Germany in skeptical turmoil on both Climate and Solar/Windfarms

I have two major stories out of Germany to report, one on the rise of Climate Skepticism into the mainstream, as Germany’s Top Environmentalist Turns Climate Sceptic, saying

“I couldn’t take it any more. I had to write this book.”

Doubt came two years ago when he was an expert reviewer of an IPCC report on renewable energy. “I discovered numerous errors and asked myself if the other IPCC reports on climate were similarly sloppy.”

….and the other major story is on the failure of solar and wind power in Germany. First, the mainstream skepticism:

Body Blow To German Global Warming Movement! Major Media Outlets Unload On “CO2 Lies!”

Excerpts reposted from NoTricksZone by Pierre Gosselin

Today Germany’s national tabloid Bild (which has a whopping circulation of 16 million) devoted half of page 2 on an article called:.

“THE CO2 LIES … pure fear-mongering … should we blindly trust the experts?”

That’s what Germany’s leading daily Bild (see photo) wrote in its print and online editions today, on the very day that renowned publisher Hoffmann & Campe officially released a skeptic book – one written by a prominent socialist and environmental figure.

This is huge. More than I ever could have possibly imagined. And more is coming in the days ahead! The Bild piece was just the first of a series.

Mark this as the date that Germany’s global warming movement took a massive body blow.

Today, not one, but two of Germany’s most widely read news media published comprehensive skeptical climate science articles in their print and online editions, coinciding with the release of a major climate skeptical book, Die kalte Sonne (The Cold Sun).

Germany has now plunged into raucous discord on the heated topic of climate change

What has set it all off? One of the fathers of Germany’s modern green movement, Professor Dr. Fritz Vahrenholt, a social democrat and green activist, decided to author a climate science skeptical book together with geologist/paleontologist Dr. Sebastian Lüning. Vahrenholt’s skepticism started when he was asked to review an IPCC report on renewable energy. He found hundreds of errors. When he pointed them out, IPCC officials simply brushed them aside. Stunned, he asked himself, “Is this the way they approached the climate assessment reports?”

Vahrenholt decided to do some digging. His colleague Dr. Lüning also gave him a copy of Andrew Montford’s The Hockey Stick Illusion. He was horrified by the sloppiness and deception he found. Well-connected to Hoffmann & Campe, he and Lüning decided to write the book. Die kalte Sonne cites 800 sources and has over 80 charts and figures. It examines and summarizes the latest science.

Conclusion: climate catastrophe is called off

The science was hyped. The book started hitting the bookshops today and has already hit no. 1 on the list for environment books. Indications show that it will climb very high in the overall bestseller charts. It’s published by a renowned publishing house and is now sending shock waves through the German climate science establishment. The first printing will produce 20,000 copies. I expect they will sell out rather quickly.

Read it all here.


While all that is happening, the wind is going out of the sails in the highly subsidized solar and windfarm business in Germany. Michael Limburg writes from Germany that:

We published this very comprehensive study from our author Dr. Günter Keil titled “ Germany´s Green Energy Supply Transformation Has Already Failed”. (

German version here:

It has won a lot of attention and was published in all german speaking sceptic blogs and is as well most regarded by our politicians.

Since a lot of green zealots in all countries praise Germany as the wonderland of manageable green miracles it might be helpful to show them the reality

I am therefore proud and happy to tell you that we managed to translate this very valuable piece of information which reveals the blindness and fanaticism of our present politicians which destroys willingly the backbone of our economy. Please make best use of it. I am sure you will welcome this information. The full report and the press release are attached.

Here is the English version:

Germany’s Green Energy Supply Transformation Has Already Failed!

Energy expert Dr. Guenter Keil has closely examined Germany’s energy policy of shifting away from nuclear and fossil fuels and over to renewables. What he finds is a bleak picture. Years ago Germany ambitiously embarked on transforming its energy supply system, and hopes to supply at least 80% of its energy needs through renewable energies by 2050, and thus become a moral leader on environmental responsibility for the rest of the world.

To do this, the former Socialist-Green coalition government, led by Gerhard Schröder, enacted the so-called Renewable Energy Feed-In Act (EEG) in 2000. This Feed-In Act requires electric utilities to buy all renewable energies, such as solar and wind power, from all producers at fixed, exorbitant rates and to feed it into the power grid for a period of 20 years. This has led to a boom as thousands of homeowners, businesses, and investors have installed thousands of megawatts of solar and wind power capacity over the years. The current Conservative-Liberal government, not to be outdone by its predecessor, is also gleefully pushing the Feed-In Act to the limit.

Weather-dependent supply wreaking havoc on the power grid

The problem is that these energy sources are weather-dependent and thus their sporadic supply is starting to wreak havoc on Germany’s power grid and is even now threatening to destabilize power grids all across Europe. The other problem: the power grid needed to distribute the decentrally produced green power is simply not there yet. They forgot to build it! So far, after tens of billions of euros spent on renewable energy systems and higher prices for consumers, not a single coal or gas-fired power plant has been taken offline. To the contrary, old inefficient plants have been brought back into service in an effort to stabilize the grid.

In a panic reaction, Germany shut down 8 nuclear power plants

To make matters worse, in a fit of panic and hysteria, the German government shut down 8 of its older 18 nuclear reactors in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, thus removing a very cheap and stable supply of power and further pushing the grid to the limits. Before the shutdown of the nuclear reactors, Germany had been a net power exporter; today it is a net power importer and is at times severely straining neighboring power grids. To compensate for the missing nuclear power, the government is now heavily promoting even more weather-dependent wind power, which is further destabilizing the German and European power grids. A solution to the problem of storing electricity is still at least a generation away.

The question of course is how could such absurd decisions have been made to begin with? Were there no experts involved in the planning of the new power generation infrastructure? The answer obviously is no. Power executives are viewed as evil, dirty and greedy polluters, and thus were never really consulted. They could not be counted on to give the politically correct solutions. Therefore the decision to shut down the German nuclear power plants and to massively support renewables was done unilaterally by the government, without consulting the power executives or even neighboring countries.

Offshore wind parks, but no transmission lines to industrial regions!

Now that the damage is spreading, Germany’s utilities are now struggling to keep the grid stable and to fill in the power gap left by the shut-down of nuclear reactors. To do this the German government has ordered the installation of large-scale wind parks in the North and Baltic seas, in addition to the re-commissioning of mothballed, inefficient coal-fired plants. This overall energy production transition from nuclear and fossils over to “renewables” is dubbed by German officials as the Energy Supply Transformation. Construction of the offshore wind parks is now progressing rapidly. But there’s just one problem: the huge high voltage power transmission lines needed to bring their power to Germany’s industrial heartland to the south are missing! More than 3000 km of these lines are needed, but are nowhere near in sight. The government forgot about those too!

Activists groups blocking grid expansion

Building the power transmission lines quickly across the landscape will be a virtually impossible task. Activist groups have long since organized and are effectively blocking their approval and construction. So far only a measly 214 km have been built. As a result, surplus wind power cannot be delivered to the markets, and thus either has to be destroyed, dumped on the market at “negative prices”, or wind park owners are simply ordered to stop generating. No problem though – paragraph 12 of Germany’s Energy Feed-In Act requires electric utilities to pay for the electricity that they ask not to have produced! Technically, there is an incentive for wind parks to destabilize the grid.

Eventually all these costs add up and in the end they get passed along to the consumer. Under the bottom line, consumers have to pay more and more, and for a lower and lower quality supply. German industry is getting nervous and surveys show that many are leaving Germany, or are planning to do so. They no longer view Germany’s power supply as reliable.

In a death spiral…”will fail spectacularly”

Dr. Guenter Keil’s report focusses in detail on the amazing absurdities of Germany’s Renewable Energy Feed-In Act and the country’s utopian Energy Transformation. The government, through intrusive meddling and ballooning bureaucracy, has maneuvered Germany’s energy supply system into a vicious death spiral: the more the government intervenes, the greater the mess becomes. And the greater the mess becomes, the more the government intervenes! Dr. Keil concludes:

Germany’s energy transformation has already failed. For Germans, the outlook is bleak. …the planned mismanagement is heavily damaging the economy and will fail spectacularly some years later because its economic and social costs will have become unbearable. The question remaining open is how many billions of euros will have to be destroyed before a new energy policy (a new energy transformation?) picks up the shattered pieces.”

So it’s no wonder that according to a survey of experts from 21 national committees by the World Energy Council, 0% said they could imagine their own country completely taking over the German political approach. An equal number believe Germany will reach its stated targets.

Germany’s model will serve as a classic lesson on how not to handle energy production and management.

Michael Limburg; with thanks to Pierre Gosselin from notrickszone for excellent translation support

Dr. Guenter Keil was a scientific employee at the Technical University of Munich / Fraunhofer Society, as well as Project Support at the Federal Research Ministry.

For downloading full undefinedreport & undefinedpress release here or see files attached (remark: Downloads of .doc pressrelease with SAFARI seems not to work, FIRFOX workfs fine)


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Wow, this is pretty big. But on it`s own, it will achieve little, unless more of this happens. One article in one major news item will not reverse the years of brainwashing. People who have been succesfully brainwashed dont just realise the errors of their ways when the facts are presented to them. It can take months or even years for throughly brainwashed subjects to overcome the brainwashing eg. Look at the aftermath of Nazism or Communism. Years of brainwashing left many people clinging on for years. And the same applies to AGW. We`ve now had a good 10 years of constant AGW propganda being thrown at people and one or two stories like this will achieve little unless it continues.with followup stories and more expose’s from other media outlets

Die kalte Sonne cites 800 sources and has over 80 charts and figures. It examines and summarizes the latest science.
Conclusion: climate catastrophe is called off
The science was hyped. The book started hitting the bookshops today and has already hit no. 1 on the list for environment books. Indications show that it will climb very high in the overall bestseller charts.”

OK – I’m wondering if there will be an English translation.

“Technically, there is an incentive for wind parks to destabilize the grid.”
What a brilliant plan! Obviously they built a model and reached a consensus first. 😉


This looks like a top post for some time


Sprechen Sie nicht schlecht über die Toten.


If the German economy crashes, there won’t be any stable economies in the Euro-zone. Look out below.

Lew Skannen

Once the mainstream media get a proper hold of it and the general public realise that they have been duped there will be a lot of wailing and gnashing of teeth.
I get the impression that the average man in the street has assumed that all the expense is necessary because green energy is somehow ‘good’ and that the CAGW is a genuine problem.
Imagine how annoyed the public will be when those two supports are kicked away.

That’s the way tipping points go – you know one is coming, but don’t know exactly when it will tip. Good for Germany – it appears to have tipped before a major blackout in a cold snap.


gator69 says:
February 6, 2012 at 5:22 pm
““Technically, there is an incentive for wind parks to destabilize the grid.”
What a brilliant plan! Obviously they built a model and reached a consensus first. ;)”
I call wind power and solar power Störgrössen (disturbance sources), not energy sources.
When you think about it, this is applied discordianism; the goddess of Discordia wants to destroy what works; and which political movements want to destroy industries that work – yeah right, socialists and greens; the German energy cross subsidy was invented by – bingo, the red-green coalition of Schröder.
Unfortunately, Germans are still Germans and able to survive under the most unlikely circumstances, so Discordia, once unleashed, proceeded to wreak havoc on all systems in the EU but seems to have had free play in Spain and Portugal instead of in Germany, where the people just cough up the money and continue with their lifes.
Where Discordia reigns, paradoxes are aplenty, and I see great opportunities in fossil fuels – the harder policies promote the Störgrössen, the more sought after and priced will be the last remaining sources of reliable power.


Anybody that works at the “coal face” of the generating industry could see this coming from a mile away. I have been trying to tell the hysterical numpties at The Guardian exactly what Guenter Kiel has said about the instability caused by intermittent renewables.
The reality is, it has been obvious all along. Ask anyone working on despatch at any national grid in the developed world.


Marvellous, all in one headline. The actual use of the word Lies coupled with CO2, and, “pure fear-mongering”, and, asking the question “should we trust the experts” – in case anyone missed the conclusion… 🙂
Love it. We’ll see if this is the beginning of the great retreat in the War against Mother Nature, defeated by snow again…
..shouldn’t have called her life giving sprog a toxic.

Quick! They need the smart grid! Oh… wait?


drip, drip, drip….however, as long as there’s money be be made…
6 Feb: Guardian: John Vidal: Bill Gates backs climate scientists lobbying for large-scale geoengineering
Other wealthy individuals have also funded a series of reports into the future use of technologies to geoengineer the climate
( Ken Caldeira of Stanford) “Every scientist has some conflict of interest, because we would all like to see more resources going to study things that we find interesting,” said Caldeira. “Do I have too much influence? I feel like I have too little. I have been calling for making CO2 emissions illegal for many years, but no one is listening to me. People who disagree with me might feel I have too much influence. The best way to reduce my influence is to have more public research funds available, so that our funds are in the noise. If the federal government played the role it should in this area, there would be no need for money from Gates….


Can we forward a copy to Gov. Jerry Brown? Not that it will actually help. California is in its own reality. It is too deep in red ink to care about science at the moment.
It would be nice if Californians could learn from the German experience. Alas, it will never happen. No, they are too arrogant to believe California can’t do better than Germany.
Although we know the laws of physics, etc., are on our side, logical reasoning is not an option. The people in charge here give us little reason to doubt they are still experiencing flash-backs from the 60s. At this rate, we will have to recreate Cuba on the Pacific before things turn around.

R. Shearer

Was zum …..

Richard M

Heute Deutschland, morgen die ganze Welt …

Start emailing the newsdesks of all the media outlets you know, linking to this WUWT article. They can’t ignore it.
A comment like the following could be added as we nail up the coffin …
The two major errors were
(1) assuming that the Earth’s surface has to radiate like a blackbody and thus would have been -18 degrees C if there were no “greenhouse” gases. But the surface loses thermal energy by diffusion, conduction, convection, evaporation and chemical processes, leaving far less than 50% of the energy to be radiated. So you cannot apply the Stefan-Boltzmann Law as if all energy is radiated.
(2) assuming that radiative flux (energy) from a colder atmosphere can be converted to thermal energy when it strikes a significantly warmer surface.
For more detail see my site

Markus Fitzhenry

Gentlemen, I have it ion very good authority, the date Anthropogenic Global Warming bit the dust was in fact, 23 January 2012.
The the Knowing that I know, a proclamation is made.
Arrhenioushansenous has been slain, by the hand of a man.
Rejoice, for the fear of climate is no more.
The most powerful force in the universe is the reasoning of a man.
Markus Fitzhenry.

David A. Evans

Is there anything in English about the impact the cold is having on modern diesel cars?
I know I could feed my old Peugeot 405 just about anything including vegetable oil with a bit of white spirit to prevent emulsifying.
Best regards.


Activist groups have long since organized and are effectively blocking their approval and construction.

When is it going to dawn on people that these are not “environmental” activists, they are economic sabotage activists. Their root mission is to destroy the economy. They demand that renewable sources be mandated but block any connecting those power sources to the demand. They do the same with nuclear. They prevent recycling of fuel, demand that no new plants be built until the disposal problem can be solved, and then block the disposal site.
These people are NOT “environmental activists”, these people are economic saboteurs. That is their root goal and once it is understood that their real objective is the destruction of “developed” economies, everything else becomes much clearer.


I can hear Wagner playing under this unfolding story!!!

Rhoda Ramirez

‘Sustainable’ must be the new magic word. It has the added advanted of having NO practical meaning, unlike eg. ‘warming’, ‘warmest’, ‘global’, ‘rising sea level’, etc.


Wait…a MSM outlet in Europe tells the truth about CAGW. Why does the ‘something about ships and rats’ come time?


This is old news in Australia. Energy companies have been complaining and instability in the national grid for months.
Some suppliers are even rejecting applications to install solar now as the voltage spikes are tripping solar systems.

Glad to see the Germans coming around! This past November 20th, I had the honor of seeing one of my skeptical posts translated into German then published on a German-skeptic site (see links below). Translation was performed by Chris Frey, and published by Michael Limburg. I have never had a web-post translated and published before, so this was very nice!
The English version is here:
The German version is here:


David A. Evans says:
February 6, 2012 at 5:53 pm
Is there anything in English about the impact the cold is having on modern diesel cars?”
reposting a comment of mine from notrickszone:
Frost in Germany shuts down hundreds of Diesel cars. Fuel filters get clogged by Parafine crystals at temperatures under -22 deg C; and it is not possible to add gasoline to the mix when you have a modern Diesel; they’re too fragile to survive that. (allegedly. I don’t have a Diesel ATM so I can’t run the experiment. Often such statements have more to do with liability than with technology. I’ll ask a colleague, maybe he wants to play. Wonder which subsystems will survive.)
Monday night had temperatures of -28 deg C and colder.

David A. Evans

“Now this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. but it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.” :- Winston Churchill.
I agree with crosspatch. They are not environmentalists but economic saboteurs!

R. Gates

Markus Fitzhenry says:
February 6, 2012 at 5:52 pm
Gentlemen, I have it ion very good authority, the date Anthropogenic Global Warming bit the dust was in fact, 23 January 2012.
This is one of the most humorous things I’ve read all day.

Werner Brozek

Great news! I know that weather is not climate. But the people are battling severe cold right now in Germany (as well as many other countries). When the weather very strongly reinforces what you read, that is a very powerful one-two punch. (Ask Hansen!)

Rhoda Ramirez says:
” ‘Sustainable’ must be the new magic word.”
It’s unsustainable.☺

Allan MacRae

Nothing New Under the Sun!
We wrote the following in 2002, a decade ago.
See our point #8:
8. The ultimate agenda of pro-Kyoto advocates is to eliminate fossil fuels, but this would result in a catastrophic shortfall in global energy supply – the wasteful, inefficient energy solutions proposed by Kyoto advocates simply cannot replace fossil fuels.
Skill testing questions:
1. Does #8 sound just like today’s Bild article’s conclusion on the abject failure of green energy?
2. How did we know all this a decade ago?
3. How did we have the confidence to write it down in my professional association’s journal?
4. Given the overwhelming unpopularity of our position, why did we do it?
1. Yes it certainly does.
2. It was the conventional science of the time, and still is.
3. We did our homework well, and we wrote the truth to the best of our abilities.
4. Despite all the criticism we have received over the decade, it was the right thing to do.
In 2002 I co-authored a paper at the request of APEGGA with Dr. Sallie Baliunas, Harvard Astrophysicist, and Dr. Tim Patterson, Carleton Paleoclimatologist, at
We wrote that article as skeptics of alleged catastrophic humanmade global warming, and I think it is clear that we won that debate (Note: NO global warming for a decade!).
Reviewing the eight summary points in our 2002 APEGGA paper, it is clear that our predictive track record is infinitely better than that of the IPCC and the global warming alarmist movement.
Some of our predictions did not fully materialize in Canada, because our country did not adopt all the excesses of the Kyoto Protocol, but those countries that did so, particularly the UK and Western Europe, have experienced all these downsides of global warming fervor.
Here are the eight summary points from our 2002 APEGGA paper:
Kyoto has many fatal flaws, any one of which should cause this treaty to be scrapped.
1. Climate science does not support the theory of catastrophic human-made global warming – the alleged warming crisis does not exist.
2. Kyoto focuses primarily on reducing CO2, a relatively harmless gas, and does nothing to control real air pollution like NOx, SO2, and particulates, or serious pollutants in water and soil.
3. Kyoto wastes enormous resources that are urgently needed to solve real environmental and social problems that exist today. For example, the money spent on Kyoto in one year would provide clean drinking water and sanitation for all the people of the developing world in perpetuity.
4. Kyoto will destroy hundreds of thousands of jobs and damage the Canadian economy – the U.S., Canada’s biggest trading partner, will not ratify Kyoto, and developing countries are exempt.
5. Kyoto will actually hurt the global environment – it will cause energy-intensive industries to move to exempted developing countries that do not control even the worst forms of pollution.
6. Kyoto’s CO2 credit trading scheme punishes the most energy efficient countries and rewards the most wasteful. Due to the strange rules of Kyoto, Canada will pay the former Soviet Union billions of dollars per year for CO2 credits.
7. Kyoto will be ineffective – even assuming the overstated pro-Kyoto science is correct, Kyoto will reduce projected warming insignificantly, and it would take as many as 40 such treaties to stop alleged global warming.
8. The ultimate agenda of pro-Kyoto advocates is to eliminate fossil fuels, but this would result in a catastrophic shortfall in global energy supply – the wasteful, inefficient energy solutions proposed by Kyoto advocates simply cannot replace fossil fuels.

David A. Evans

Forgot to mention. As DirkH & Pierre will probably confirm, Germany has more environmentalists per capita than any nation in Europe, (even the UK,) so this has to be good.
I remember well the VW Combis with the CND badge & “AtomWerke Nein Danke” written, (scrawled,) all over them.

It’s easier to bury something with gravel than with boulders.

David A. Evans

Thanks DirkH
I’d seen the comment over at NTZ & hoped maybe you had an English reference as I’ve been unable to find one. I do know often German sites also often have an English zone. Google translate is OK but I was hoping for a better translation.
My Danish is rusty & my German is worse. 🙁


Need more of this. LOTS more….


Bernd Felsche says:
February 6, 2012 at 6:19 pm
Quote of the thread!


Hi Anthony and moderators,
This is OT but is important. (I can’t get Tips & notes to work).
There is a vitally important new post at Climate Audit, 6th February.
Steve is going through all the “hide the key climategate documents thing” that has gone through more than three enquiries so far without outcome.
He has it all laid out, chapter and verse and it is really damning.
David Holland and others have chimed in as well with additional evidence.
The issue is the refusal to properly handle FOI (FOIA) requests.
David Holland is talking appeals to the Tribunal and if necessary court cases as well.
This needs every honest seeker after the truth to lend full support.
Now is the time!
The URL is

Ursus Augustus

Who’s a “denialist” now I wonder? Which side of the debate will now shove its shoulders up its own fundament?
I live in Tasmania, Australia, home of the Australian Greens and those arrogant, evangelical creeps will deny reality until it buries them. Fortunately I think it will and sooner rather than later because once the MSM gets the sniff/sight of eco-warrior blood, the hounds will be running and the hunt will be on. There is nothing quite like the tabloids end of the MSM spectrum chasing after a fraud.


Anthony -apologies – I see that you have got this one already – it comes from walking on my head all the time, as i live down under.


R. Gates says:
February 6, 2012 at 6:09 pm
“Markus Fitzhenry says:
February 6, 2012 at 5:52 pm
Gentlemen, I have it ion very good authority, the date Anthropogenic Global Warming bit the dust was in fact, 23 January 2012.
This is one of the most humorous things I’ve read all day.”
R. Gates, despite my best attempts, I could not discern the convenient warming of Longwave Infrared Backradiation from the heavens, even though it was -15 deg C with no winds where I stood; which should have given the flux of quantae a good opportunity to flow my direction. Yes, I do have the feeling it’s dead.


David A. Evans says:
February 6, 2012 at 6:19 pm
“Forgot to mention. As DirkH & Pierre will probably confirm, Germany has more environmentalists per capita than any nation in Europe, (even the UK,) so this has to be good.”
It has historic roots and makes for strange bedfellows.
Germans cherish their forests as if it were something holy. They forget that 90% of our forests are basically tree plantations, optimized for high wood productions and constantly maintained. There’s not much reason to be romantic about it.

jonathan frodsham

It must be difficult to lose face. Losing face is a big thing in Asia, I should know I live there. I suspect that it is the same all over the world. But some people have no face to lose. Maybe saving face is one of the reasons for the religious fever attached to people who believe that CAGW is the new holy gospel. Who knows? I have never managed to understand fanaticism and properly never will. Now very importantly on that point of face: All the scandals and this fantastic new development from Germany have now given the people who more or less believed in CAGW a way out. “Without losing face”. Think about that for a minute. I predict that this day is the turning point in history, even more than the previous gates. I call this one achtungate.

TG McCoy (Douglas DC)

I will buy the English edition. We are about to have the same problem in the Pac.NW.
USA too many wind mills…

David A. Evans

The article DirkH referenced translated via Google
It has trouble with a word, “versultzen” which I think may mean “emulsified”.


The windmills have moved beyond striking birds and are now beginning to strike excrement.


This is AWESOME!!!


David A. Evans says:
February 6, 2012 at 7:13 pm
“The article DirkH referenced translated via Google
It has trouble with a word, “versultzen” which I think may mean “emulsified”.”
Yeah, a funny word, but you’re right.

Kevin J Klees

Wow, those Germans always where a smart bunch of folks, i.e.; the jet engine, optics, and the ever present ball bearing are just a few examples. I’m surprised it took so long. Hopefully this will catch on !!!!
Of course, they did take a little unfortunate side trip back in the 1930’s and 40’s.
FYI, the vast majority of ball bearings are still to this day made in metric sizes. This is because the Germans perfected the machines that manufacture said bearings. And the machines came pre-programmed (in a mechanical sense, not a computer software sense) to make metric sizes.
Disclaimer, as an American I do in fact have a family history based on German immigrants that came here before the US Revolution. So I am at least a little bit of a “German-American” although I consider myself 100% American, with interests in the ways of my forbearers.
Cheers, Kevin.