

The Pope’s Climate Change Message Is Lost on Americans

Even a majority of the Catholics don’t know much about his climate change push

By Eric Roston, Bloomberg, Aug 20, 2015 [H/t GWPF]


Questioning European Green

Denmark looks to lower its climate goals

New Climate Minister Lars Christian Lilleholt has announced plans to scale back Denmark’s ambitious carbon reduction goals to the the disappointment of environmental organizations and his political rivals.

By Staff Writers, The Local (Denmark), Aug 20, 2015 [H/t City A.M.]


Germany Struggles With Too Much Renewable Energy

By Gaurav Agnihotri, Real Clear Energy, Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Excess electricity when not needed or desirable.]

Simulation: German Physicists Warn Of Blackouts From Smart Meters …Power Market May Be “Wild, Chaotic And Fidgety”!

By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone Aug 20, 2015


Questioning Green Elsewhere

Green Fatigue – Are People Finally Tired Of Being Scared?

By Staff Writers, ACSH, Aug 17, 2015


Apple and Google Pour Billions Down a Green Drain

By Steve Goreham, ICECAP, Aug 22, 2015


The Environmental Left’s Losing Streak

By Noah Rothman, Commentary, Aug 18, 2015 [H/t Timothy Wise]


Green Jobs

AP EXCLUSIVE: California measure fails to create green jobs

By Julia Horowitz, AP, Aug 17, 2015


No one showed up for California’s green jobs rush

Editorial, Washington Examiner, Aug 18, 2015


Funding Issues

When It Comes to Climate Change Policy, Follow the Money

By Robert Murphy, IER, Aug 18, 2015


Industry funding and bias

By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Aug 16, 2015


Industry funding: witch hunts

By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Aug 18, 2015


More dark arts from environmental journalists?

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 19, 2015


Litigation Issues

Obama’s Wind-Energy Lobby Gets Blown Away

A California judge rules in favor of bald eagles and against 30-year permits to shred them.

By Robert Bryce, WSJ, Via GWPF, Aug 13, 2015


8-year-old takes US government to court over climate change

By Freya Palmer, RTCC, Aug 14, 2015 [H/t Dennis Ambler]


Plaintiffs include amongst the many and their guardians:

SOPHIE K., through her Guardian Dr. James Hansen;

EARTH GUARDIANS, a nonprofit organization; and FUTURE GENERATIONS, through their Guardian Dr. James Hansen

[SEPP Comment: By a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court gave Massachusetts legal standing to sue the EPA and the US government to declare CO2 a pollutant because sea levels are rising, as they have been for 18,000 years. There is no reason to assume that a Federal Court will not give legal standing to any group, no matter how absurd the reason.]

EPA and other Regulators on the March

Opinion: How to keep the EPA honest

By Diana Furchtgott-Roth, Market Watch, Aug 18, 2015


Punish and Reform the EPA

By Alex B. Berezow & Todd Myers, Real Clear Science, No Date


Spin Cycle: EPA Deflates Climate Impacts, Inflates Significance

By Paul C. “Chip” Knappenberger and Patrick J. Michaels, Cato, Aug 20, 2015


[SEPP Comment: The EPA’s calculated benefits are largely imaginary.]

Rivers of Gold and Energy Poverty

By David Kreutzer, Global Warming.org, Aug 14, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Questioning EPA ability to see the future, as claimed in its power plan, when the EPA failed to prevent real pollution.]

EPA Chief Gina McCarthy’s Record Shows She’s Unfit For Command

By Rick Manning, IBD, Aug 17, 2015


EPA – Messing With Success on Methane

By Mark Green, Energy Tomorrow, Aug 18, 2015


Industry braces for EPA regulatory ‘tidal wave’

By John Siciliano, Washington Examiner, Aug 19, 2015


Energy Issues – Non-US

Oil States Burn Billions as Global Axis of Power Shifts,

By Robin Pagnamenta, The Times, Via GWPF, Aug 17, 2015


Russia used to have a powerful weapon in its energy sector. Not anymore.

By Michael Birnbaum, Washington Post, Aug 18, 2015


The High Cost of Renewable Energy Subsidies

By Geoff Brown, Australian Climate Sceptics, Aug 20, 2015


In 2013/14, these renewable energy subsidies added between 3 to 9 per cent to the average household bill and up to 20 per cent for some industrial users.

Licence to frack: Government gives green light to 27 new onshore oil exploration sites

By Catherine Neilan, City A.M. Aug 18, 2015 {H/t GWPF]


Oil sands producers ‘on the edge’ with big discount to WTI

Major shutdown at refinery that processes Canadian oil sands crude, pipeline disruptions weighing on industry

By Markham Hislop, American Energy News, Aug 20, 2015


Energy Issues — US

Should We Trust the EPA to Manage Our Electricity Generation and Use?

By Alan Carlin, Carlin Economics and Science, Aug 20, 2015


“But in trying to improve a low level problem, EPA turned it into a catastrophe in a field it has long experience with. In the case of the SPRR [Skyrocketing Rates Power Plan], it has decided to use a low level or more likely a non-problem (rising atmospheric CO2 levels), as an excuse to rebuild the very important US electricity generation and distribution system, just like parts of Western Europe have already done.

Refrack Resourceship: Why the Carbon-based Energy Era Is Still Young

By Robert Bradley Jr. Master Resource, August 17, 2015


Rail fading from North Dakota oil transit

By Daniel J. Graeber, Bismarck, N.D. (UPI), Aug 18, 2015


“New pipelines operating in North Dakota have pushed the volume of crude oil by rail lower during the first half of the year, a state official said.

“After peaking in December 2014, when the state set its crude oil production record at 1.22 million barrels per day, transport by rail has been in a general decline and is now at parity with pipeline transport.”

[SEPP Comment: No thanks to Washington.]

Clean Energy Is A Political Juggernaut – It Can Leave Wacky Environmentalists Behind

By Hank Cambell, ACSH, Aug 17, 2015


Oil tech firms see shale resurrection with re-fracking

Cheap re-fracking key to pursuit of new revolution

By Collin Eaton, Houston Chronicle, Via GWPF, Aug 15, 2015


Texas Sets Record for Gas Power Burn, Still Barely Enough

By Thomas Overton, Power Mag, Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: The EPA no fossil-fuel plan may be very difficult in a growing economy.]

Washington’s Control of Energy

Brattle Group: Statism for Electricity (chairman Peter Fox-Penner makes his case)

By Robert Michaels, Master Resource, Aug 18, 2015


“The two greatest enemies of free enterprise in the United States … have been, on the one hand, my fellow intellectuals and, on the other hand, the business corporations of this country.”– Milton Friedman, “Which Way for Capitalism?” Reason, May 1977, p. 21.

Shell Gets the Green Light for Arctic Drilling

By Staff Writers, American Interest, Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Now that the Arctic ice melt is almost over!]

The fracking ‘loophole’ that just keeps growing

By Mike Soraghan, E&E reporter, Aug 18, 2015


[SEPP Comment: The lack of physical evidence that damage is being done to drinking water does not prevent academics, environmentalists, and journalists from railing against the growing US oil and gas industry.]

Return of King Coal?

The New King Coal: George Soros

By Steve Milloy, Breitbart, Aug 17, 2015


Climate philanthropist George Soros invests millions in coal

Billionaire has previously funded renewable energy and low-carbon initiatives and has called coal a ‘lethal bullet’ for climate change

By Karl Mathiesen, Guardian, UK, Aug 19, 2015


Longannet, UK’s Second-Largest Coal Plant, to Close

By Thomas Overton, Power Mag, Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Will “climate philanthropist” George Soros buy it?]

Oil and other Spills, Gas Leaks & Consequences

Cost of EPA’s toxic spill could soar to nearly $30 billion

By John Siciliano, Washington Examiner, Aug 18, 2015 [H/t Timothy Wise]


EPA Earned Its Animas River Backlash – Because It Earned A Reputation For Abuse

By Hank Cambell, ACSH, Aug 19, 2015


EPA’s gross negligence at Gold King Mine includes disappearing 191 incident photos from their website

By WUWT contributor Russell Cook, Aug 18, 2015


EPA’s Gross Negligence at Gold King

By Paul Driessen, Townhall, Aug 15, 2015


EPA makes a mess out West

By William Balgord, Washington Examiner, Aug 18, 2015


EPA inspector general begins investigation into mine spill

By Devin Henry, The Hill, Aug 17, 2015


Nuclear Energy and Fears

2 major US aquifers contaminated by natural uranium

By Staff Writers, Lincoln NB (SPX), Aug 18, 2015


Costs and Deadlines Continue to Challenge V.C. Summer Nuclear Plant Project

By Aaron Larson, Power Mag, Aug 19, 2015


Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind

Megawatts that come and go — Wind energy, shaking up the National Grid in Australia

By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Great graphs on actual Australian Wind Energy Production in July and first half of August. Will government edicts level such erratic production?]

Renewables Offer No Bang for Your Megawatt

By Staff Writers, NCPA, Aug 4, 2015


Link to report: Renewables Offer No Bang for Your Megawatt

By Preston Cooper, Economic Policies for the 21st Century, Aug 4, 2015


Unvarnished Truth About Wind and Solar

By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Aug 21, 2015


America’s big ‘green’ wrecking machines

Politically connected industrial wind zealots are destroying rural America and electricity markets

By Mary Kay Barton, CFACT, Aug 19, 2015 [H/t Paul Driessen]


Solar Power? Forget It!

By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Aug 21, 2015


“More than half of the solar power produced in the world comes from the EU, mainly Germany, Italy and Spain.”

Annual Report, Energinet.dk, 2014

By Peder Østermark Andrease, President and CEO, Energinet.dk, July 2015


Coal isn’t good for humanity, but renewables aren’t the only answer to energy poverty

By Jonathan Symons, The Conversation, Aug 6, 2015 [H/t Bishop Hill]


[SEPP Comment: Disagree with headline, humanity has greatly benefited from coal. The health effects became evident only after humans prospered, living longer.]

Carbon Schemes

Troubles With America’s First Clean Coal Plant Put Mississippi Power ‘on the Brink of Bankruptcy’

A rate increase saved the utility. Will ratepayers and regulators stomach more?

By Stephen Lacy, Greentech Media, Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Yet, Washington bureaucrats cited it as a demonstrated commercial available technology.]

California Dreaming

Obama’s Clean Power Plan is bad news for California

By Tom Tanton and Julian Morris, Orange County Register, Aug 20, 2015


“While a third of that [California’s 30% summer electricity imports] is carbon-free hydroelectric from the Northwest, most of the rest comes from coal-fired power plants in the Southwest. But the Environmental Protection Agency’s new plan will force many of these coal plants to shut down. That will hurt California – leaving it vulnerable to brownouts and blackouts.”

Environmental Industry

FOIA as a weapon

By Hank Cambell, ACSH, Aug 16, 2015


Greenpeace’s failed predictions

By Andrew Montford, Bishop Hill, Aug 20, 2015


A “convincing a demonstration as you could wish for of the foolishness of listening to environmentalists.”

Other Scientific News

A Scientific Look at Bad Science

What recent research says about fraud, errors, and other dismaying academic problems

Bourree Lam, The Atlantic, September 2015 [H/t GWPF]


Bacteria’s secret weapon against pesticides and antibiotics revealed

By Staff Writers, Aarhus, Denmark (SPX), Aug 19, 2015


Other News that May Be of Interest

Genetically Modified Algae Could Replace Oil for Plastic

Tweaked cyanobacteria can churn out a plastic precursor, potentially replacing fossil fuels

By Niina Heikkinen and Climatewire, Scientific American, Aug 17, 2015


[SEPP Comment: Even if ethylene from algae becomes competitive with today’s prices, ethylene from oil will still be available because it is a by-product of oil production or can be made from natural gas. The price pressures will be downward because of competition and increased supply. Ethylene from oil prices will have more elasticity than from algae because it is part of a process and family of products that can, to some extent, absorb variations in price and demand. Ethylene from oil producers might even practically dump the stuff on the market just to get rid of it. They can make their money on other products. Ethylene from algae producers could never do that.]

Iran Is Serious About Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Warfare

Editorial, IBD, Aug 19, 2015


Why the Federal Government Fails

By Staff Writers, NCPA, Aug 18, 2015




Are GMOs Safe? A NEJM Opinion Piece Seeks To Cast Doubt [New England Journal of Medicine]

By Staff Writers, ACSH, Aug 19, 2015


Dogs evolved with climate change

By Staff Writers, Providence RI (SPX), Aug 19, 2015


[SEPP Comment: As did humans, and most other forms of life!]

Need an explanation? Use climate change.

By Staff Writers, Climate Change Predictions.org, Aug 20, 2015


“The wild boar population in Europe is growing. However, the reasons for this growth were not yet clear. Scientists have now found that climate change plays a major role.”


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Stephen Heins
August 23, 2015 8:38 pm

To those futurists who trust their own thinking, I find myself thinking about Stephen Hawking:
“What one believes is irrelevant…in physics.”

Reply to  Stephen Heins
August 24, 2015 1:50 am

I’m not so sure about that. Even in physics it’s easy to see what you’re looking for.
“I see what I believe.”

Reply to  Slywolfe
August 25, 2015 9:36 pm

It’s worse than that – observation can change what is being observed.

August 24, 2015 12:29 am

Not too sure about this: “Too much electricity generated at one time will blow transformers, capacitors, and other devices designed to give the system stability.”
Won’t connected power sources provide less as the load reduces?

Reply to  steverichards1984
August 24, 2015 1:54 am

Not by themselves.
Try a flashlight bulb and a car battery.

William Astley
Reply to  steverichards1984
August 24, 2015 2:10 am

Wind power is proportional to the cube of wind speed. The wind does not blow to match load requirements. Likewise for solar power. The sun does not shine at night. Wind power can and does vary by 30% in one hour. Wind and solar power varies from 0 to 100% of nameplate rating.
Germany’s solar power and wind power averages less than 20% of the name rating of wind and solar systems which it always sometimes zero and always varying.
As the electrical grid must be balanced at all times, single cycle natural gas power plants must be turned on/off/on/off/on and so to provide power and to remove power so the electrical grid is balanced. This forces power to have to suddenly be moved large distance on an electrical grid. There is roughly a 20% to 30% loss for long distance electrical power transmission.
Single cycle natural gas power plants are 20% less efficient than combined cycle natural gas plants. Combined cycle natural gas power plants take 10 hours to start and hence cannot be turned on/off/on/off/on/off.
As the amount wind and solar power used in a electrical grid increases beyond around 20% it is no longer possible to use combine cycle power plants so there is a reduction in grid efficiency. In addition, single cycle power plants are less efficient if they are turned on/off/on/off/on and there life expectancy is reduced, maintenance increases.
Another issue which is ignored is the energy required to transported the natural gas long distances by pipeline which in the case of Europe is more than 30% of the energy content of the supplied natural gas. Liquefying natural gas also takes roughly 30% of the energy content of the supplied natural gas. This reduces the CO2 advantages of burning natural gas rather than coal.
If one takes into account the loss of grid efficiency and the energy required to construct the wind and solar system there is almost no CO2 benefit to install wind and solar systems. Green scams do not work.

beyond astronomical


Recently Bill Gates explained in an interview with the Financial Times why current renewables are dead-end technologies. They are unreliable. Battery storage is inadequate. Wind and solar output depends on the weather. The cost of decarbonization using today’s technology (William: Solar and wind power rather than nuclear) is “beyond astronomical,” Mr. Gates concluded.


The key problem appears to be that the cost of manufacturing the components of the renewable power facilities is far too close to the total recoverable energy – the facilities never, or just barely, produce enough energy to balance the budget of what was consumed in their construction. This leads to a runaway cycle of constructing more and more renewable plants simply to produce the energy required to manufacture and maintain renewable energy plants – an obvious practical absurdity.
A research effort by Google corporation to make renewable energy viable has been a complete failure, according to the scientists who led the programme. After 4 years of effort, their conclusion is that renewable energy “simply won’t work”.

Reply to  William Astley
August 24, 2015 10:26 am

“Germany’s solar power and wind power averages less than 20% of the name rating of wind and solar systems which it always sometimes zero and always varying.”
And yet we have yahoos proclaiming the only thing keeping us from going 100% wind/solar is good batteries.

Reply to  steverichards1984
August 24, 2015 5:35 am
August 24, 2015 12:57 am

The Sunspots 2.0? Irrelevant. The Sun, still is.
by Nir Shaviv
….the blue dots are the linearly detrended global sea level measured with satellite altimetry. The purple line is the model fit to the data which includes both a harmonic solar component and an ENSO contribution. (ScienceBits)
I am not convinced that sea level dropped by about 8mm within a year 2010 than rose by 9mm in 2011, simply by the solar warming or the polar ice melting.
Either measurements are wrong or there is another mechanism at work here.
Assuming the satellite data are correctly interpreted, we need to know is the phenomenon of sea level change equally distributed equatorially, or is it due to a much larger movements in particular area (e.g. central Pacific, North Atlantic, polar oceans ) ?

August 24, 2015 1:43 am

“Making dire predictions is what environmental groups do for a living, and it’s a competitive market, so they exaggerate.” – Matt Ridley, WSJ

And it is a very lucrative market. Some say a Trillion and a half is spent each year on this flimflam.

Walter Sobchak
August 24, 2015 9:57 pm

Edward Bernays mentioned above “Merchants Again” as the “the father of modern advertising” was the nephew of Sigmund Freud

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