Can The IPCC Do Revolutionary Science?

ipcc[1]Guest Essay by Barry Brill

The timing couldn’t be worse.

On 23-26 September, scores of representatives of the world’s Environment Ministries are scheduled to meet in Stockholm to wordsmith the final draft of the Summary for Policymakers (SPM) of the key WG1 (physical science) portion of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC).

The draft SPM, sent to governments on 2 August, is a 22-page condensation of 14 chapters comprising 1,914 pages of material discussing scientific papers that were published between 2006 and 15 March 2013.

This SPM is (or could be) a document of world-shaking importance. As Bloomberg points out – “it is designed to be used by ministers working to devise by 2015 a global treaty to curb climate change”.

The timetable for the global treaty was deferred at the Durban COP because developing countries (particularly China and India) felt that the 2013 SPM was an indispensable input to the negotiations. Governments need an authoritative up-to-date assessment of both the extent and the causes of the climate change threat, present and future.

But the SPM has been sidelined by momentous climate change events that occurred after its March cut-off date – and even after the date the draft was circulated.

Climate sensitivity

The “extent of warming” issue turns on how sensitive the planet is to increasing CO2 concentrations. Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) was crudely estimated by Charney in 1979 at 3.0 ±1.5°C and that range remained more-or-less constant through all four previous IPCC reports.

During 2012, several groups of researchers noted that recent data and modern diagnostics now showed that the 30-year old 3°C mid-point had been grossly over-stated. Peer-reviewed journal papers included:

Ring et al: estimates of climate sensitivity ranged from 1.5 to 2.0°C.

Van Hateren: millennium-scale sensitivity found to be 2.0 ±0.3°C.

Aldrin et al: the 90% credible interval ranges from 1.2°C to 3.5°C, with a mean of 2°C

This, of course, led to great dissension and became the major challenge faced by the lead authors of WG1. Although we don’t yet know how they finally reacted, a leaked copy of the SPM draft suggests that they mainly held to the longstanding orthodoxy.

In January 2013, the British media reported that the UK Met Office was projecting a 20-year standstill in global warming by 2017. This ‘pause’ had not been predicted by climate models. In February, IPCC chairman Pachauri admitted that the temperature data had already been flat for 17 years, while opining that a standstill of 30 years would be required to rebut the previous consensus.

Both “cause” and “extent” issues are heavily dependent on the validity of climate simulations by the contemporary Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), as are all IPCC projections of future planetary temperatures and their impacts. Serious scientific doubts about either ECS-related inputs or the accuracy of temperature outputs would be fatal to the credibility of the AR5.

After the March cut-off date for WG1 papers, the following 2013 papers have strongly reinforced concerns regarding the exaggeration of climate sensitivity:

Otto et al: the best estimate of sensitivity is 30% below the CMIP5 multimodel mean.

Forster et al: analysis of CMIP5 shows that 2/3 are above the Otto ‘likely’ range.

Masters: median estimate of ECS is 1.98°C.

Lewis: improved methodology shows the mode and median to be 1.6K

In congressional testimony, Judith Curry cited the Hawkins graph depicting observed trends below 90% of CMIP5 projections, and notes that warming may not resume until mid-century. James Hansen attributes the ‘hiatus’ to a combination of natural variability and lower sensitivity but predicts “temperature will rise significantly in the next few years with the nex El Nino phase.”

Temperature standstill

The temperature standstill has been apparent in the data for many years, but the tribalism of climate science rendered it unmentionable until the public disclosures of early 2013. Once spoken, it demanded an explanation – and it then became clear there was a great dearth of research on the subject. By the time researchers were ready to fill this gap, the draft SPM had already been dispatched.

During August 2013, a flood of highly influential papers have appeared:

von Storch & Zorita[1] found that observed temperatures 1998-2012 were not consistent with 23 tested CMIP3 and CMIP5 models, even at the 2% confidence level. The inconsistency increases rapidly with trend length and a 20-year trend (ie to 2017) would lie outside the ensemble of all model-simulated trends.

von Storch & Zorita (the same paper) concludes that ‘natural’ internal variability and/or external forcing has probably offset the anthropogenic warming during the standstill. Overestimated sensitivity may also have contributed.

Tung & Zhou[2] reported that the “underlying net anthropogenic warming rate has been steady since 1910 at 0.07-0.08°C/decade, with superimposed AMO-related ups and downs ..”. The sharply increased CO2 concentrations of recent decades has not caused warming to accelerate, as was predicted by the models.

Yu Kosaka & Shang-Ping Zie[3] plausibly found that climate models have vastly under-estimated natural variation. La-Nina-like cooling in the Eastern Pacific throughout the 21st century (since the PDO turned negative) has conquered the projected greenhouse warming. The 0.68°C warming trend during 1975-98 (when the PDO was positive) would have been[4] 0.4°C natural and only 0.28°C anthropogenic.

Katz et al[5] says the critical uncertainty measures used by the IPCC are “out of date by well over a decade”. Modern statistical techniques could improve assessments “dramatically”.

Fyfe Gillett & Zwiers[6] focused on the extraordinary gap between the temperature simulations of 37 CIMP5 models and the observed outcomes. Due to a ‘combination of errors’, the models have overestimated warming by 100% over the past 20 years and by 400% over the past 15 years.

Come the revolution…

These new papers devastate the IPCC orthodoxy that current and future global temperatures are mostly driven by greenhouse gas emissions, and will reach dangerous levels later this century. On the other hand, all older papers are blindsided by their apparent failure to take account of the recent data (standstill).

The IPCC’s 2001 report cautioned[7]: In climate research and modelling, we should recognise that we are dealing with a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore that the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible. The most we can expect to achieve is the prediction of the probability distribution of the system’s future possible states by the generation of ensembles of model solutions. This reduces climate change to the discernment of significant differences in the statistics of such ensembles.

The “dangerous anthropogenic global warming” (DAGW) hypothesis is based on a clear difference between CMIP5 runs with natural plus anthropogenic forcing, versus natural variability only. That difference now disappears when ensembles are adjusted to reflect current empirical data. It is quite conceivable that natural variabilty (including natural forcing) has historically dwarfed anthropogenic effects and will persistently do so in future.

In his seminal 1962 work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn persuasively argued that science does not progress through the linear accumulation of knowledge but undergoes periodic revolutions or ‘paradigm shifts’.

In Kuhn’s view, no evidence that is incompatible with the current paradigm will be entertained during long periods of normal science. However, as anomalous results build up, science eventually reaches a crisis which drives the necessary acceptance of a new paradigm, which subsumes both the old and new results into a new framework. Kuhn calls this transformative point, revolutionary science.

2013 is ushering in a long-delayed revolution in climate science. A new paradigm is demanded which recognizes that AGW is but one non-determinative component in a ‘non-linear chaotic system’.

Dealing to the paradigm shift

All of this leaves the IPCC in a terrible bind regarding its September meeting. Should it:

• rubber-stamp a SPM that has been overtaken by events?

• add a major caveat to the state of play in March 2013, promising an addendum will be issued to cover post-cut-off papers? or

• adjourn the meeting to accomodate a crash program to re-write both the WG1 Technical Report and the consequent SPM?

The business as usual course is the worst option. With tense international negotiations riding on this document, it is far better that it be delayed than wrong – or indefensible. No government can make far-reaching policy decisions on the basis of a report which is widely believed to be obsolete before it is released.

An interim report suffers from a similar credibility deficit. Already[8], Environment departments from the USA and the European Union have formally sought more clarity on the “warming hiatus” and have asked the IPCC to include full information in the SPM.

“The recent slowing of the temperature trend is currently a key issue, yet it has not been adequately addressed in the SPM,” said the EU.

Although the draft says the trend has tapered off, the implications are unclear – causing the US to comment “a bunch of numbers are [left] up in the air without a concrete conclusion.”

Several countries, including China, seek information on the heat uptake of the oceans or other natural variances which might have depressed climate change data.

The draft SPM apparently fails to mention[9] that 30-year warming trends have declined each year since peaking in 2003. Or that the latest 10-year period (2003-12) is the coolest decade[10] since satellite records began in 1979.

WG1 has a track record of ignoring inconvenient research on grounds that it is ‘isolated’ or published in obscure journals. That can hardly be the fate of the August papers. All but one have been accepted by Nature Climate Change. Several of the authors are active contributors to IPCC reports, with Zwiers a current vice-chairman of WG1 and Fyfe a review editor.

Revolutionary climate science is under way. The question now is whether the IPCC is up to the challenge.


[1] http://www.academia.edu/4210419/Can_climate_models_explain_the_recent_stagnation_in_global_warming

[2] http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/01/22/1212471110.short

[3] http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature12534.html

[4] See http://judithcurry.com/2013/08/28/pause-tied-to-equatorial-pacific-surface-cooling

[5] http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v3/n9/full/nclimate1980.html?WT.ec_id=NCLIMATE-201309

[6] http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v3/n9/full/nclimate1972.html?WT.ec_id=NCLIMATE-201309

[7] 14.2.2.2 WG1 TAR IPCC

[8] http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-08-29/global-warming-slowdown-data-sought-in-un-climate-report.html

[9] http://www.quadrant.org.au/blogs/doomed-planet/2013/08/if-warmists-would-only-tell-the-truth

[10] http://www.skepticalscience.com/trend.php

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Brad

Lets not be naive, it is likely reviewers and editors actually held papers until after the March 15 deadline just so they would NOT be included. This is not paranoia, see Judith Curry’s blog for actual suppression of anti-AGW papers that have excellent science.

Interesting times ahead.

Barry, thanks. Great post.

kim

The revolution will not be televised.
===========================

Richard M

Whether they know it or not, the biggest gift to skeptics would be releasing an obviously wrong report. It would prove beyond any doubt that the IPCC was political and not scientific. And, as time goes by, it will become more and more obvious.

I’d question whether the ‘normal science’ of anthropogenic GHG warming was ever real. IMO it was merely the view of a small clique that captured the IPCC and all the rest of the AGW apparatus, and the large revenue streams that ensued, enabled them to control the narrative and subvert opposing views.

Richard M
I suspect that is what is going to happen, there will be some interesting reading here at WUWT coming up..

Greg Goodman

“Or that the latest 10-year period (2003-12) is the coolest decade[10] since satellite records began in 1979.”
Something seriously wrong with that statement. Perhaps you intended to refer to “trend”.

David in Cal

“Or that the latest 10-year period (2003-12) is the coolest decade[10] since satellite records began in 1979.”
That can’t be right. See the satellite-based temperature record of the lower troposphere at http://www.drroyspencer.com/latest-global-temperatures/
Maybe Mr. Brill meant to say that the period (2003-12) is the coolest decade in this century.

Greg Goodman

Philip Bradley says:
I’d question whether the ‘normal science’ of anthropogenic GHG warming was ever real. IMO it was merely the view of a small clique that captured the IPCC and all the rest of the AGW apparatus, and the large revenue streams that ensued, enabled them to control the narrative and subvert opposing views.
====
Indeed. Political machinations by a few.
The majority of scientists , not being brave of principled characters just went along for the ride. They did not want to upset the gravy train and knew they could continue their work (and up their publishing records) by adding a bit of AGW spin to the abstract and/or title.

dp

I wonder if the writing on the wall was first seen in the tranche of information still hidden from all but a chosen few (and leaked here and there) in Climate Gate 3. Hopefully Mr. FOIA will try again to loose those hounds.

RE: “Richard M says:
August 31, 2013 at 7:48 pm
Whether they know it or not, the biggest gift to skeptics would be releasing an obviously wrong report. It would prove beyond any doubt that the IPCC was political and not scientific. And, as time goes by, it will become more and more obvious.”
I agree. Furthermore, one big thing to boomerang back on them will be their habit of going all misty-eyed and stating that their (now) blatantly-political-distorting of science and truth were (and are) done “for the children.”
What they have done is give the children nightmares for going on twenty years now. They have done nothing “for the children” but abuse them.

higley7

I would bet on business as usual as they believe in their own BS.

Grant A. Brown

Methinks you all underestimate the insensitivity of the politically correct brain to the antidotes known as facts.
The basic flaws with socialist economics and collective decision-making have been known since the 1930s – or at least since the 1960s – yet activists continue to espouse the “virtues” of socialized education and medical care, rent controls, union power, minimum wages, etc., etc.
Decades of research in domestic violence has shown that it is not over-all a gendered phenomenon, yet all we ever hear about in the media and political circles is “violence against women.” In fact, women commit the majority of domestic violence at all levels, up to and including killing: they are equally likely to harangue and hit and abuse and kill spouses, and are more likely to abuse and kill children and the elderly. The ingenuity of the politically correct brain in finding ways to deny these straightforward facts is at least as great as the ingenuity of the deniers of natural variability in climate.
If you go to blogs where domestic violence and economic policy are debated, you will always find “skeptics” who are puzzled how anyone in this day and age can still believe the politically correct version. (I used to be one of them.) They tend to think their own area of interest is unique in this respect: the “other side” of their particular debate are uniquely obtuse, dishonest, cherry-picking, out-dated, etc.
No, on the contrary: whenever an issue gets cloaked in righteousness, you should expect that those on their moral high-horse are wrong, often spectacularly so. Righteous indignation does that to the human brain. Belief in those areas has all the marks of a religion – another facet of human life that is impervious to facts.
In short, there is no “magic bullet” when debunking political correctness. Expect to be still engaging this debate in 10 years, or 20 years.

RockyRoad

DAGW?
These folks are “Deceitful Anthropogenic Genocidal Warmistas”. More personal and accurate than my previous “Catastrophic Anthropogenic Genocidal Warmista” expansion of the old acronym CAGW.

Can left wing mavens do left wing politics?… Of course they can — How did science creep into the discussion and the title???? This is not a science document…

Dangells

AGW is being driven by emotion and pride, unfortunately for the alarmists nature as no emotion and doesn’t give a damn

MattE

Need to fix an error
“The draft SPM apparently fails to mention[9] that 30-year warming trends have declined each year since peaking in 2003. Or that the latest 10-year period (2003-12) is the coolest decade[10] since satellite records began in 1979.”
Not the coolest decade but slowest temp trend. Cooling does not equal coolest.

cynical_scientist

The correctness of the science is becoming irrelevant to the politics. CAGW has now become a religion – call them the religious left. The religious left controls a lot of voters and a big chunk of the news media. They thus have very real political power. They must be appeased with legislation that panders to their beliefs. Reality really does not enter into this equation.

J.H.

It’s a pity that the, Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) wasn’t call the, Global Intercomparison Model Project (GIMP5)
We could’ve then channelled Pulp Fiction….. “Hey Zed, what does the Gimp say?”……. “Mmmmmpfff…… Nnnnmmmpfffff.” 😉

Frank

IPCC Says: “In climate research and modelling, we should recognise that we are dealing with a coupled non-linear chaotic system, and therefore that the long-term prediction of future climate states is not possible. The most we can expect to achieve is the prediction of the probability distribution of the system’s future possible states by the generation of ensembles of model solutions. This reduces climate change to the discernment of significant differences in the statistics of such ensembles.”
1. This is a bizarre statement. It implies that a simple linear system would not result in predictions that are probability distributions but actual prediction of future climate states. It also suggests that in their wisdom, the climate modelers are using–ta da–probability distributions to get around that pesky chaos stuff. Wow. It’s almost as if they have just discovered probability distributions.
2. If climate is a chaotic system, the researchers should not be assuming a short-tailed, unimodal probability distribution for future temperatures. In chaotic systems, strange attractors like ice ages emerge and go away quickly on all but the shortest geologic time frames. Empirical probability distributions of temperature anomalies since the beginning of the last ice age are likely mulitmodal, with a big bump on the cold end of the distribution and little bumps (or a very very long tail) during the times civilization has flourished. That the ensemble models generate unimodal probability distributions almost certainly means that the models as a group have missed very important drivers of climate change.
Put another way, what is the probability predicted by the model ensemble for an ice age commencing in the next, say, 500 years? If it is surpassingly close to zero, there is something wrong with the ensemble, unless the modelers have found a way to predict with confidence the beginning of the next ice age and can say that it is more than 500 years away.

David

“a bunch of numbers are [left] up in the air without a concrete conclusion.”
Precisely how many numbers are there in a bunch? What is the saturation point for numbers in air (at STP)? Did the formal response of the U.S. EPA to the interim report really contain that tortured phrase?

The ‘revolution’ has already begun:
“The Author believes that insufficient attention has been given to natural climate variability over the past thirty years and now submits a New Climate Model for testing against reality over the years ahead”
http://www.newclimatemodel.com/
We must now start to look at natural variability alone and only if it is shown to be insufficient need we consider GHGs at all.

jorgekafkazar

“James Hansen attributes the ‘hiatus’ to a combination of natural variability and lower sensitivity but predicts ‘temperature will rise significantly in the next few years with the nex El Nino phase.'”
Well, duh! So what? Has no one pointed out to the self-appointed Climate Messiah that an El Nino is a heat-shedding mechanism? As such, an El Nino is more likely to be a precursor of the next Ice Age, than a sign of runaway global warming.

“‘temperature will rise significantly in the next few years with the next El Nino phase.’”
El Ninos cool the oceans whilst (temporarily) warming the air don’t they?
Unless the energy in the oceans is replaced it is a net cooling process.
Anyhow there have been upward steps from one positive phase to the next since the LIA and no doubt downward steps from MWP to LIA so it is a natural process which is nothing to do with our emissions.
It is a little early to have finished the recovery from the LIA so I would have expected the next step to be upward but there is the little matter of the less active sun which, if maintained through cycle 25, could make a difference.

Vieras

The next IPCC report will be just as alarmistic as before and it will be released with a tsunami of media articles trying to restart the whole failed meme again. They will be more sure than ever. And they will ignore any science that contradicts their view. The SPM will be a pile of garbage but they are making sure that it will dictate our life for years to come.
Anyone wanna take bets on me being wrong?

Geoff Sherrington

I do wish that all concerned people would go back to basics, to examine the temperature/time data on which so much is based. Emphasis should be on why so much adjustment, in an arbitrary, subjective and capricious manner has been allowed acceptance, despite the implied insult to many thousands of temperature takers and good thermometers from years long ago.
It’s not hard to see that for land records, up to 0.3 deg C is taken from early records and falls into the category of questionable adjustment. It makes the global warming trend seem greater than it might be.
After nearly a decade of studying the topic in some detail, I simply do not believe the GISS data.
I’m open to reversal if my conclusions are wrong.

HenrikM

Here is another new paper:
Determination of a lower bound on Earth’s climate sensitivity
Lennart Bengtsson, Stephen E. Schwartz
http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/pubs/LowerBoundSensy.pdf

This doesn’t square well with “the science is settled.”

Simon

Let us not forget that a government policy decision is itself a linear projection based on the SPM, so the liklihood of error is massive, probably even 100%, especially as the IPCC have vastly exceeded their remit of studying the human signal in the climate and pronouncing on the whole climate instead.

Frank

Since my last post, I looked at some historic data for the past 25,000 years that used pollen temperature proxies for Alaska and the Yukon. I charted histograms of temperature (faux proabablity distributions using binning). The MATT1, MATT5 and JAN1 series were all unambiguously muliti-modal distributions of temperature. I will send you the charts if you request by email. ff at francone dot com.
Models that predict a uni-modal distribution have missed some deep details about how climate works somewhere along the line.

Eeyore Rifkin

Kuhn’s perspective doesn’t get to the essence of science. As a cultural anthropology of academic schools it’s broadly applicable and sometimes illuminating. For the kinds of insight it provides, Erwin Panofsky or Alfred Schutz would serve equally well or better as springboards. To understand science in particular, though, one needs to look at the history of the scientific method, and the history of skepticism which informs it. Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum remains a compelling guide.
21st Century climate science is remarkable for its hostility to skepticism, and for the abandonment in some quarters of any pretense of following the scientific method. The contradiction is painfully obvious (see e.g. the “Skeptical Science” blog), but basically unresolved. Climate science–as officially represented by the IPCC, AGU and other bodies–asks us to envision a science beyond doubt, skepticism and falsification. *That* is revolutionary, but not in a Khunian sense.

Can The IPCC Do Revolutionary Science?
No.
Why or how could it, when its entire enterprise is not only unscientific, but anti-scientific?

Steve Case

Vieras said at 10:55 pm
“The next IPCC report will be just as alarmistic as before … Anyone wanna take bets on me being wrong?”
Nope.

NikFromNYC

Boom.
And yet…a field of “science” in which Michael “Hockey Stick” Mann publicly celebrates Marcott’s 2013 re-dating of Ph.D. thesis data to obtain a Science journal worthy hockey stick blade by spurious data drop off at the end of his plot suggests that the biggest new development is revelation that it really was all just a scam in the first place, not merely a sincere paradigm blunder. Add to this Cook’s bizarre 2013 boutique keyword (“global climate change” instead of just “climate change”) “confirmation” of the original 97% consensus, plugged by Obama’s Twitter feed, and a clear pattern emerges from the chaos of debate.

Climate Change means never having to say you’re wrong
* 35-40 years ago, we were hearing from scientists and their MSM followers about “the coming ice age”
* then the predictions changed to “the coming greenhouse”
* when the contradiction was pointed out, the AGW establishment pulled a “Winston Smith” and steadfastly denied ever having predicted an ice age. We’ve always been at war with EastAsia ^H^H^H^H^H^H^H^H Global Warming. “Ice Age” media articles from that period were dismissed as inaccurate hype.
Now that RSS is approaching 17 years without warming, how long before the climate establishment pulls another Winston Smith? When will they start denying ever having predicted rising temperatures? We’ve always been at war with EurAsia ^H^H^H^H^H^H^H^H Global Cooling.

Neil Jordan

Re HenrikM says: August 31, 2013 at 11:13 pm
Lines 126-127 of the subject paper imply CO2 residence time of “multiple decades to centuries”. This doesn’t square with measured CO2 residence time on the order of a decade.

Or that the latest 10-year period (2003-12) is the coolest decade[10] since satellite records began in 1979.

This is not the case according to wood4trees see http://woodfortrees.org/plot/rss/mean:120/plot/uah/mean:120
And I cannot see that anything in your link justifies this claim

lgl

El Ninos cool the oceans whilst (temporarily) warming the air don’t they?
No, warming both.
http://virakkraft.com/SST-SSST.png

Steve C

“When the facts change, I change my mind. What do you do, sir?”
– John Maynard Keynes

Stephen Wilde

lgl
Where does the energy come from to warm the oceans as fast as El Nino discharges energy to the air?
The truth is that the sun warms the oceans and then the El Nino periodically releases energy to the air which cools the surfaces leading to La Nina events during which the ocean heat content is recharged again by more solar input.
See what Bob Tisdale has to say about the discharge / recharge process.

Peter Miller

Far too many people’s jobs, careers and comfortable lifestyles are on the line to expect the IPCC to come up with anything other than reasons for its own perpetuation.
Translated this means:
1. “Be afraid, be very afraid!”
2. “We need to be seen to be saving the planet – c’mon gullible and deceitful politicians, let’s be having you.”

oldseadog

Yes, the IPCC does do Revolutionary Science.
They just go round and round in circles, like ants round the rim of a bucket.

lgl

Stephen
The energy comes from less wind and clouds
http://virakkraft.com/ENSO-trop-cloud-cover.png
http://virakkraft.com/Tropics-SW-Temp.png
If Tisdale (and Trenberth) claim the global ocean is cooling during Ninos then they are wrong.

Jimbo

The temperature standstill has been apparent in the data for many years, but the tribalism of climate science rendered it unmentionable until the public disclosures of early 2013.

Here are temperature standstill quotes & papers (15) from ‘climate scientists’ from July 2005 to July 2013. This year it has gone public and is now openly discussed. They tried for a long time to keep it from public view but it looks like the jig is up.

Rhys Jaggar

I don’t think that REVOLUTIONARY climate science is underway.
I just think that after an hiatus of 20 years or so, climate science is returning to its roots of actually doing science.

Jimbo

Or that the latest 10-year period (2003-12) is the coolest decade[10] since satellite records began in 1979.

Can anyone help explain what this means?

Birdieshooter

Outstanding summary of recent work and the issues that are raised.

gopal panicker

As I understand it….the USA never ratified Kyoto…Canada…Russia…Japan…have withdrawn…the third worlders are not required to reduce CO2 emissions…Australia will withdraw if the govt changes….that leaves just the…Europeans to ‘guided’ by the IPCC.

gopal panicker

there is certainly a cooling trend since 2010..