Ocean Heat Content Adjustments: Follow-up and More Missing Heat

Guest post by Craig Loehle

On June 2, 2009 at WUWT in Anomalous Spike in Ocean Heat Content I commented on what looked like a data discontinuity in ocean heat content data. In this follow-up post, I show that the recent update to the OHC data at NOAA adjusts the recent data down, as I suggested nearly 2 years ago (though I doubt I had anything to do with it). The original post is in italics followed by my update plus an update on trends.

In the paper

Levitus S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, H. E. Garcia, A. V. Mishonov (2009), Global ocean heat content 1955–2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155

the long term trend of ocean heat content is reanalyzed in Levitus to attempt to correct for bias in instrumentation, and the record is extended. The graph below depicts the result.

The most recent period, from 2003, uses the ARGO profiling floats, whereas earlier periods use a variety of instruments with various biases. Patching all these data together is a challenge. I draw your attention to the strong spike in the red line from 2002 to 2003. This line is the point at which the earlier data is joined up with the ARGO data. The magnitude of the jump is the largest in the entire record. The transition to the ARGO data can not be said to have been accomplished with a long cross-calibration period. It thus looks to me like there may be an error in how the different data sets are stitched together. I in no way am implying malfeasance here. I have discussed this situation with Roger Pielke Sr. and Josh Willis and they agree it looks odd and merits further investigation. Dr. Pielke points out that there is not a comparable jump in the SST data. I think this example illustrates that if there is a big jump in the data right when you change your instrumentation, it is perhaps good to look a little closer.

Below is the change notice ftp://ftp.nodc.noaa.gov/pub/data.nodc/woa/DATA_ANALYSIS/3M_HEAT_CONTENT/PDF/heat_content_differences.pdf

from NOAA showing that the recent data (post-2002) have been adjusted downward based on many QA/QC issues. There is still a large jump in mid-2003 when the Argo float data join the other data in the database. I believe there is still a data continuity/calibration issue here and that recent data need further adjusting down.

There is a famous quote in the Climategate emails from Trenberth about the “travesty” that there is missing heat which we can’t account for. This refers to the fact that the radiation balance as understood and as modeled implies that the Earth should be absorbing radiation and warming up. The observed rate of warming, including heat stored in the ocean, is significantly less than predicted. This is the “travesty”. Please note that the adjustment of the OHC data in the above plot (black line after 2002) makes the missing heat term larger by a significant amount. The problem of balancing the Earth energy budget remains unsolved. If further adjustments are warranted, as I believe, then the problem grows further.

It is useful to plot just the data since the Argo float data were added to the database, in mid-2003 (note the scale as given from the NOAA download which is in per square meter differs from the Levitus scale which is a global sum).

For this period, the slope is 0.00160 GJ/m2/yr or a slight uptrend. In contrast the slope for the previous 36 years (the steepest part of the above plot, ending in 2002) is 0.01075, which is 6.7 times as fast of a rise. Either there has been a sudden deceleration in OHC rise, or there is still a discontinuity at the point where Argo data are added in (I think both are likely). Note that flat periods are present in earlier periods of the data, such as the 1980s, so a flat period is not unprecedented. However, it does match up with the satellite data.

It is useful to compare the above graph to the Argo-only data ( Loehle, C. 2009. Cooling of the Global Ocean Since 2003. Energy & Environment 20:99-102) available at http://www.ncasi.org//Publications/Detail.aspx?id=3152 below which shows a cooling trend.

Commenters have pointed to the Levitus paper above to claim that my result is “wrong” which is interesting since this plot is exactly the Argo data supplied by Josh Willis of NASA JPL. The quality of the Argo data is evident in that the annual cycle with a period exactly 365 days (see my paper cited) is evident in this data but not in the full dataset above it. The Argo data as of my publication showed a cooling trend, but the Argo data are being updated to deal with quality issues so this may no longer be true (data not yet available).


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Gary Pearse

Treating this like “unknown data”, ie. not knowing what the metric is about except that the recent Argo data is more representative a sample, one would have to conclude that the earlier data is significantly biased and is probably more or less representative of a selected region at best. My approach to resolving this would be to select the Argo data that is closest to the pre-Argo data point set in the post 2003 time. Now I’m sure the people working on this would not find this a novel approach so I can only assume that we must have “turned off” the earlier data gatherer at the beginning of the Argo data (why we would do this is beyond me unless they found that there was no useful correspondence with the earlier data and it is therefore invalid data) . Can we turn the earlier source back on to see where it went? If it is truly “non data” then we should also get rid of the earlier curve segment.

Charlie Foxtrot

Small difference in instrument location and construction can make huge differences in readings. It would interest me to know what the differences are between the old system and new. Is there a discussion of this somewhere?


Understanding earths energy balance; stratospheric cooling, where is the error.
The usual AGW explanation, CO2 absorbs the energy from the earth thus shielding and cooling the stratosphere.
The obvious answer, an increase in co2 increases the energy transmitted from the stratopause. Look at a atmospheric cooling chart, the enegy transmitted by co2 from the stratopause is about half that transmitted from earth thru the 10 micro window. Doubling co2 will double the co2 cooling from this portion of the atmosphere.
Its my perception that the AGW stratospheric cooling argument shows the largest disconnect of all between the political posturing and how things realy work.

Craig Loehle

re: Gary Pearse: The data throughout are a mixture of thousands of readings using XBT (expendable bathymetres), bottles, and other methods. These are not consistent in space or time. The Argo data are added in mid-2003. The Argo sensors float with currents and are not stationary. It is hard to cross-calibrate all of these and there are problems with instrument reliability and drift, especially for XBT.


“The most recent period, from 2003, uses the ARGO profiling floats, whereas earlier periods use a variety of instruments with various biases.”
“For this period, the slope is 0.00160 GJ/m2/yr or a slight uptrend.”
“It is useful to compare the above graph to the Argo-only data . . . which shows a cooling trend.”
For those of us who don’t eat and drink this stuff, could you be a little clearer about the distinction–apparently obvious to you, but completely lost on me–between “[using] the ARGO profiling floats,” which yields warming, and “the ARGO-only data,” which do not?

Craig Loehle

re Joe Born: over the whole period, various instruments including XBT were used. In mid-2003 3000 Argo instruments were added up through the present. The difficulty in cross-calibrating the Argo with the earlier instruments is what I think led to the adjustment NOAA did, and which may still need more adjustments.

Massimo PORZIO

I still have not understand how do they measure the effective outgoing LW radiation at the TOA.
I hope they don’t use the silly (for this use) satellite spectrometers, because they are directive devices and they can’t see the GHGs’ scattered IR which outgoes from the atmosphere with angles different from the azimuth.
If they do that, the more GHGs, the more scattered IR unseen by the satellites, so they believe the energy accumulated somewhere here on Earth, but it’s already escaped in the outer space instead.


The ocean heat content data is fundamental to arguements about climate change. I see the Argo buoy system coupled with satellite measurements measuring incoming and outgoing radiation as a true measure of the earth’s energy balance. In the late 90’s, James Hansen made a falsifiable prediction about how much heat should be stored in the oceans and the Argo system set out to measure than in a comprehensive way. If Argo does not detect the predicted warming in the oceans over an extended period of time, the GHG theory has to be reconciled with that. It seems that obtaining timely data from the system is getting more and more difficult and Josh Willis is working very hard to remove any biases. That always makes me suspicious as data message can easily lead to other biases. The warming camp have been called out on the Argo data by Roger Pielke Sr. and others. They know the game is over if Argo continues to show the oceans aren’t warming. It’s time to push for timely release of the data and to insist that any adjustments to remove biases be fully documented and vetted.


David A. Evans.

As I understand it, (I could of course be wrong,) when ARGO didn’t give the expected warming, Josh Willis pulled quite a few floats for recalibration. Is that what’s going on with the new adjustments

The continuing arguments about CO2 continue to divert attention to what I consider more urgent considerations of negative impacts on human well being from particulates, heavy metals, ozone, NOx, H2S, radioisotope release and waste disposal issues associated with fossil and nuclear sources of energy. A steady stream of commodity sales, be they fossil fuel or nuclear generated electricity serve a growth paradigm limited on a finite planet. A better paradigm is increased use of efficiency and renewable energy, especially if climate change warm or cool increases the need for energy. Conservation denies short term fiscal profit. But increased renewables and retrofits to enhance efficiency and increase power plant safety provide new jobs. If men of goodwill seek to avoid another “bottleneck” in the welfare of humanity, a pardigm shift is required regardless of any conclusion regarding CO2. Thank goodnesss there has been an outpouring of good will towards Japan. The old war paradigm would have rejoiced at their troubles and the old war paradigm still maintains mobile nuclear weapons, any one of which detonated over populated areas would make what happened in Japan look relatively small.

Craig Loehle

Re: david evans: there is no evidence for nefarious adjustments, in contrast to the well-documented funny surface station adjustments that are done. There are all sorts of real issues with the instruments.


Speaking of ‘missing heat’, on your ENSO reference page, the item:
“Global Sea Level Change – 1992 to Present – Inverted Barometer Not Applied – Seasonal Signal Included”
The title should be changed to reflect the actual data:
“Global Sea Level Change – 1992 to July 2010 – Inverted Barometer Not Applied – Seasonal Signal Included”
It seems that in July 2010 they stopped updating the graph, so your title (1992 to Present) is misleading.
If the overall sea level was dropping then that may indicate that the oceans are generally cooling at all depths and is there is no ‘hidden heat’
Hide the decline.


Do you mean that the “missing heat” that is required to prove AGW is in reality “worse than previously suspected”, due to adjustments to recent data which are non-calibrated to previous data?
I suspect that not only is the heat missing, it has left the building (Earth)… on it’s merry way out of the Solar System.
The downslope in recent data says that the Earth is cooling, not warming.


Because this is true:

The problem of balancing the Earth energy budget remains unsolved.

, any remediation to fiddle the energy balance (cap and trade) is premature and ultimately disingenuous if not outright dishonest.

R. Gates

I’m not sure why you chose to completely ignore the Lyman et. al. study from 2010 on this very issue, and that study even went further to look at a multiple sources of uncertainty and using different XBT bias corrections. This paper by Lyman et. al:
is the one cited on NOAA’s heat content site:
And indeed, the increase in upper ocean heat content of .64 + or – .11 Wm2 is exactly in the range of the Lyman study, which states in the abstract:
“Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993–2008 of 0.64 W m-2 (calculated for the Earth’s entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53–0.75 W m-2.”
The Lyman study is currently the most up to date look at the measurements and uncertainties in upper ocean heat content, and shows a robust warming of the upper oceans. Furthermore, other recent studies from both the northern and southern hemisphere’s show a warming of the deeper oceans, below 700m:
This 2010 paper concludes: “In summary,we show that the abyssal ocean has warmed
significantly from the 1990s to the 2000s.”
The paper found the greatest deeper ocean warming in the southern hemisphere, but the northern hemisphere also showed warming at levels below 700 m. Other studies confirm these findings:
In short, your lack of even mentioning the Lyman study (which is the most recent) is interesting to me, but never the less, within a high degree of confidence, we can see that somewhere around .64 wm2 of heat is being added annually to the upper ocean and more at deeper levels. With Trenberth’s net imbalance calculated to be about .9 wm2, adding both the upper and deeper ocean warming, we are at least getting closer to finding that so-called “missing heat”, though I’m sure AGW skeptics will continue to paint a different story…so I would ask, if the Lyman et. al. study is in the ball park, where indeed is this extra heat to the upper (and lower) oceans coming from?

What’s your opinion on the accuracy of the supposed ‘global’ SST data back to 1860 as produced by Hadley?
Having thoroughly examined it for an article on global temperatures I wouldn’t give it house room and consider that it shoudn’t be used in any scientific paper as it is so seriously flawed.


“For this period, the slope is 0.00160 GJ/m2/yr or a slight uptrend. In contrast the slope for the previous 36 years (the steepest part of the above plot, ending in 2002) is 0.01075, which is 6.7 times as fast of a rise.”
I think climate science has big problems with even the best estimates of OHC. Many assumptions have to be made before a total is arrived at from the relatively sparse number of measuring points. Our climate system displays spatio-temporal chaos, and this can easily invalidate many of the assumptions made about behaviour over time or geography (link to good discussion about spatio-temporal chaos on Judith Curry’s blog)…
I wonder what the graphs would look like with error bars in place???


Craig Loehle at 11:23 AM
Given the importance of the ocean heat content it is almost certain that Argo data will be ultimately freed and evaluated independently from Josh Willis. It is my impression that Josh is an honest researcher, but this stuff is too important for it not to be independently evaluated, perhaps by several competing groups, a la UAH and RSS. I know of at least one senior researcher who is concerned about the delay in availability of data.


R. Gates says:
March 20, 2011 at 12:08 pm
Sorry to defalt the baloon of robust assessment, but NOAA did adjust the OHC 2003 to present DOWNWARDS. That means even more heat is missing that was supposed to support AGW.
If there is insufficient hot water available, one can always rely on thin air (aka trace CO2). So, back to the thin air we go. The missing heat must be up there somewhere.

Stephen Wilde

“where indeed is this extra heat to the upper (and lower) oceans coming from?”
Lower global albedo and so more sunshine into the oceans.
The process has been going into reverse since around 2000 and we have barely begun to see the effects yet due to ocean lag and the fact that the net input remained positive until around 2003.

Pamela Gray

R. Gates, you win one for the opposite side by asking where the rest of the heat is. We know that CO2 has a seasonal component. It also has a North versus South Hemispheric presence. OHC should match CO2 seasonal cycles, and hemispheric presence. That ARGO measured OHC clearly demonstrates the year long expected cycle of oceanic heat content adds to the picture. That the heat from your supposed increased AGW longwave radiation is not there in the signal is its own conclusion.

Craig Loehle

Re: R. Gates: The Lyman paper in Nature is from May of 2010 with further delays in publication and in fact only uses data through 2009 IIRC. The adjustment that I comment on and which is linked above is from October 2010. I am unclear why the page you link to shows data through 2009 as “most current” but following the link:
gives the info I used.
As to the Lyman conclusion that heat is being added, Lyman’s graph only goes to 2009 and does not appear to include the adjustments post-2003 which I document here. Their trends would, clearly, go down after adjusting the recent data. They also looked at a longer term trend, where I was only concerned with the post-2003 trend where the Argo data is included. As to the deep ocean data, I can’t comment on that except to say there is far less data at depth.

Craig Loehle wrote, “The most recent period, from 2003, uses the ARGO profiling floats, whereas earlier periods use a variety of instruments with various biases.”
Craig, I don’t believe the NODC began using only ARGO floats in 2003. The NODC website shows XBT bias corrections through 2007. And this agrees with the full deployment of ARGO in 2007. These are the XBT corrections per the NODC’s 2010 update:
And the NOAA/GODAS website show XBTs in use last year, though I don’t know for sure if the XBTs are included in the NODCs OHC data in 2010:

R. Gates says: “The Lyman study is currently the most up to date look at the measurements and uncertainties in upper ocean heat content, and shows a robust warming of the upper oceans.”
Actually, the 2010 updates/corrections to the NODC dataset come after Lyman et al, so I don’t believe your claim is correct.

Craig Loehle, disregard my March 20, 2011 at 2:05 pm comment. I should have read the entire post. You acknowledge that the NODC is not ARGO only after 2003.

Billy Liar

steven mosher says:
March 20, 2011 at 10:17 am
NAMIA (not any more it ain’t) 🙂

Speaking of Trenberth, he has an article out on tracking Earth’s energy in Science (16 April 2010) where he finds that a large quantity of energy is missing when total energy change is compared to net incoming radiation. This mysterious energy loss starts in 2004 and by 2010 a good 80 percent of the energy delivered to earth is nowhere to be found. He looks at the effects of melting Arctic sea ice, Greenland, Antarctica, and glaciers on ocean heat content change and comes out empty-handed. But if you read the whole article you find this statement: “Since 2004, ~3000 Argo floats have provided regular temperature soundings of the upper 2000 m of the ocean, giving new confidence in the ocean heat content assessment – ” So what do you know. new equipment comes on line and energy does a disappearing act. If this paper had been peer reviewed that would have been the first thing the reviewer would have pointed out. But with their buddies in the science publishing business questioning the work of a big shot like Trenberth is unthinkable. It seems like the data from Argo floats is anomalous in more ways than one and his job was to figure out what was happening with his equipment instead of taking those data at face value and coming out with the absurdity of “missing energy” in a premier science publication.

Craig Loehle

Bob Tisdale,
Sorry for not being clear, but I added some comments–the Argo data were ADDED IN after mid-2003, not replacing other data.
How does deep ocean warm? If the sinking Arctic and other water is warmer than usual (though still cold) the deep ocean will gain heat. Not impossible at all.
tonyb: I think SST data are noisy (duh).
it is unclear how to compute error bars for such data.

Bill Illis

Josh Willis did provide an unpublished update to Roger Pielke sr. (going out to April 2010)
After providing an update of the warming in the below 700 metre ocean that can be ascertained (Johnson and Purkey), the energy being absorbed in the global all-depth ocean is about 0.255 Watts/m2 (well below the 0.85 W/m2 they are looking for).

Massimo PORZIO

Steve Mosher,
you wrote me to GIYF.
Uhmm, maybe because my English is not my native language, but I never find on the Google a document about what they used to measure (I wrote measure, not simulate) the outgoing LWIR radiation.
I played a little with Dr.Archer’s MODTRAN on line atmospheric simulator, but it estimates only the nadir radiation, and of course for a CO2 doubling it predicts the canonic abt 3W/m-2 also shown by Wikipedia here:(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiative_forcing).
But MODTRAN simulates just what a satellite “eye” see and for Terra and Aqua satellites the MODIS radiometer aperture is just about 0.81° (10km footprint at ground from 705km orbit height; see here: http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/about/specifications.php).
Anyways AFIK the satellites don’t measure the energy escaping with angles very different from nadir.
If you know a different way used to measure the full TOA escaping energy I’ll very appreciate any related link to read about it.


nobody has any real data just a bunch of measurements from different locations at different times of year …
an absolute waste of time and money …

Craig Loehle

A point that some of the questions above raise is version control of the data. Is it possible to go back and look at the versions Lyman and Levitus etc used? It isn’t obvious from the NOAA web page how to do this, if at all. Yet which adjustments were done when is critical to understanding all the different analyses. Again.

R. Gates

Thanks for your response. I do need to spend some time sorting out the reasons for the discrepancies between the links provided on the two sites. This is obviously an area worthy and needing much further study and better data. I think your post did raise some interesting issues, and you and others might find this recent discussion related to these issues very enlightening:
Also, Trenberth himself speaks to some of these issues in this paper, and this paper was written last year before the downward adjustment in the data, so, as you point out, there is indeed even more “missing heat”:

You confirmed that SST data is ‘noisy.’
You are the king of understatement 🙂

John Blake

So what will it take to resolve this ocean-temperature discrepancy dating from 2003? If not cross-calibrated and reconciled from the outset, measuring devices will record anomalies whose inconsistencies guarantee spurious conclusions.
Will lengthening this time-series from seven to (say) fifteen years enhance its validity or merely extend a long-term suspect trend? Only if researchers diagnose the problem can they act to rectify base-data as it becomes available.

Steve in SC

Lyman is OK, but I prefer RCBS.

Craig Loehle replied: “How does deep ocean warm? If the sinking Arctic and other water is warmer than usual (though still cold) the deep ocean will gain heat. Not impossible at all.”
I assume that’s a reply to someone else.

Stephen Wilde says: “Lower global albedo and so more sunshine into the oceans.”
The first principal component of global OHC since 1979 is an ENSO-related signal (inverted NINO3.4 SST anomalies).
You continued, “The process has been going into reverse since around 2000 and we have barely begun to see the effects yet due to ocean lag and the fact that the net input remained positive until around 2003.”
That seems to be a shift in your normal starting date. You’ve used 2000 up to this date.

Dave Springer

Yeah, a big step change upwards in 2002-2003 coincident with switching over to ARGO data is a huge red flag that either ARGO is reading high or (more likely) the non-ARGO data has a low bias in it. Any competent objective observer who knows about the instrumention change to ARGO should not have published that chart until they figured out what’s causing the step change and fix it. Of course when it’s fixed it’ll substantially raise pre-2003 SST and completely ruin it for use in alarmist propaganda.


So does all this mean any of the following?
(a) The seas will boil away in the next twenty minutes
(b) The seas are getting hotter, but not as quickly as the alarmists say.
(c) The seas are not getting hotter.
(d) The seas are cooling down
(e) The sug-ges-tion of sum-mar-ies in sim-ple terms for those of us who are thick-os but in-ter-est-ed has not been tak-en up.
How about a page that give updates of the main issues? Something like
Seas: Cooling
Sea level: static
Arctic ice: increasing
Antarctic ice: stable
North Hemisphere: Summer – cool. Winter – bloody freezing.
South Hemisphere: Summer – hot. Winter – chilly.
Then we would know where we are up to.

Roy Clark

The discussion of ocean heat content cannot be reduced to the trend in a single number. There are at minimum, 5 major ocean gyres that recirculate ocean water around their own ocean basins. Each one is unique and they are all coupled in various ways over short and long time scales. Ocean heat content depends on solar heating, cloud cover and wind speeds and their interactions with the ocean gyres. The Pacific Warm Pool extends to a depth of over 100 m with ocean temperatures above 25 C. Small changes in the dissipation of just this body of water have major impacts on climate from the Pacific NW coast of the US to Australia and beyond.
One thing that we can be sure of is that an increase of 100 ppm in atmsopheric CO2 concentration from 280 to 380 ppm or even a doubling of CO2 concentration to 560 ppm will have no effect on ocean heat content. The penetration depth of long wave IR (LWIR) into the ocean is less than 100 micron. That’s about the width of a human hair.
Instead of spending money on satellites, we need more ocean float data. How about an Argo 2 fleet to operate at shallower depths and record the coupling of the sunlight as it heats the oceans? We will need a lot more information on ocean heating and cooling before we can explain, never mind predict the Earth’s climate with any confidence.
It is time to shut down those radiative forcing models and do some real modeling with real data. We have already wasted over 30 years on computational science fiction.


As a layman, this seems quite amazing.
(1) why is it so hard to down load Argo data? – It is the most important climate data there is, as it is the oceans that absorb most heat.
(2) why is Argo data not up to date and released each and every month? Satellite data isreleased promptly each month and can be downloaded easily. Is the whole Argo system faulty, or just poorly managed, or just underfunded? (surely not underfunded?)
(3) why oh why was there not parallel runs of the old system against Argo? – for such an important data set I would have expected ten or twenty years of cross checking.
(4) why is everything so hush hush and open only to supposing and second guessing? Is the topic not the most important topic on earth?
With all the money being spent on climate research and with so much commercial capital now at risk and the unknown unknowns of what happens when carbon dioxide by-product energy production is taxed out of existence and replaced by fairly tale wishful thinking ——-
Well this looks like an old BBC “Dad’s Army” episode.
Except it’s for real.


Just read through all these comments again.
This should not be a subject worth commenting about.
Is the trend up or down?
This is ridiculous!
But our future prosperity hangs on such thin threads as this.
This whole climate subject is amateur hour fumbling.

JRR Canada

So once again its was worse than we thought but now that the data is looked at carefully its an artifact of changing measuring methods, oopes sorry for the alarmisms. I too am becoming impatient with the slow release of the argo data, what is the problem?Don’t like the results? The data is off message? I know cynical and probably unfair but climatology is tainted and sinking fast.


AusieDan says:
March 20, 2011 at 7:51 pm
(1) why is it so hard to down load Argo data? – It is the most important climate data there is, as it is the oceans that absorb most heat.
Gosh, I thought I was the only one that couldn’t make heads or tails of Argo data downloading…
(2) why is Argo data not up to date and released each and every month? Satellite data is released promptly each month and can be downloaded easily. Is the whole Argo system faulty, or just poorly managed, or just underfunded? (surely not underfunded?)
Really good question.
When I heard about the ambitious ARGO project it sounded good – but for a (busy) layman like myself getting and making sense of the data is a bit above my pay grade.


JRR Canada says: March 20, 2011 at 8:03 pm
“The data is off message?”
No, the bouys are off target.
They need to work out a new steering mechanism to keep them near the trenches and under sea volcanos. The bouys they can keep on target, they will keep and then publish the (smoothed) data, the others go to davy Jones (et. al.) locker. Hansen has shown how this strategy can work on land, and he is a RealClimate scientologist, so he knows how to best fix the reporting errors.

Doug in Seattle

Steve in SC says:
March 20, 2011 at 4:41 pm
Lyman is OK, but I prefer RCBS.

But Lee is for the average wallet!


Massimo PORZIO says:
March 20, 2011 at 2:55 pm
To get a wider angle from a spacecraft measuring outgoing, one needs a greater distance or a fisheye lens. You could monitor the Earth from the Moon, and get more homogenous results. The daytime apex of measurement minus the nightime low measurement would be most interesting over time. With a built-in 28 day smoothing, what’s not to like?
Great idea, Massimo.


Forgive my laziness, but can someone explain the Y axis of these “ocean heat content” graphs? Centered on zero, they represent the heat “anomaly”, I presume, with Joules as the indicated unit. Fine. But it seems a real stretch to imagine that the total global ocean heat content varies 3-4 fold?! (-8 to +12?). Isn’t the bulk of seawater in cold abyssal depths at 2 or 3 degrees C? It would seem that sea levels should more radically reflect this large a change in heat content. But maybe I’m not understanding the axis label.